parathion

Summary

Summary: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.

Top Publications

  1. Foxenberg R, McGarrigle B, Knaak J, Kostyniak P, Olson J. Human hepatic cytochrome p450-specific metabolism of parathion and chlorpyrifos. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:189-93 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the rate of desulfation (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of parathion and chlorpyrifos in human liver microsomes...
  2. Eyer F, Meischner V, Kiderlen D, Thiermann H, Worek F, Haberkorn M, et al. Human parathion poisoning. A toxicokinetic analysis. Toxicol Rev. 2003;22:143-63 pubmed
    The mortality rate of suicidal parathion poisoning is particularly high, the onset of fulminant cholinergic signs, and the patients frequently present to the emergency physician with life-threatening symptoms...
  3. Canales Aguirre A, Gomez Pinedo U, Luquin S, Ramirez Herrera M, Mendoza Magaña M, Feria Velasco A. Curcumin protects against the oxidative damage induced by the pesticide parathion in the hippocampus of the rat brain. Nutr Neurosci. 2012;15:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the neuroprotective properties of curcumin against oxidative stress induced by prolonged exposure to parathion (PAR) is not clear...
  4. Kim D, Lee S, Jeon T, Jin C, Hyun S, Kim E, et al. Role of metabolism in parathion-induced hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005;68:2187-205 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to investigate whether metabolic activation of parathion by cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) was responsible for pesticide-induced hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity...
  5. Saffih Hdadi K, Bruckler L, Amichot M, Belzunces L. Modeling impact of parathion and its metabolite paraoxon on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in soil. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1387-94 pubmed
    b>Parathion is an insecticide of a group of highly toxic organophosphorous compounds. In vivo, it is activated to the toxic metabolite paraoxon...
  6. Ferrari A, Venturino A, de D Angelo A. Time course of brain cholinesterase inhibition and recovery following acute and subacute azinphosmethyl, parathion and carbaryl exposure in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2004;57:420-5 pubmed
    ..ChE) was greatly reduced after 96 h of exposure in vivo at sublethal concentrations of azinphosmethyl and parathion. The inhibition of the enzyme was dose dependent, and concentrations higher than 0...
  7. Yen J, Donerly S, Levin E, Linney E. Differential acetylcholinesterase inhibition of chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion in larval zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011;33:735-41 pubmed publisher
    ..zebrafish to examine how exposures to three different organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion) over the first five days of embryonic and larval development of zebrafish affected their survival, ..
  8. Lavado R, Schlenk D. Microsomal biotransformation of chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): mechanistic insights into interspecific differences in toxicity. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;101:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..in the mechanism of toxicity of three organophosphate (phosphorothionate) insecticides, (chlorpyrifos, parathion and fenthion), microsomal bioactivation and detoxification pathways were measured in gills, liver and olfactory ..
  9. Levin E, Timofeeva O, Yang L, Petro A, Ryde I, Wrench N, et al. Early postnatal parathion exposure in rats causes sex-selective cognitive impairment and neurotransmitter defects which emerge in aging. Behav Brain Res. 2010;208:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study was conducted to determine whether effects of neonatal parathion exposure on cognitive performance persist in older adult and aged rats, and the relationship of behavioral ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Furlong C, Richter R, Seidel S, Costa L, Motulsky A. Spectrophotometric assays for the enzymatic hydrolysis of the active metabolites of chlorpyrifos and parathion by plasma paraoxonase/arylesterase. Anal Biochem. 1989;180:242-7 pubmed
  2. Gui W, Liu Y, Wang C, Liang X, Zhu G. Development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for parathion residue in food samples. Anal Biochem. 2009;393:88-94 pubmed publisher
    A heterologous direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for parathion residue determination is described based on a monoclonal antibody and a new competitor...
  3. Karanth S, Pope C. Age-related effects of chlorpyrifos and parathion on acetylcholine synthesis in rat striatum. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003;25:599-606 pubmed
    We compared the in vivo effects of two organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and parathion (PS) on acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis in neonatal, juvenile and adult rats...
  4. Lassiter T, Ryde I, Levin E, Seidler F, Slotkin T. Neonatal exposure to parathion alters lipid metabolism in adulthood: Interactions with dietary fat intake and implications for neurodevelopmental deficits. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined whether neonatal parathion exposure in rats has long-term effects on regulation of adipokines and lipid peroxidation...
  5. Cabello G, Valenzuela M, Vilaxa A, Duran V, Rudolph I, Hrepic N, et al. A rat mammary tumor model induced by the organophosphorous pesticides parathion and malathion, possibly through acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:471-9 pubmed
    ..Organophosphorous pesticides have been used extensively to control mosquito plagues. Parathion and malathion are organophosphorous pesticides extensively used to control a wide range of sucking and chewing ..
  6. Saleh A, Vijayasarathy C, Fernandez Cabezudo M, Taleb M, Petroianu G. Influence of paraoxon (POX) and parathion (PAT) on apoptosis: a possible mechanism for toxicity in low-dose exposure. J Appl Toxicol. 2003;23:23-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study we evaluated the toxic effect of different concentrations of paraoxon (POX) and parathion (PAT) in murine EL4 T lymphocytes...
  7. Mutch E, Williams F. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion are metabolised by multiple cytochromes P450 in human liver. Toxicology. 2006;224:22-32 pubmed
    This research describes both the activation and detoxification of diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion by recombinant P450 isozymes and by human liver microsomes that had been characterised for P450 marker activities...
  8. Fenske R, Lu C, Barr D, Needham L. Children's exposure to chlorpyrifos and parathion in an agricultural community in central Washington State. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:549-53 pubmed
    We measured two diethyl organophosphorus (OP) pesticides--chlorpyrifos and parathion--in residences, and their metabolic by-products, in the urine of children 6 years old or younger in a central Washington State agricultural community...
  9. Videira R, Antunes Madeira M, Lopes V, Madeira V. Changes induced by malathion, methylparathion and parathion on membrane lipid physicochemical properties correlate with their toxicity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1511:360-8 pubmed
    Perturbations induced by malathion, methylparathion and parathion on the physicochemical properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were studied by fluorescence anisotropy of DPH and DPH-PA and by differential scanning ..
  10. Kacham R, Karanth S, Baireddy P, Liu J, Pope C. Interactive toxicity of chlorpyrifos and parathion in neonatal rats: role of esterases in exposure sequence-dependent toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;210:142-9 pubmed
    We previously reported that sequence of exposure to chlorpyrifos and parathion in adult rats can markedly influence toxic outcome. In the present study, we evaluated the interactive toxicity of chlorpyrifos (8 mg/kg, po) and parathion (0...
  11. Mutch E, Blain P, Williams F. The role of metabolism in determining susceptibility to parathion toxicity in man. Toxicol Lett. 1999;107:177-87 pubmed
    Human liver microsomes (n = 16) activated parathion (O, O, diethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate, 20 and 200 microM) to paraoxon at a rate of 23.3-199.3 and 18.7-310.3 pmol/min per mg protein, respectively...
  12. Timofeeva O, Sanders D, Seemann K, Yang L, Hermanson D, Regenbogen S, et al. Persistent behavioral alterations in rats neonatally exposed to low doses of the organophosphate pesticide, parathion. Brain Res Bull. 2008;77:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study extended investigation to parathion (PTN), an OP that has higher systemic toxicity than either CPF or DZN...
  13. Calaf G, Roy D. Human drug metabolism genes in parathion-and estrogen-treated breast cells. Int J Mol Med. 2007;20:875-81 pubmed
    ..the differentially expressed genes encoding enzymes that are important to drug transport and metabolism in parathion- and estrogen-treated human breast epithelial cell lines using cDNA microarrays...
  14. Calaf G, Roy D. Cancer genes induced by malathion and parathion in the presence of estrogen in breast cells. Int J Mol Med. 2008;21:261-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this work was to examine the effect of 17beta estradiol (estrogen) combined with either malathion or parathion on the transformation of human breast epithelial cells in vitro...
  15. Slotkin T, Tate C, Ryde I, Levin E, Seidler F. Organophosphate insecticides target the serotonergic system in developing rat brain regions: disparate effects of diazinon and parathion at doses spanning the threshold for cholinesterase inhibition. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1542-6 pubmed
    ..We exposed neonatal rats to daily doses of diazinon or parathion on postnatal days (PND)1-4 and evaluated 5HT receptors and the 5HT transporter in brainstem and forebrain on ..
  16. Slotkin T, Levin E, Seidler F. Developmental neurotoxicity of parathion: progressive effects on serotonergic systems in adolescence and adulthood. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2009;31:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We administered parathion to newborn rats on postnatal days (PN) 1-4 at doses spanning the threshold for detectable cholinesterase ..
  17. Zurich M, Honegger P, Schilter B, Costa L, Monnet Tschudi F. Involvement of glial cells in the neurotoxicity of parathion and chlorpyrifos. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;201:97-104 pubmed
    ..the influence of glial cells on the neurotoxicity of two organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), chlorpyrifos and parathion. Mixed-cell aggregate cultures were treated continuously for 10 days between DIV 5 and 15...
  18. Slotkin T, Bodwell B, Ryde I, Levin E, Seidler F. Exposure of neonatal rats to parathion elicits sex-selective impairment of acetylcholine systems in brain regions during adolescence and adulthood. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1308-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, these agents may differ in their effects on specific brain circuits. We gave parathion to neonatal rats [postnatal days (PNDs) 1-4], at daily doses of 0.1 or 0...
  19. Lassiter T, Ryde I, MacKillop E, Brown K, Levin E, Seidler F, et al. Exposure of neonatal rats to parathion elicits sex-selective reprogramming of metabolism and alters the response to a high-fat diet in adulthood. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We administered parathion to neonatal rats...
  20. Roex E, Keijzers R, Van Gestel C. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and increased food consumption rate in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, after chronic exposure to parathion. Aquat Toxicol. 2003;64:451-60 pubmed
    ..In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to sublethal concentrations of the OP parathion for 250 days in a flow-through system...
  21. Gentry P, Hack C, Haber L, Maier A, Clewell H. An approach for the quantitative consideration of genetic polymorphism data in chemical risk assessment: examples with warfarin and parathion. Toxicol Sci. 2002;70:120-39 pubmed
    ..Warfarin and parathion were used as case studies to demonstrate this approach...
  22. Butler A, Murray M. Biotransformation of parathion in human liver: participation of CYP3A4 and its inactivation during microsomal parathion oxidation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;280:966-73 pubmed
    ..that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes mediate the oxidative biotransformation of the phosphorothioate pesticide parathion to paraoxon and 4-nitrophenol...
  23. Proskocil B, Bruun D, Lorton J, Blensly K, Jacoby D, Lein P, et al. Antigen sensitization influences organophosphorus pesticide-induced airway hyperreactivity. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonsensitized and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs were injected subcutaneously with the OP parathion (0.001-1.0 mg/kg)...
  24. Slotkin T, Lassiter T, Ryde I, Wrench N, Levin E, Seidler F. Consumption of a high-fat diet in adulthood ameliorates the effects of neonatal parathion exposure on acetylcholine systems in rat brain regions. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:916-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We are seeking interventions that can ameliorate or reverse the effects later in life. We administered parathion to neonatal rats and then evaluated whether a high-fat diet begun in adulthood could reverse the effects on ACh ..
  25. Adigun A, Wrench N, Levin E, Seidler F, Slotkin T. Neonatal parathion exposure and interactions with a high-fat diet in adulthood: Adenylyl cyclase-mediated cell signaling in heart, liver and cerebellum. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:605-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier, we showed that neonatal parathion evokes later upregulation of the hepatic AC pathway in adolescence but that the effect wanes by young adulthood; ..
  26. Gilbert E, Walker A, Keasling J. A constructed microbial consortium for biodegradation of the organophosphorus insecticide parathion. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;61:77-81 pubmed
    ..comprised of two engineered microorganisms was assembled for biodegradation of the organophosphate insecticide parathion. Escherichia coli SD2 harbored two plasmids, one encoding a gene for parathion hydrolase and a second carrying a ..
  27. Calaf G, Roy D. Gene and protein expressions induced by 17beta-estradiol and parathion in cultured breast epithelial cells. Mol Med. 2007;13:255-65 pubmed
    ..studies have found an association between human cancer and exposure to agricultural pesticides and among them parathion, the organophosphorous pesticide used in agriculture to control mosquito plagues...
  28. Mutch E, Daly A, Leathart J, Blain P, Williams F. Do multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms contribute to parathion metabolism in man?. Arch Toxicol. 2003;77:313-20 pubmed
    ..The phosphorothioate parathion was metabolised to the toxic metabolite paraoxon (0.038-0.683 nmol/min per mg protein) and p-nitrophenol (0...
  29. Howard M, Pope C. In vitro effects of chlorpyrifos, parathion, methyl parathion and their oxons on cardiac muscarinic receptor binding in neonatal and adult rats. Toxicology. 2002;170:1-10 pubmed
    ..7-11 days of age) and adult (90 days of age) rats to selected organophosphorus compounds (chlorpyrifos, parathion, methyl parathion and their oxygen analogs or oxons)...
  30. Kandimalla V, Neeta N, Karanth N, Thakur M, Roshini K, Rani B, et al. Regeneration of ethyl parathion antibodies for repeated use in immunosensor: a study on dissociation of antigens from antibodies. Biosens Bioelectron. 2004;20:903-6 pubmed
    ..In the present investigation, on the development of an immunosensor for the organophosphorus pesticide ethyl parathion (EP) using EP antibodies, different dissociating agents such as organic solvents, detergents and acidic buffers, ..
  31. Adigun A, Wrench N, Seidler F, Slotkin T. Neonatal organophosphorus pesticide exposure alters the developmental trajectory of cell-signaling cascades controlling metabolism: differential effects of diazinon and parathion. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We administered diazinon (DZN) or parathion (PRT) to rats on postnatal days 14 at doses straddling the threshold for systemic signs of exposure and assessed ..
  32. Nishino R, Fukuyama T, Tajima Y, Miyashita L, Watanabe Y, Ueda H, et al. Prior oral exposure to environmental immunosuppressive chemicals methoxychlor, parathion, or piperonyl butoxide aggravates allergic airway inflammation in NC/Nga mice. Toxicology. 2013;309:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..NC/Nga mice were exposed orally to pesticides parathion (an organophosphate compound) or methoxychlor (an organochlorine compound), or to an insecticide synergist ..
  33. Foxenberg R, Ellison C, Knaak J, Ma C, Olson J. Cytochrome P450-specific human PBPK/PD models for the organophosphorus pesticides: chlorpyrifos and parathion. Toxicology. 2011;285:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphororthioate OPs like chlorpyrifos and parathion are directly activated and detoxified by various cytochrome P450s (CYPs), with the primary CYPs involved being ..
  34. Liu X, Du J, Lu J. Determination of parathion residues in rice samples using a flow injection chemiluminescence method. Luminescence. 2003;18:245-8 pubmed
    A sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence method is described for the determination of parathion pesticide, based upon its direct chemiluminescence reaction with luminol and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of non-ionic surfactant ..
  35. Printes L, Callaghan A. A comparative study on the relationship between acetylcholinesterase activity and acute toxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to anticholinesterase insecticides. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2004;23:1241-7 pubmed
    ..AChE) activity was measured in Daphnia magna that had been exposed to four organophosphates (OPs; parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and acephate) and one carbamate (propoxur) for 48 h...
  36. Barata C, Baird D, Soares A, Guilhermino L. Biochemical factors contributing to response variation among resistant and sensitive clones of Daphnia magna Ssraus exposed to ethyl parathion. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2001;49:155-63 pubmed
    Biochemical factors contributing to response variation in five clones of Daphnia magna exposed to ethyl parathion were studied...
  37. Seifert J. Structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) to inhibit chicken yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase related to OPI teratogenesis. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;35:200-6 pubmed publisher
  38. Ben Salem I, Fekih S, Sghaier H, Bousselmi M, Saidi M, Landoulsi A, et al. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves. Food Chem. 2013;141:1398-405 pubmed publisher
    The ?-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated...
  39. He L, Luo X, Xie H, Wang C, Jiang X, Lu K. Ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water sample. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;655:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)MIM][PF(6)]) ionic liquid as extraction solvent, organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (parathion, phoxim, phorate and chlorpyifos) in water were determined by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) ..
  40. Galeano Díaz T, Guiberteau Cabanillas A, Mora Diez N, Parrilla Vázquez P, Salinas López F. Rapid and sensitive determination of 4-nitrophenol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol, parathion-methyl, fenitrothion, and parathion-ethyl by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:4508-13 pubmed
    ..with electrochemical detection has been used to determine various nitropesticides, DNOC, fenitrothion, and parathion (methyl and ethyl), and some of their main metabolites, 4-nitrophenol for parathion (methyl and ethyl) and 3-..
  41. Ibrahim M, Mersal G. Zinc(II) tweezers containing artificial peptides mimicking the active site of phosphotriesterase: the catalyzed hydrolysis of the toxic organophosphate parathion. J Inorg Biochem. 2010;104:1195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..The reactivity of the trinuclear complex (3) toward the hydrolysis of the toxic organophosphate parathion was investigated and compared with that of the mononuclear reference complex (1)...
  42. Deep A, Bhardwaj S, Paul A, Kim K, Kumar P. Surface assembly of nano-metal organic framework on amine functionalized indium tin oxide substrate for impedimetric sensing of parathion. Biosens Bioelectron. 2015;65:226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..assembled NMOF film is exploited to synthesize a pesticide immunosensor by conjugating the NMOF film with anti-parathion antibody...
  43. Qiao C, Huang J, Li X, Shen B, Zhang J. Bioremediation of organophosphate pollutants by a genetically-engineered enzyme. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;70:455-61 pubmed
  44. Hoppin J, Umbach D, London S, Henneberger P, Kullman G, Coble J, et al. Pesticide use and adult-onset asthma among male farmers in the Agricultural Health Study. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:1296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..For allergic asthma, coumaphos (OR 2.34; 95% CI 1.49-3.70), heptachlor (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.30-3.11), parathion (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.21-3.46), 80/20 mix (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.23-3...
  45. Zoh K, Kim T, Kim J, Choi K. Degradation of parathion and the reduction of acute toxicity in TiO2 photocatalysis. Water Sci Technol. 2005;52:45-52 pubmed
    Photocatalytic degradation of methyl parathion was done using a circulating TiO2/UV and TiO2/solar reactor...
  46. Zhao X, Hwang H. A study of the degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in river waters and the identification of their degradation products by chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009;56:646-53 pubmed publisher
    The degradation of selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), i.e., malathion and parathion, in river water, has been studied with solar simulator irradiation...
  47. Zhang Y, Kang T, Lu L, Cheng S. [Preparation and characterization of parathion sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2008;29:1072-6 pubmed
    A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of parathion based on molecularly imprinted polymer of self-assembled o-aminothiophenol onto gold electrode was constructed...
  48. Wang J, Ma T, Zhang Z, Zhang X, Jiang Y, Dong D, et al. Investigation on the sonocatalytic degradation of parathion in the presence of nanometer rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) catalyst. J Hazard Mater. 2006;137:972-80 pubmed
    ..was used as an irradiation source to induce heat-treated TiO2 powder performing sonocatalytic degradation of parathion. Although there are many factors influencing sonocatalytic degradation of parathion, the experimental results ..
  49. Ramanathan M, Simonian A. Array biosensor based on enzyme kinetics monitoring by fluorescence spectroscopy: application for neurotoxins detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007;22:3001-7 pubmed
    ..The biosensor enabled the detection of 2.5 microM paraoxon, and 10 microM DFP and parathion, respectively. Very short response time of 30s can be achieved with a total analysis time of less than 2 min...
  50. Liu Y, Wang C, Guo Y, Liang X, Gui W, Zhu G. Monoclonal antibody produced by heterologous indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its application for parathion residue determination in agricultural and environmental samples. J Environ Sci Health B. 2010;45:547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, which was based on monoclonal antibody (Mab) to determine parathion residue in agricultural and environmental samples...
  51. Cabello G, Juarranz A, Botella L, Calaf G. Organophosphorous pesticides in breast cancer progression. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2003;35:1-9 pubmed
    ..Organophosphorous pesticides have been used to control mosquito plagues. Parathion and malathion, organophosphorous pesticides are cholinesterase inhibitors responsible for the hydrolysis of body ..
  52. Tavakoli H, Ghourchian H, Moosavi Movahedi A, Chilaka F. Effects of paraoxon and ethylparathion on choline oxidase from Alcaligenes species: inhibition and denaturation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2005;36:318-23 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the loss of initial velocity of the enzyme is an active site specific effect and not due to global conformational changes induced by the inhibitors. ..
  53. Bojanowska Czajka A, Torun M, Kciuk G, Wachowicz M, Ozbay D, Güven O, et al. Analytical and toxicological studies of decomposition of insecticide parathion after gamma-irradiation and ozonation. J AOAC Int. 2012;95:1378-85 pubmed
    The decomposition of the widely used organophosphorus pesticide parathion was carried out in aqueous solutions by the use of gamma-irradiation from a 60Co source or ozonation by means of an ozone generator, and by combined processes of ..