Summary: An organothiophosphate insecticide.

Top Publications

  1. Braga I, Lima J, Soares S, Valle D. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos during 2001 in several municipalities in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe, and Alagoas, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:199-203 pubmed
    ..1 (Aracaju, SE) to 16.8 (São Gonçalo, RJ and Penha district, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). The national dengue control program is presently using these data to subside insecticide resistance management. ..
  2. Tawatsin A, Thavara U, Chompoosri J, Bhakdeenuan P, Asavadachanukorn P. Larvicidal efficacy of new formulations of temephos in non-woven sachets against larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in water-storage containers. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007;38:641-5 pubmed
    ..These new formulations will make the control of DHF vectors in Thailand more cost effective as they are removable and retrievable sachets that can be reused after cleaning the water-storage containers. ..
  3. Marcombe S, Mathieu R, Pocquet N, Riaz M, Poupardin R, Sélior S, et al. Insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Martinique: distribution, mechanisms and relations with environmental factors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30989 pubmed publisher
    ..Insecticide resistance is widespread but not homogeneously distributed across Martinique. The influence of environmental and operational factors on the evolution of the resistance and mechanisms are discussed. ..
  4. Biber P, Dueñas J, Almeida F, Gardenal C, Almirón W. Laboratory evaluation of susceptibility of natural subpopulations of Aedes aegypti larvae to temephos. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006;22:408-11 pubmed
    ..2 and 4.9, respectively). Before this study, no information was available about the existence of resistance in natural populations of Ae. aegypti in the studied area. ..
  5. Strode C, de Melo Santos M, Magalhaes T, Araújo A, Ayres C. Expression profile of genes during resistance reversal in a temephos selected strain of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39439 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti. The identification of gene expression signatures associated to insecticide resistance and their suppression could greatly aid the development of improved strategies of vector control. ..
  6. Rodríguez C, Bisset C, Hernández C, Ricardo Y, French L, Pérez O, et al. [Partial characterization of esterase activity in a temephos-resistant Aedes aegypti strain]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2012;64:256-67 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of the function of the esterases in resistance to temephos through biochemical tests should not be made in larvae exposed to sublethal doses of this insecticide, in order to avoid false negatives. ..
  7. Luna J, Martins M, Anjos A, Kuwabara E, Navarro Silva M. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to temephos and cypermethrin insecticides, Brazil]. Rev Saude Publica. 2004;38:842-3 pubmed
    ..The results showed that this species is susceptible to temephos and presents resistance to cypermethrin. ..
  8. Lima E, Paiva M, de Araújo A, da Silva E, da Silva U, de Oliveira L, et al. Insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations from Ceará, Brazil. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Target-site mechanisms seem not to be implicated in temephos resistance, reinforcing the idea that for the studied populations, detoxification enzymes most likely play a major role in the resistance to this insecticide. ..
  9. Seccacini E, Lucia A, Zerba E, Licastro S, Masuh H. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2008;24:608-9 pubmed
    ..No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country. ..

More Information


  1. Garelli F, Espinosa M, Weinberg D, Trinelli M, Gürtler R. Water use practices limit the effectiveness of a temephos-based Aedes aegypti larval control program in Northern Argentina. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e991 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited field residuality of temephos accounts in part for the inability of the larval control program to further reduce infestation levels with a treatment cycle period of 3 or 4 months. ..
  2. Hammond S, Gordon A, Lugo E, Moreno G, Kuan G, Lopez M, et al. Characterization of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culcidae) production sites in urban Nicaragua. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:851-60 pubmed
  3. Lima E, de Oliveira Filho A, de Oliveira Lima J, Ramos Junior A, de Góes Cavalcanti L, Pontes R. [Aedes aegypti resistance to temefos in counties of Ceará State]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2006;39:259-63 pubmed
    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to temefos was evaluated by means of samples of eggs and larvae from four large counties in the state of Ceará (Fortaleza, Barbalha, Juazeiro do Norte and Crato)...
  4. Pontes R, Regazzi A, Lima J, Kerr Pontes L. [Residual effect of commercial applications of larvicides temefos and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on Aedes aegypti larvae in recipients with water renewal]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2005;38:316-21 pubmed
    The residual effect of temefos (commercial applications A, B and C) and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (D and E) on Aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated, in recipients with water renewal...
  5. Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Srithommarat R, Zaim M, Mulla M. Sequential release and residual activity of temephos applied as sand granules to water-storage jars for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Vector Ecol. 2005;30:62-72 pubmed
    ..The use of controlled release formulations or sachets that are retrievable during cleaning and washing will be more practical and desirable. Both of these interventions will make the program more cost effective. ..
  6. Yebakima A, Marquine M, Rosine J, Yp Tcha M, Pasteur N. Evolution of resistance under insecticide selection pressure in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae) from Martinique. J Med Entomol. 2004;41:718-25 pubmed
    ..4- and 19-fold in 1990. This increased resistance to organophosphorus insecticides was associated with a sharp decrease of susceptible genotypes at two loci (Ester and ace-1), as well as to an allele replacement at the Ester locus. ..
  7. Melo Santos M, Varjal Melo J, Araujo A, Gomes T, Paiva M, Regis L, et al. Resistance to the organophosphate temephos: mechanisms, evolution and reversion in an Aedes aegypti laboratory strain from Brazil. Acta Trop. 2010;113:180-9 pubmed publisher
    ..With the urgent need on improving methodologies to monitor resistance, molecular studies such as microarrays, and resistant colonies such as RecR will certainly hasten such studies. ..
  8. Pinheiro V, Tadei W. Evaluation of the residual effect of temephos on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae in artificial containers in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2002;18:1529-36 pubmed
    ..Larvae were observed on day 35 in a tin can and on day 21 in a gallon can. There was a large diversity of results in the tires, with recolonization observed from day 7 onwards. ..
  9. Macoris M, Andrighetti M, Takaku L, Glasser C, Garbeloto V, Bracco J. Resistance of Aedes aegypti from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to organophosphates insecticides. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98:703-8 pubmed
    ..9 for temephos and from 1.5 to 3.2 to fenitrothion, indicating moderate levels of resistance. Biochemical assays did not detect alterations in the enzyme acetilcholinesterase, but indicated that resistance is associated with esterases. ..
  10. Carvalho M, Caldas E, Degallier N, Vilarinhos P, Souza L, Yoshizawa M, et al. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae to the insecticide temephos in the Federal District, Brazil]. Rev Saude Publica. 2004;38:623-9 pubmed
    ..It is essential to continue monitoring the resistance of this vector to insecticides in order to ensure the efficiency of programs aimed at vector control and at the protection of human health. ..
  11. Llinás G, Seccacini E, Gardenal C, Licastro S. Current resistance status to temephos in Aedes aegypti from different regions of Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:113-6 pubmed
    ..An integrative program to monitor the resistance of Ae. aegypti to insecticides is needed in the country. ..
  12. Beserra E, Fernandes C, de Queiroga M, de Castro F. [Resistance of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations to organophosphates temephos in the Paraíba State, Brazil]. Neotrop Entomol. 2007;36:303-7 pubmed
    ..6 and Itaporanga with RR= 15.6, showed intermediate levels of resistance to temephos. These results confirm the need of a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in Paraíba State. ..
  13. Boyer S, David J, Rey D, Lemperiere G, Ravanel P. Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae to three xenobiotic exposures: larval tolerance and detoxifying enzyme activities. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:470-6 pubmed
    ..Both induction and selection increased larval tolerance to the xenobiotics used and increased the levels of larval detoxifying enzyme activities. ..
  14. Shililu J, Tewolde G, Brantly E, Githure J, Mbogo C, Beier J, et al. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus and temephos for managing Anopheles larvae in Eritrea. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003;19:251-8 pubmed
    ..The results show that application of the 2 biolarvicides bimonthly to streambed pools, rain pools, and similar habitats would maintain control of the anopheline mosquito population. ..
  15. Lakwo T, Garms R, Wamani J, Tukahebwa E, Onapa A, Tukesiga E, et al. Interruption of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Kashoya-Kitomi focus, western Uganda by long-term ivermectin treatment and elimination of the vector Simulium neavei by larviciding. Acta Trop. 2017;167:128-136 pubmed publisher
    ..15%; 95% CI: 0.02%-0.28%. Four of the five children subjected to O-150 PCR proved negative. The data show that transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted based on national and WHO Guidelines of 2012 and 2016, respectively. ..
  16. Michaelakis A, Mihou A, Koliopoulos G, Couladouros E. Attract-and-kill strategy. Laboratory studies on hatched larvae of Culex pipiens. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:954-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, the combination of the synthetic pheromone with the control agent temephos showed both an acceptable oviposition activity and sufficient larvicidal effect. ..
  17. Izycki D, Niezgoda A, Kazmierczak M, Nowak Markwitz E. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy - epidemiology and pathogenesis. Ginekol Pol. 2016;87:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When the offending agent is withheld, the symptoms generally abate, but relief is not guaranteed. The consequences of delay or discontinuation of treatment may affect overall patient survival. ..
  18. Brown M, Carter J, Thomas D, Purdie D, Kay B. Pulse-exposure effects of selected insecticides to juvenile Australian crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia duboulayi). J Econ Entomol. 2002;95:294-8 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, in the interests of environmental conservation and integrated pest management (IPM), preference should be given to the latter three insecticides for control of mosquito larvae in juvenile M. duboulayi habitat. ..
  19. Bulley A, Henry J, Suddendorf T. Thinking about threats: Memory and prospection in human threat management. Conscious Cogn. 2017;49:53-69 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite their functional benefits, these thought processes are also central to contemporary anxiety disorders and may be a potent source of distress. ..
  20. Soltermann F, Abegglen C, Tschui M, Stahel S, von Gunten U. Options and limitations for bromate control during ozonation of wastewater. Water Res. 2017;116:76-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, there are options to reduce the bromate formation during wastewater ozonation, however, they are not simple with sometimes limited efficiency. ..
  21. Briassoulis H. The Socio-ecological Fit of Human Responses to Environmental Degradation: An Integrated Assessment Methodology. Environ Manage. 2015;56:1448-66 pubmed publisher
  22. Nagelli C, Hewett T. Should Return to Sport be Delayed Until 2 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction? Biological and Functional Considerations. Sports Med. 2017;47:221-232 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that delay in returning to sports for nearly 2 years will significantly reduce the incidence of second ACL injuries. ..
  23. Zhou X, Buekens A, Li X, Ni M, Cen K. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane. Chemosphere. 2016;144:1264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane. ..
  24. Urso E, Maffia M. Behind the Link between Copper and Angiogenesis: Established Mechanisms and an Overview on the Role of Vascular Copper Transport Systems. J Vasc Res. 2015;52:172-96 pubmed publisher
  25. Belinato T, Martins A, Valle D. Fitness evaluation of two Brazilian Aedes aegypti field populations with distinct levels of resistance to the organophosphate temephos. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:916-22 pubmed
    ..The effects of reduced fitness in resistant populations are discussed. ..
  26. Atoui M, Gunda S, Lakkireddy D. Left atrial appendage closure is preferred to chronic warfarin therapy: the pro perspective. Card Electrophysiol Clin. 2015;7:403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The percutaneously deployable Watchman device is a paradigm shift in how clinicians can abate the need for continued oral anticoagulation. ..
  27. Caliebe A, Walsh S, Liu F, Kayser M, Krawczak M. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2017;28:203-210 pubmed publisher
  28. Komalamisra N, Srisawat R, Phanbhuwong T, Oatwaree S. Insecticide susceptibility of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) in Metropolitan Bangkok. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:814-23 pubmed
    ..Deltamethrin resistance was seen in 6 districts of Bangkok. Variable levels of susceptibility were seen with cyfluthrin. Most of the specimens showed resistance to permethrin and all specimens were resistant to DDT. ..
  29. Vilarinhos P, Monnerat R. Larvicidal persistence of formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis to control larval Aedes aegypti. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2004;20:311-4 pubmed
    ..VectoBac WDG provided continuous 100% control for 7 wk for the lower dosage and for 6 wk for the higher dosage. At both dosages of WDG, 100% control was achieved in 11 wk out of the 12-wk period. ..
  30. Toma L, Menegon M, Romi R, De Matthaeis E, Montanari M, Severini C. Status of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens field populations from north-eastern areas of Italy before the withdrawal of OP compounds. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Cx. pipiens resistance esterases A5/B5 and A4/B4 spread southward along the Adriatic coastal plain while OPs were being used in mosquito control, as confirmed by the first molecular screening of the AChE1 gene in these populations. ..
  31. Shriram A, Sugunan A, Manimunda S, Vijayachari P. Community-centred approach for the control of Aedes spp. in a peri-urban zone in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands using temephos. Natl Med J India. 2009;22:116-20 pubmed
    ..We suggest that a control strategy emphasizing the use of temephos through a community-centred approach should be considered for these islands. However, close monitoring of this approach is warranted for long term sustainability. ..
  32. Magdalena Rodríguez M, Bisset J, Fernández D, Omayda P. [Resistance to insecticides in larvae and adults of Aedes aegypti, Havana City: prevalence of A4 esterasa associated with resistance to temephos]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2004;56:54-60 pubmed
    ..It was observed that in both people's councils prevailed the amplified activity of A4 esterases by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. ..
  33. Bourgin M, Beck B, Boehler M, Borowska E, Fleiner J, Salhi E, et al. Evaluation of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant upgraded with ozonation and biological post-treatments: Abatement of micropollutants, formation of transformation products and oxidation by-products. Water Res. 2018;129:486-498 pubmed publisher
    ..55 g O3/g DOC. NDMA was well abated in all post-treatments (minimum 41% during fixed bed filtration, maximum 83% during fresh GAC filtration), while bromate was very stable as expected. ..
  34. Bisset J, Rodriguez M, Ricardo Y, Ranson H, Perez O, Moya M, et al. Temephos resistance and esterase activity in the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Havana, Cuba increased dramatically between 2006 and 2008. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..New integrated strategies to avoid further increases in temephos resistance in Cuba are necessary. ..
  35. Ali A, Leckel R, Jahan N, Al Shami S, Rawi C. Laboratory and field investigations of pestiferous Chironomidae (Diptera) in some man-made wetlands in central Florida, USA. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2009;25:94-9 pubmed
    ..Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis was most effective against Tanytarsus spp. and least against Goeldichironomus carus. ..
  36. Murphy R, Hedequist D. Excision of symptomatic spinous process nonunion in adolescent athletes. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2015;44:515-7 pubmed
    ..Excision should be considered if patients experience persistent pain after this injury, with expectation of complete resolution of symptoms after surgery. ..
  37. Xia D, Yin R, Sun J, An T, Li G, Wang W, et al. Natural magnetic pyrrhotite as a high-Efficient persulfate activator for micropollutants degradation: Radicals identification and toxicity evaluation. J Hazard Mater. 2017;340:435-444 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study provides a solution to abate refractory organic micropollutants in water systems. ..
  38. Oliveira P, Ferreira J, Moura F, Lima G, de Oliveira F, Oliveira P, et al. Larvicidal activity of 94 extracts from ten plant species of northeastern of Brazil against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:403-7 pubmed publisher
    ..doniana and G. grazielae, respectively, were the most effective. The isolation and purification of these extracts are in progress and evaluation of these compounds will be needed to identify the active component. ..
  39. Kim J, Jobbágy E, Jackson R. Trade-offs in water and carbon ecosystem services with land-use changes in grasslands. Ecol Appl. 2016;26:1633-1644 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also identify key opportunities and caveats for some win-win and lose-lose land-use changes for more integrative and sustainable strategies for land management. ..
  40. Morales Pérez A, Nava Aguilera E, Legorreta Soberanis J, Cortés Guzmán A, Balanzar Martínez A, Harris E, et al. "Where we put little fish in the water there are no mosquitoes:" a cross-sectional study on biological control of the Aedes aegypti vector in 90 coastal-region communities of Guerrero, Mexico. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:433 pubmed publisher
    ..68; 95% CI 1.47-1.92). Our study suggests that fish in water containers may reduce the risk of dengue virus infection and dengue illness. This could be a useful part of interventions to control the Aedes aegypti vector. ..
  41. Biswas G, Dutta M, Dutta S, Adhikari K. A comparative study of removal of fluoride from contaminated water using shale collected from different coal mines in India. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23:9418-31 pubmed publisher
    ..HAMBS550 and HASBS550 show maximum removal of 88.3 and 88.5 %, respectively, at initial fluoride concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 3, and adsorbent dose of 70 g/L. ..
  42. Grigoraki L, Balabanidou V, Meristoudis C, Myridakis A, Ranson H, Swevers L, et al. Functional and immunohistochemical characterization of CCEae3a, a carboxylesterase associated with temephos resistance in the major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;74:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot and immunolocalization studies, based on a specific antibody raised against the CCEae3a_alb showed that the enzyme is expressed at higher levels in resistant insects, primarily in malpighian tubules (MT) and nerve tissues. ..
  43. Martinez B, Scheibner M, Soñanez Organis J, Jaques J, Crocker D, Ortiz R. Increased sensitivity of thyroid hormone-mediated signaling despite prolonged fasting. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;252:36-47 pubmed publisher
    ..When coupled with cellular, tissue-specific responses, these data provide a more integrated assessment of thyroidal status that can be extrapolated for many fasting/food deprived mammals. ..
  44. Saelim V, Brogdon W, Rojanapremsuk J, Suvannadabba S, Pandii W, Jones J, et al. Bottle and biochemical assays on temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:417-25 pubmed
    ..aegypti population from Roi Et. Both the bottle bioassay and the biochemical microplate assay were proven to be promising tools for initial detection and field surveillance for temephos resistance. ..
  45. Lakwo T, Ndyomugyenyi R, Onapa A, Twebaze C. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus and prospects for the elimination of its vector, the blackfly Simulium neavei in the Mpamba-Nkusi focus in Western Uganda. Med Vet Entomol. 2006;20:93-101 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that substantial progress towards the goal of S. neavei s.s. vector elimination has been made and this will enhance the ongoing ivermectin treatment in this isolated focus. ..
  46. Chippaux J, Laniyan I, Akogbeto M. [Evaluation of the efficacy of temephos in the campaign against dracunculosis]. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1991;71:279-85 pubmed
    ..3. Decrease of incidence of dracunculiasis was compiled by weekly examination of the population during the season of transmission. Authors observed an incidence of 37% during the 86/87 season.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  47. Mukhopadhyay A, Patnaik S, Babu P. Susceptibility status of some culicine mosquitoes to insecticides in Rajahmundry town of Andhra Pradesh, India. J Vector Borne Dis. 2006;43:39-41 pubmed
  48. Chen C, Nazni W, Lee H, Norma Rashid Y, Lardizabal M, Sofian Azirun M. Temephos resistance in field Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) from Selangor, Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2013;30:220-30 pubmed
    ..Continuous resistance monitoring should be conducted regularly to confirm the efficacy of insecticides for dengue control. ..
  49. Chen C, Nazni W, Lee H, Sofian Azirun M. Weekly variation on susceptibility status of Aedes mosquitoes against temephos in Selangor, Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2005;22:195-206 pubmed
    ..It is essential to continue monitoring the resistance of this vector to insecticides in order to ensure the efficiency of program aimed at vector control and protection of human health. ..
  50. Kalinga A, Mweya C, Barro T, Maegga B. Susceptibility of Simulium damnosum complex larvae to temephos in the Tukuyu onchocerciasis focus, southwest Tanzania. Tanzan Health Res Bull. 2007;9:19-24 pubmed
    ..Temephos was thus recommended for continued use in onchocerciasis vector control in the Tukuyu focus, to complement Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin, but close monitoring of vector susceptibility should be done. ..
  51. Paeporn P, Komalamisra N, Deesin V, Rongsriyam Y, Eshita Y, Thongrungkiat S. Temephos resistance in two forms of Aedes aegypti and its significance for the resistance mechanism. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34:786-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that temephos resistance could be developed in Ae. aegypti under selection pressure and that the main mechanism is based only on esterase detoxification. ..
  52. Mohan L, Sharma P, Srivastava C. Combination larvicidal action of Solanum xanthocarpum extract and certain synthetic insecticides against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (SAY). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:311-9 pubmed
    ..0144 and 0.0056 ppm and LC90 0.0958 and 0.0209 ppm at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The present study will be helpful in developing a commercial formulation for effective vector management. ..
  53. Hackenberger B, Jarić Perkusić D, Stepić S. Effect of temephos on cholinesterase activity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008;71:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..28% of activity in the control in all three conducted experiments. Dose-response curves showed an inverted U-shape characteristic for hormesis. This hormetic-like effect could be important for health status of an earthworm. ..
  54. Alves S, Tibúrcio J, Melo A. [Susceptibility of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to different insecticides]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:486-9 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that larvae are susceptible to all tested insecticides and that there is a need for monitoring the use of insecticides. ..
  55. Biswas D, Mandal B, Biswas B, Banerjee A, Mukherjee T. Plying of speedboats along canals in the city of Kolkata, India, to prevent mosquito breeding. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2013;107:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Where use of boats is an option and use of insecticides is unfeasible or undesirable, the plying of speedboats is a potentially ecofriendly approach to mosquito control. ..
  56. Paiva M, Lovin D, Mori A, Melo Santos M, Severson D, Ayres C. Identification of a major Quantitative Trait Locus determining resistance to the organophosphate temephos in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Genomics. 2016;107:40-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti populations, yet also appear to support previous findings suggesting that multiple linked esterase genes may contribute to temephos resistance in the RecR strain as well as other populations. ..
  57. Phuanukoonnon S, Mueller I, Bryan J. Effectiveness of dengue control practices in household water containers in Northeast Thailand. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:755-63 pubmed
  58. Paeporn P, Komalamisra N, Thongrungkiat S, Deesin V, Eshita Y, Rongsriyam Y. Potential development of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti related to its mechanism and susceptibility to dengue virus. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34 Suppl 2:136-41 pubmed
    ..33%, respectively. A statistical difference in viral susceptibility was not found between the two groups. This suggested that the low level of temephos resistance might not affect oral susceptibility. However, this needs further study. ..
  59. Fontoura N, Bellinato D, Valle D, Lima J. The efficacy of a chitin synthesis inhibitor against field populations of organophosphate-resistant Aedes aegypti in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:387-95 pubmed
    ..Our data show that novaluron is effective against the Ae. aegypti populations tested, regardless of their resistance to conventional chemical insecticides. ..
  60. Mulyatno K, Yamanaka A, Ngadino -, Konishi E. Resistance of Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae to temephos in Surabaya, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2012;43:29-33 pubmed
    ..In three subdistricts (Tambaksari, Gubeng and Sawahan), the mortality rates were under 80%, indicating possible resistance to temephos. ..
  61. Hamdan H, Sofian Azirun M, Nazni W, Lee H. Insecticide resistance development in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae against malathion, permethrin and temephos. Trop Biomed. 2005;22:45-52 pubmed
    ..Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae developed higher resistance to malathion and permethrin compared to Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. On the whole, permethrin resistance developed at a faster rate than malathion and temephos. ..
  62. Teng H, Lu L, Wu Y, Fang J. Evaluation of various control agents against mosquito larvae in rice paddies in Taiwan. J Vector Ecol. 2005;30:126-32 pubmed
    ..The insecticide temephos, on the other hand, was very effective at suppressing the larvae of An. sinensis but significantly increased the number of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus/vishnui larvae in temephos-treated plots...
  63. Jarić Perkusić D, Hackenberger B, Stepić S, Merdić E. Influence of molting on efficacy of two functionally different larvicides: Bti and temephos. J Econ Entomol. 2008;101:1204-10 pubmed
    ..sticticus. These findings could help assess and define larviciding, as well as influence the quantity of larvicides needed for an efficient treatment. ..
  64. Romi R, Toma L, Severini F, Di Luca M. Susceptibility of Italian populations of Aedes albopictus to temephos and to other insecticides. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003;19:419-23 pubmed
    ..aegypti. However, the implications of these findings need to be considered in light of the results of previous studies that have shown that larval Ae. albopictus are less susceptible than Ae. aegypti to organophosphate insecticides. ..
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    ..A4. These results suggest that the esterase activity may also be inherited, as well as the resistance to temephos, as a semidominant character. ..
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    ..The nauplii mortality increased with the exposure time for both species during each experiment. Further isolation of model organisms from tropical ecosystems is needed, to meet the requirements for a tropical risk assessment scheme. ..
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    ..aegypti, Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Generally, larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus was susceptible to all formulations of temephos, followed by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. ..
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    ..Weekly reporting should be extended to all villages with recent confirmed cases and to as many villages reporting cases during the previous transmission season as logistically possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
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    ..Nevertheless, susceptibility of the Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to methoprene alone suggests this insect growth regulator could substitute for temephos in the control of the dengue vector in the country. ..
  81. Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Chompoosri J, Bhakdeenuan P, Khamsawads C, Sangkitporn S, et al. Comparative field efficacy of newly developed formulations of larvicides against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44:753-60 pubmed
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