Summary: An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.

Top Publications

  1. Soo Y, Wong C, Griffith J, Chan T. Subcutaneous injection of metallic mercury. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003;22:345-8 pubmed
    ..The patient had been unco-operative and she only received incomplete treatment with dimercaprol and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid...
  2. Vilensky J, Redman K. British anti-Lewisite (dimercaprol): an amazing history. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;41:378-83 pubmed
    ..In 1951, BAL was used to treat Wilson's disease with striking success. Today, BAL might again become prominent should terrorists or governments use Lewisite against civilians or military forces...
  3. Huang C, Stewart P. Reduction of polysaccharide production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by bismuth dimercaprol (BisBAL) treatment. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999;44:601-5 pubmed
    ..When Pseudomonas aeruginosa ERC1 biofilms were treated continuously with 1 x MIC of bismuth dimercaprol (BisBAL), biofilm density determined by both total cell counts and viable cell counts increased during the ..
  4. Domingo Claros A, Alonso E, Banda Ed E. Schizophrenia and refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts. Br J Haematol. 2004;125:543 pubmed
  5. Morse L, Payton S, Cuny G, Rogers J. FDA-preapproved drugs targeted to the translational regulation and processing of the amyloid precursor protein. J Mol Neurosci. 2004;24:129-36 pubmed
    ..An altered iron distribution would be predicted to indirectly limit APP holoprotein expression and Abeta peptide secretion. ..
  6. Domenico P, Tomas J, Merino S, Rubires X, Cunha B. Surface antigen exposure by bismuth dimercaprol suppression of Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1999;67:664-9 pubmed
    ..Bismuth dimercaprol (BisBAL) at 1 ppm of Bi3+ repressed Klebsiella pneumoniae capsule expression in defined medium by nearly 90%, ..
  7. Lynn S, Yu G, Yan K. Vicinal-thiol-containing molecules enhance but mono-thiol-containing molecules reduce nickel-induced DNA strand breaks. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999;160:198-205 pubmed
    ..The results that DMSA at a concentration as low as 5 microM enhanced the Ni-induced DNA breaks suggest a further evaluation of the TCM as nickel chelators is needed...
  8. Cox R, Orledge J. Inadvertent poisoning of seven teenagers with monosodium methanearsonate. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2011;49:167-70 pubmed publisher
    ..They were all treated with dimercaprol for 1 day and succimer for 19 days...
  9. Vázquez P, Tirado Cortés A, Alvarez R, Ronjat M, Amaya A, Ortega A. Reversible oxidation of vicinal-thiols motif in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulatory proteins is involved in muscle fatigue mechanism. Cell Calcium. 2016;60:245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that VTG reversible oxidation of SR Ca(2+) regulatory proteins are involved in muscle contraction/relaxation and are a molecular mechanism to be considered for muscle fatigue. ..

More Information


  1. Florin T, Brent R, Weitzman M. The need for vigilance: the persistence of lead poisoning in children. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1767-8 pubmed
  2. Kon T, Akiyama K, Aiba T. [Shotgun injury of head and neck: case report]. No Shinkei Geka. 2002;30:517-21 pubmed
    ..We administered 200 mg of dimercaprol immediately and removed 77 pellets by midline suboccipital incision on the next day...
  3. Stocken L, THOMPSON R. British anti-lewisite; dithiol compounds as antidotes for arsenic. Biochem J. 1946;40:535-48 pubmed
  4. Peskar B, Ehrlich K, Peskar B. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in prostaglandin-mediated gastroprotection in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:969-74 pubmed
    ..metal salt lithium chloride (7 mg/kg), the sulfhydryl-blocking agent diethylmaleate (5 mg/kg), and the thiol dimercaprol (10 mg/kg)...
  5. Karimi A, Moniri F, Nasihatkon A, Zarepoor M, Alborzi A. Mercury exposure among residents of a building block in Shiraz, Iran. Environ Res. 2002;88:41-3 pubmed
    ..Despite normal physical and laboratory (CBC, renal and liver function tests, and urinalysis) findings, dimercaprol was prescribed...
  6. Nogueira C, Rotta L, Tavares R, Souza D, Rocha J. BAL modulates glutamate transport in synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles from rat brain. Neuroreport. 2001;12:511-4 pubmed
    ..The data reported here provide some evidence of glutamate involvement in BAL-induced neurotoxicity by demonstrating direct effects of BAL on glutamatergic system modulation. ..
  7. Ayala Curiel J -, Nieto Conde C -, Santana Rodríguez C -, Urbón Artero A -, Gracia Remiro R -. [Accidental oral mercurochrome poisoning]. An Esp Pediatr. 2000;53:479-81 pubmed
    ..Elevated blood mercury concentrations were found. Chelating therapy with dimercaprol was initiated and the patient's evolution was good...
  8. Archer S. Dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver is reversed by British antiLewisite and vitamin E: the potential toxicity of metals used as health supplements. Can J Cardiol. 2008;24:397-9 pubmed
    ..The cardiac disease was reversed within two months by a course of dimercaprol (Akorn Inc, USA) (British antiLewisite) and vitamin E...
  9. Badireddy A, Chellam S. Bismuth dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) inhibits formation of multispecies wastewater flocs. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:1426-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel bismuth-based biocides could also be potentially employed to control excess sludge production in wastewater treatment systems by inhibiting EPS expression. ..
  10. Ball H, Cook J, Spicer K, Hsu C, Halushka P. Oleic acid-induced pulmonary injury in rats: potential role of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes. Circ Shock. 1988;26:59-70 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that the prevention of elevated pulmonary vascular permeability and edema may be necessary, but are clearly not sufficient to prevent arterial hypoxemia following oleic acid injury in the rat. ..
  11. Wang E, Mahajan N, Wills B, Leikin J. Successful treatment of potentially fatal heavy metal poisonings. J Emerg Med. 2007;32:289-94 pubmed
    ..Both chemicals were obtained in pure powder form through the Internet. ..
  12. Nogueira C, Rocha J, Souza D. Effect of dithiol chelating agents on [3H]MK-801 and [3H]glutamate binding to synaptic plasma membranes. Neurochem Res. 2001;26:1305-10 pubmed
    ..The findings present in this study may provide the evidence that BAL affect the glutamatergic system and these effects can contributed to explain, at least in part, why BAL, in contrast to DMPS and DMSA is neurotoxic. ..
  13. Arien H, Wiser O, Arkin I, Leonov H, Atlas D. Syntaxin 1A modulates the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (Ca(v)1.2) in a cooperative manner. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29231-9 pubmed
    ..As shown herein, the supralinear relationship between Sx1A and the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel within the cluster could convey the cooperativity that distinguishes the process of neurotransmitter release. ..
  14. Dong F, Han H, Liang J, Lu D. Study on the interaction between 2-mercaptoethanol, dimercaprol and CdSe quantum dots. Luminescence. 2008;23:321-6 pubmed publisher
    The interactions between 2-mercaptoethanol, dimercaprol and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in organic media have been investigated by spectral methods...
  15. Basset C, Vadrot J, Denis J, Poupon J, Zafrani E. Prolonged cholestasis and ductopenia following gold salt therapy. Liver Int. 2003;23:89-93 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of gold salt hepatotoxicity with histological demonstration of cholangitis followed by ductopenia. ..
  16. Namera A, Yashiki M. [Practical analysis of toxic substances useful for clinical toxicology--14--arsenics]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2005;18:157-60 pubmed
  17. Lombard S, Helmy M, Pieroni G. Lipolytic activity of ricin from Ricinus sanguineus and Ricinus communis on neutral lipids. Biochem J. 2001;358:773-81 pubmed
    ..Both colorimetric tests used in this study are sensitive enough to be helpful in the detection of possible lipolytic activities associated with other cytotoxins or lectins...
  18. Wong F, Hung L, Wong C, Ho P. Suicidal mercury injection into the upper limb: a case study. Hand Surg. 2004;9:225-8 pubmed
    ..removal of mercury under radiological screening and systemic intoxication treated by chelating agents, namely dimercaprol and succimer...
  19. González Segura L, Mújica Jiménez C, Muñoz Clares R. Reaction of the catalytic cysteine of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with arsenite-BAL and phenylarsine oxide. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;178:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As arsenicals are being recently used to treat certain cancers, human ALDHs, even those not having conformationally vicinal thiols, may be unsuspected targets in these treatments. ..
  20. McElroy P, Sri Hari A, Day B, Patel M. Post-translational Activation of Glutamate Cysteine Ligase with Dimercaprol: A NOVEL MECHANISM OF INHIBITING NEUROINFLAMMATION IN VITRO. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:5532-5545 pubmed publisher
    ..for their ability to increase intracellular GSH levels in a murine microglial cell line (BV2), of which dimercaprol (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (DMP)) was found to be the most effective compound...
  21. Sahu C, Pakhira S, Sen K, Das A. A computational study of detoxification of lewisite warfare agents by British anti-lewisite: catalytic effects of water and ammonia on reaction mechanism and kinetics. J Phys Chem A. 2013;117:3496-506 pubmed publisher
  22. Sasan M, Hadavi N, Afshari R, Mousavi S, Alizadeh A, Balali Mood M. Metal mercury poisoning in two boys initially treated for brucellosis in Mashhad, Iran. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2012;31:193-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients were successfully treated by dimercaprol and discharged in good condition 24 days after admission...
  23. Horowitz B, Mirkin D. Lead poisoning and chelation in a mother-neonate pair. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001;39:727-31 pubmed
    ..The neonate was initially treated with intramuscular dimercaprol and intravenous edetate calcium disodium...
  24. Yilmaz Y, Armagan E, Olmez O, Esen M, Alkis N, Dolar E. Acute arsenic self-poisoning for suicidal purpose in a dentist: a case report. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28:63-5 pubmed publisher
    ..He gradually recovered from anemia within 5 months. The patient did not suffer any adverse outcome in spite of having ingesting 4 g of arsenic, approximately 20 times the lethal dose. ..
  25. Vroom F, Greer M. Mercury vapour intoxication. Brain. 1972;95:305-18 pubmed
  26. Oda M, Sakitani K, Kaibori M, Inoue T, Kamiyama Y, Okumura T. Vicinal dithiol-binding agent, phenylarsine oxide, inhibits inducible nitric-oxide synthase gene expression at a step of nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:4369-73 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PAO inhibits iNOS gene expression at a step of NF-kappaB binding to DNA by modifying its vicinal dithiol moiety, which may play a crucial role for the iNOS regulation in hepatocytes. ..
  27. Field A, Bloch M, Bellon B. Neonatal tolerance to a Th2-mediated autoimmune disease generates CD8+ Tc1 regulatory cells. J Autoimmun. 2003;21:201-12 pubmed
    ..AICD may be one of the regulatory mechanisms used by these regulatory CD8+ Tc1 cells that control neonatal tolerance to a Th2-mediated autoimmune disorder. ..
    ..Penicillamine was inhibitory at relatively low concentrations; its action was prevented by pyridoxal phosphate. ..
  29. Nogueira C, Santos F, Soares F, Rocha J. 2,3-Dimercaptopropanol, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid, and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid inhibit delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase from human erythrocytes in vitro. Environ Res. 2004;94:254-61 pubmed
    ..ZnCl(2) (1 microM) added, in the reaction mixture, increased enzyme activity and DTT (100 microM) totally restored the enzyme activity for all chelating agents tested. ..
  30. Mas M, Cavailles P, Colacios C, Subra J, Lagrange D, Calise M, et al. Studies of congenic lines in the Brown Norway rat model of Th2-mediated immunopathological disorders show that the aurothiopropanol sulfonate-induced immunological disorder (Aiid3) locus on chromosome 9 plays a major role compared to Aiid2 on chromos. J Immunol. 2004;172:6354-61 pubmed
    ..Further genetic and functional dissections of these loci should provide insights into pathways that lead to Th2-adverse reactions...
  31. Tannai H, Tsuge K, Sasaki Y. Switching of the electronic communication between two {Ru(trpy)(bpy)} (trpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) centers by protonation on the bridging dimercaptothiadiazolato ligand. Inorg Chem. 2005;44:5206-8 pubmed
    ..The bridging ligand operates as a proton-induced switch of the electronic communication in the dimeric complex. ..
  32. Liu C, Wang C, Chen T, Lin H, Yu C, Kuo H. Increased level of exhaled nitric oxide and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in patients with primary lung cancer. Br J Cancer. 1998;78:534-41 pubmed
    ..The increased NO production was not specific to the tumour side and might be attributed to the tumour-associated non-specific immunological and inflammatory processes of the host. ..
  33. Verma S, Kumar R, Khadwal A, Singhi S. Accidental inorganic mercury chloride poisoning in a 2-year old child. Indian J Pediatr. 2010;77:1153-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We have hereby presented a case of mercury intoxication in a 2-year old child, with an excellent clinical improvement and normalization of laboratory results. ..
  34. Nussbaum E, Zagnoev M. Pediatric fiberoptic bronchoscopy with a laryngeal mask airway. Chest. 2001;120:614-6 pubmed
    ..The use of the LMA during FFB is safe, provides excellent patient comfort, and should be utilized as an alternative to endotracheal intubation. ..
  35. Lin R, Yang M, Li Y, Chang H, Kuan Y. Indium chloride-induced micronuclei via reactive oxygen species in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79 cells. Environ Toxicol. 2013;28:595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, Germanium oxide (GeO?) and dimercaprol expressed antigenotoxic effects...
  36. Shumy F, Anam A, Kamruzzaman A, Amin M, Chowdhury M. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late. Trop Doct. 2016;46:93-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Kamijo Y, Soma K, Yosimura K, Ohwada T. Acute mercuric chloride poisoning: effect of co-ingested milk on outcome and continued hyperamylasemia. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2001;43:277-9 pubmed
    ..The patient was treated with dimercaprol and hemodialysis, and was discharged from the hospital without clinically apparent sequelae...
  38. Hobartner C, Rieder R, Kreutz C, Puffer B, Lang K, Polonskaia A, et al. Syntheses of RNAs with up to 100 nucleotides containing site-specific 2'-methylseleno labels for use in X-ray crystallography. J Am Chem Soc. 2005;127:12035-45 pubmed
    ..We point out that the approach documented here has been the chemical basis for the very recent structure determination of the Diels-Alder ribozyme which represents the first novel RNA fold that has been solved via its Se-derivatives. ..
  39. Badireddy A, Chellam S, Yanina S, Gassman P, Rosso K. Bismuth dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL) inhibits the expression of extracellular polysaccharides and proteins by Brevundimonas diminuta: implications for membrane microfiltration. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;99:634-43 pubmed
    ..Without BisBAL treatment, a slime-like EPS matrix secreted by B. diminuta resulted in biofouling and inefficient hydrodynamic backwashing of microfiltration membranes. ..
  40. Villasuso A, Racagni G, Machado E. Phosphatidylinositol kinases as regulators of GA-stimulated alpha-amylase secretion in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Physiol Plant. 2008;133:157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, the compound LY294002 inhibited PI3 kinase but had no effect on the secretion process. These findings indicate that PI4 kinase acts as a positive regulator of early GA signaling in aleurone. ..
  41. Codony F, Domenico P, Mas J. Assessment of bismuth thiols and conventional disinfectants on drinking water biofilms. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95:288-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, the combination of bactericidal and residual effects may prevent slime build-up in hot water systems. ..
  42. Crivat G, Tokumasu F, Sá J, Hwang J, Wellems T. Tetracysteine-based fluorescent tags to study protein localization and trafficking in Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22975 pubmed publisher
  43. Vilensky J, Robertson W, Gilman S. Denny-Brown, Wilson's disease, and BAL (British antilewisite [2,3-dimercaptopropanol]). Neurology. 2002;59:914-6 pubmed
    ..The authors review the importance of these reports and provide edited digital versions of the films Denny-Brown made of the five patients described in the initial reports. ..
  44. Nogueira C, Soares F, Bolzan R, Jacques Silva M, Souza D, Rocha J. Investigations into the mechanism of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 2000;25:1553-8 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study suggest that allosteric modulators of GABAergic system and carbamazepine, a voltage-gated Na+-channel antagonist, should be considered for the treatment of animals or patients intoxicated with BAL. ..
  45. Andersson P, Brange C, von Kogerer B, Sonmark B, Stahre G. Effect of glucocorticosteroid treatment on ovalbumin-induced IgE-mediated immediate and late allergic response in guinea pig. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1988;87:32-9 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of the release of that factor or the activation of inflammatory cells by that factor might be the mechanism behind the antiinflammatory activities of GCS. ..
  46. . Heavy metal poisoning: mercury and lead. Ann Intern Med. 1972;76:779-92 pubmed
  47. Kermarrec N, Dubay C, de Gouyon B, Blanpied C, Gauguier D, Gillespie K, et al. Serum IgE concentration and other immune manifestations of treatment with gold salts are linked to the MHC and IL4 regions in the rat. Genomics. 1996;31:111-4 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that homologous genes could be implicated in ATPS manifestations in the rat and in the regulation of IgE levels in the human. ..
  48. Payton S, Cahill C, Randall J, Gullans S, Rogers J. Drug discovery targeted to the Alzheimer's APP mRNA 5'-untranslated region: the action of paroxetine and dimercaptopropanol. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;20:267-75 pubmed
    ..In the future, we will identify further novel compounds that influence Abeta levels, either via translation inhibition or by changing the activity of proteins coupled between APP translation and APP processing. ..
  49. Bennett T, Edwards B, Sklar L, Rogelj S. Sulfhydryl regulation of L-selectin shedding: phenylarsine oxide promotes activation-independent L-selectin shedding from leukocytes. J Immunol. 2000;164:4120-9 pubmed
    ..Cell surface expression of PDI, L-selectin shedding induced by PDI-blocking Abs and by bacitracin, a known inhibitor of PDI activity, and direct binding of PDI to PAO, provide supporting evidence for this hypothesis. ..
  50. Santos F, Gonçales C, Rocha J, Nogueira C. 2,3-Dimercaptopropanol, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid acute administration diferentially change biochemical parameters in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;96:331-4 pubmed
  51. Subra J, Cautain B, Xystrakis E, Mas M, Lagrange D, van der Heijden H, et al. The balance between CD45RChigh and CD45RClow CD4 T cells in rats is intrinsic to bone marrow-derived cells and is genetically controlled. J Immunol. 2001;166:2944-52 pubmed
    ..The identification and functional characterization of genes in these regions controlling the CD45RC(high)/CD45RC(low) Th cell subpopulations may shed light on key regulatory mechanisms of pathogenic immune responses. ..
  52. Choi S, Hwang J, Kim S. A colorimetric microplate assay method for high throughput analysis of lipase activity. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;36:417-20 pubmed
    ..01-0.1 U or 1-10 U. When assaying crude tissue extracts, the reaction of DTNB with non-specific reducing agents created a major source of error. However, this error was corrected by the use of blank samples that did not contain DMPTB. ..
  53. Magdalan J, Smolarek M, Porebska B, Zawadzki M, Dyś P. [Two different clinical cases of acute arsenic trioxide intoxication]. Przegl Lek. 2007;64:336-8 pubmed
    ..The patient died on the first day of hospitalization. In both cases treatment included gastric lavage, BAL therapy, haemodialysis and supportive measures. ..
  54. Adair B, Bradford H, McNulty M, Foster J. Cytotoxic interactions between bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus and bovine alveolar macrophages. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1999;67:285-94 pubmed
  55. Darmanin T, Guittard F. Superhydrophobic fiber mats by electrodeposition of fluorinated poly(3,4-ethyleneoxythiathiophene). J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:15627-34 pubmed publisher
  56. Shimada H, Fukudome S, Kiyozumi M, Funakoshi T, Adachi T, Yasutake A, et al. Further study of effects of chelating agents on excretion of inorganic mercury in rats. Toxicology. 1993;77:157-69 pubmed
  57. Folsom J, Baker B, Stewart P. In vitro efficacy of bismuth thiols against biofilms formed by bacteria isolated from human chronic wounds. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;111:989-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Bismuth thiols are effective antimicrobial agents against biofilms formed by wound bacteria and merit further development as topical antiseptics for the suppression of biofilms in chronic wounds. ..
  58. Farias R, Torres M, Canela R. Spectrophotometric determination of the positional specificity of nonspecific and 1,3-specific lipases. Anal Biochem. 1997;252:186-9 pubmed
    ..The spectrophotometric test is a simple, rapid, and convenient alternative method to those previously reported for the characterization of the positional specificities of new lipases. ..
  59. Pérez Llamazares A, Galbán Malagón C, Aboal J, Angel Fernández J, Carballeira A. Evaluation of cations and chelating agents as extracellular extractants for Cu, Pb, V and Zn in the sequential elution technique applied to the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimal concentrations of the extractants tested (CoCl(2), NiCl(2), Pb(NO(3))(2), SrCl(2), dimercaprol, EDTA, penicillamine) were determined on the basis of the maximum extraction of Zn achieved without any ..
  60. Nunes Tavares N, Valverde R, Araújo G, Hasson Voloch A. Toxicity induced by Hg2+ on choline acetyltransferase activity from E. electricus (L.) electrocytes: the protective effect of 2,3 dimercapto-propanol (BAL). Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:BR100-5 pubmed
    ..The observed inhibition is likely due to direct protein interaction, because the addition of BAL reversed the effects of HgCl(2) on ChAT activity. The results cast new light on the mechanisms of mercurial neurotoxicity. ..
  61. Tournade H, Pelletier L, Pasquier R, Vial M, Mandet C, Druet P. Graft-versus-host reactions in the rat mimic toxin-induced autoimmunity. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990;81:334-8 pubmed
    ..These findings are in agreement with the prediction that immune dysregulation induced by drugs leads to GVH-like reactions either stimulatory or suppressive depending upon the strain tested. ..
  62. Gupta N, Porter T. Garlic and garlic-derived compounds inhibit human squalene monooxygenase. J Nutr. 2001;131:1662-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that squalene monooxygenase may be one of the target enzymes through which garlic inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis. ..
  63. Byers C, Holloway E, Korte W, Smith J, Clarkson E, Platoff G, et al. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of british anti-lewisite in plasma. J Anal Toxicol. 2004;28:384-9 pubmed
    ..This procedure has been applied to determine preliminary time-concentration profile studies of BAL in the hairless guinea pig. ..
  64. Zhang H, Tang J, Meng X, Tsang J, Tsang T. Inhibition of bacterial adherence on the surface of stents and bacterial growth in bile by bismuth dimercaprol. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:1046-51 pubmed
    ..This study explored the role of the new reagent, bismuth dimercaprol, in preventing bacterial adherence and bacterial biofilm formation on the surface of biliary stents...
  65. Perriol M, Devos D, Hurtevent J, Tiffreau V, Saulnier F, Destee A, et al. [A case of neuropathy mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome after arsenic intoxication]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2006;162:374-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the chelating is not very effective on the neurological complications. ..
  66. Mycyk M, Leikin J. Combined exchange transfusion and chelation therapy for neonatal lead poisoning. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:821-4 pubmed
    ..BLL was 28 microg/dL following the exchange, and a 5-day course of chelation with dimercaprol and CaNa2 ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was initiated at 36 hours of life...
  67. Lu X, Arnold L, Cohen S, Cullen W, Le X. Speciation of dimethylarsinous acid and trimethylarsine oxide in urine from rats fed with dimethylarsinic acid and dimercaptopropane sulfonate. Anal Chem. 2003;75:6463-8 pubmed
    ..The significant decrease (p < 0.001) of the TMAO concentration in rats administered with both DMA(V) and DMPS suggests that DMPS inhibits the biomethylation of arsenic. ..
  68. Ly B, Williams S, Clark R. Mercuric oxide poisoning treated with whole-bowel irrigation and chelation therapy. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39:312-5 pubmed
    ..Despite elevated urine and blood mercury levels after ingestion of HgO, our patient did not develop the end-organ toxicity typical of inorganic mercury poisoning. ..
  69. Buchet J, Lauwerys R. Influence of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate and dimercaptosuccinic acid on the mobilization of mercury from tissues of rats pretreated with mercuric chloride, phenylmercury acetate or mercury vapors. Toxicology. 1989;54:323-33 pubmed
    ..The loss of mercury from the liver can be slightly accelerated by repeated administration of the chelators. However, the chelators are inefficient in removing mercury from the brain. ..
  70. Purchase R. The treatment of Wilson's disease, a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism. Sci Prog. 2013;96:19-32 pubmed
    ..The discovery and introduction of these five drugs owes more to the inspiration of a few dedicated physicians and agricultural scientists than to the resources of the pharmaceutical industry...
  71. Kathirgamanathan K, Angaran P, Lazo Langner A, Gula L. Cardiac conduction block at multiple levels caused by arsenic trioxide therapy. Can J Cardiol. 2013;29:130.e5-6 pubmed publisher
    ..After chelation treatment with dimercaprol, there was normalization of conduction.
  72. Aposhian H, Aposhian M. Arsenic toxicology: five questions. Chem Res Toxicol. 2006;19:1-15 pubmed
  73. Mas M, Subra J, Lagrange D, Pilipenko Appolinaire S, Kermarrec N, Gauguier D, et al. Rat chromosome 9 bears a major susceptibility locus for IgE response. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:1698-705 pubmed
    ..The identification and functional characterization of genes involved in these regions, particularly in Atps3, may shed light on the pathogenesis of atopic diseases in man. ..
  74. Chinnakaruppan N, Marcus S. Asymptomatic congenital lead poisoning - case report. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48:563-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4 ?g/dL. Follow-up 2 years later showed a BLL of 9 ?g/dL and normal development. We present the details of a case of congenital lead poisoning treated aggressively which appears to have resulted in a favorable outcome. ..
  75. Rokutan K, Miyoshi M, Teshima S, Kawai T, Kawahara T, Kishi K. Phenylarsine oxide inhibits heat shock protein 70 induction in cultured guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000;279:C1506-15 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that PAO may react with vicinal-containing molecules including Trx and specifically block the interaction between HSF1 and HSE...
  76. Smith M. Can you teach an old drug new tricks?. Emerg Med Serv. 2003;32:36 pubmed
  77. Beigmohammadi M, Aghdashi M, Najafi A, Mojtahedzadeh M, Karvandian K. Quadriplegia due to lead-contaminated opium--case report. Middle East J Anaesthesiol. 2008;19:1411-6 pubmed
    ..Utilization of lead-contaminated opium may lead to severe motor neuron impairment and quadriplegia...
  78. Santos F, Rocha J, Nogueira C. 2,3-Dimercaptopropanol, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid increase lead-induced inhibition of delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase in vitro and ex vivo. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006;20:317-23 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of dimercaprol (BAL), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulphonic acid (DMPS) on human blood delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, the most reliable ..
  79. Sarbassov D, Sabatini D. Redox regulation of the nutrient-sensitive raptor-mTOR pathway and complex. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39505-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that a redox-based signaling mechanism may participate in regulating the nutrient-sensitive raptor-mTOR complex and pathway. ..
  80. Kojima S, Shimada H, Kiyozumi M. Comparative effects of chelating agents on distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury in rats. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1989;64:471-84 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that the chelating agents are effective in removing mercury from the body, resulting in the protective effect against the mercury-induced renal damage. ..