silicone oils


Summary: Organic siloxanes which are polymerized to the oily stage. The oils have low surface tension and density less than 1. They are used in industrial applications and in the treatment of retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

Top Publications

  1. Al Jazzaf A, Netland P, Charles S. Incidence and management of elevated intraocular pressure after silicone oil injection. J Glaucoma. 2005;14:40-6 pubmed
    ..Most of these eyes are effectively treated with antiglaucoma medications. Eyes that do not respond to medical therapy may be effectively managed with glaucoma drainage implant placement in an inferior quadrant. ..
  2. Hotta K, Sugitani A. Refractive changes in silicone oil-filled pseudophakic eyes. Retina. 2005;25:167-70 pubmed
    ..699, P < 0.0001). IOL models with steeper posterior convex curvature result in larger refractive deviations in patients scheduled for silicone oil instillation. ..
  3. Avitabile T, Longo A, Lentini G, Reibaldi A. Retinal detachment after silicone oil removal is prevented by 360 degrees laser treatment. Br J Ophthalmol. 2008;92:1479-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In the control group, RD occurred in 27 eyes (20.93%; p = 0.007). 360 degrees laser retinopexy reduces the incidence of RD after silicone oil removal; it should be completed intraoperatively. ..
  4. Oliveira L, Reis P. Silicone oil tamponade in 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy. Retina. 2007;27:1054-8 pubmed
    ..Seventeen out of 20 (85%) had improved vision. Silicone oil tamponade was demonstrated to be a feasible option in conjunction with 23-g transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy to treat complex retinal detachment. ..
  5. Siqueira R, Gil A, Jorge R. Retinal detachment surgery with silicone oil injection in transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge vitrectomy. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:905-9 pubmed
    ..The retinal detachment surgery with silicone oil injection in transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge vitrectomy is a safe and efficient technique to repair retinal detachment and it has the advantage of being minimally invasive. ..
  6. Caramoy A, Schröder S, Fauser S, Kirchhof B. In vitro emulsification assessment of new silicone oils. Br J Ophthalmol. 2010;94:509-12 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether the emulsification of conventional silicone oils can be reduced by adding small amounts of silicone molecules of a very long chain length. Siluron 1000, Siluron 2000, Siluron 5000, Acri...
  7. Caramoy A, Hagedorn N, Fauser S, Kugler W, Gross T, Kirchhof B. Development of emulsification-resistant silicone oils: can we go beyond 2000 mPas silicone oil?. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:5432-6 pubmed publisher
    ..HMW concentration increases the fluid elasticity, thereby reducing the emulsification tendency. ..
  8. Engelmann K, Herbrig E. [Different endotamponade agents and their clinical indications]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225:138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..detachment with inferior and posterior retinal detachment this tamponade may be insufficient, and heavy silicone oils may be superior in such cases...
  9. Nazir H, Lv P, Wang L, Lian G, Zhu S, Ma G. Uniform-sized silicone oil microemulsions: preparation, investigation of stability and deposition on hair surface. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2011;364:56-64 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Lai W, Wong D, Li K, Leow P. Emulsification and inverted hypopyon formation of oxane HD in the anterior chamber. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246:1633-5 pubmed publisher
    ..One explanation might be that the Oxane HD has separated out into its constituent components of silicone and RMN3, which raises questions as to the basis for its claim to be a heavier-than-water tamponade. ..
  2. Ishida K, Ahmed I, Netland P. Ahmed glaucoma valve surgical outcomes in eyes with and without silicone oil endotamponade. J Glaucoma. 2009;18:325-30 pubmed publisher
    ..04). The AGV can control the IOP in the majority of eyes after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. However, the presence of silicone oil is associated with increased risk of surgical failure in eyes treated with the AGV. ..
  3. Heimann H, Stappler T, Wong D. Heavy tamponade 1: a review of indications, use, and complications. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:1342-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The complication spectrum of the new generation of heavy silicone oils (Oxane HD, Densiron 68, and HWS 46-3000) seems to be comparable to conventional silicone oil tamponades while ..
  4. Zalta A, Boyle N, Zalta A. Silicone oil pupillary block: an exception to combined argon-Nd:YAG laser iridotomy success in angle-closure glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:883-8 pubmed
    ..In managing SOPBG, ophthalmologists should anticipate the need for additional laser treatment and use adjunctive steroids and intracameral tissue plasminogen activator to enhance long-term patency and avert invasive surgical procedures. ..
  5. Nendza M. Hazard assessment of silicone oils (polydimethylsiloxanes, PDMS) used in antifouling-/foul-release-products in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull. 2007;54:1190-6 pubmed
    ..make up are closely guarded proprietary knowledge, consist of a silicone resin matrix and may contain unbound silicone oils (1-10%)...
  6. Biswas J, Verma A, Davda M, Ahuja S, Pushparaj V. Intraocular tissue migration of silicone oil after silicone oil tamponade: a histopathological study of enucleated silicone oil-filled eyes. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:425-8 pubmed
    ..Silicone oil vacuoles were seen in the optic nerve in eyes with neovascular glaucoma. Chronic inflammatory reaction was observed in the retinal tissue in the vicinity of silicone oil vacuoles. ..
  7. Riemann C, Miller D, Foster R, Petersen M. Outcomes of transconjunctival sutureless 25-gauge vitrectomy with silicone oil infusion. Retina. 2007;27:296-303 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the outcomes and complications of surgical management with 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and silicone oil (SO) tamponade in complex vitreoretinal diseases...
  8. Chrapek O, Vecerova R, Koukalova D, Maresova K, Jirkova B, Sin M, et al. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of silicone oils used in ophthalmic surgery. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2012;156:7-13 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was in vitro assessment and comparison of the antimicrobial activity of three types of silicone oils used in ophthalmic surgery...
  9. Majid M, Hussin H, Biswas S, Haynes R, Mayer E, Dick A. Emulsification of Densiron-68 used in inferior retinal detachment surgery. Eye (Lond). 2008;22:152-7 pubmed
    ..This has potentially significant implications on the indications for Densiron-68 use and warrants consideration before deciding on the optimal surgical intervention for inferior RDs. ..
  10. Mackiewicz J, Mühling B, Hiebl W, Meinert H, Maaijwee K, Kociok N, et al. In vivo retinal tolerance of various heavy silicone oils. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1873-83 pubmed
    Heavy silicone oils are currently under investigation as a permanent tamponade in eyes with inferior PVR...
  11. Joussen A, Wong D. The concept of heavy tamponades-chances and limitations. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246:1217-24 pubmed publisher intraocular pressure that was less prominent in admixtures of these substances with silicone oil (heavy silicone oils)...
  12. Jonas J, Knorr H, Rank R, Budde W. Intraocular pressure and silicone oil endotamponade. J Glaucoma. 2001;10:102-8 pubmed
    ..In patients with increased intraocular pressure and silicone oil endotamponade, oil removal may be preferred to invasive antiglaucoma surgery to reduce intraocular pressure. ..
  13. Shimada H, Nakashizuka H, Mori R, Mizutani Y. Expanded indications for 25-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:397-401 pubmed
    ..By combining the use of 20G devices, indications for the 25G system can be expanded. However, postoperative low ocular tension must be addressed by carefully considering surgical indications and prevention measures. ..
  14. Laidlaw D, Karia N, Bunce C, Aylward G, Gregor Z. Is prophylactic 360-degree laser retinopexy protective? Risk factors for retinal redetachment after removal of silicone oil. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:153-8 pubmed
    ..Prophylactic laser retinopexy may halve the incidence of retinal redetachment after removal of silicone oil. ..
  15. Jonas J, Knorr H, Rank R, Budde W. Retinal redetachment after removal of intraocular silicone oil tamponade. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1203-7 pubmed
    ..The rate of retinal redetachment is independent of the technique of silicone oil removal and duration of silicone oil endotamponade, with a minimal duration of silicone oil tamponade of about 3 months in the present study. ..
  16. Crisp A, de Juan E, Tiedeman J. Effect of silicone oil viscosity on emulsification. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105:546-50 pubmed
    ..We found that silicone oils that have low-molecular-weight contents emulsify more readily than those that do not...
  17. Ghazi Nouri S, Vakalis A, Bloom P, Bunce C, Charteris D. Long-term results of the management of silicone oil-induced raised intraocular pressure by diode laser cycloablation. Eye (Lond). 2005;19:765-9 pubmed
    ..Diode laser photocoagulation can successfully control silicone oil-induced raised intraocular pressure where medical treatment fails. Reduction of IOP appears to be maintained long term. ..
  18. Unlu N, Kocaoglan H, Acar M, Sargin M, Aslan B, Duman S. Outcome of complex retinal detachment surgery after silicone oil removal. Int Ophthalmol. 2004;25:33-6 pubmed
    ..The residual vitreoretinal traction especially at the vitreous base is the most likely reason for retinal redetachment after silicone oil removal, which is most commonly seen during the first 10 days. ..
  19. Falkner C, Binder S, Kruger A. Outcome after silicone oil removal. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1324-7 pubmed
    ..The authors recommend not to apply standard criteria for the timing of silicone oil removal, but to decide individually, considering the underlying disease, as well as the previous operations. ..
  20. Jonas J, Budde W, Knorr H. Timing of retinal redetachment after removal of intraocular silicone oil tamponade. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:628-31 pubmed
    ..These data may be important for scheduling reexaminations and for counseling patients in their planned activities after removal of intraocular silicone oil tamponade. ..
  21. Scholda C, Egger S, Lakits A, Walch K, von Eckardstein E, Biowski R. Retinal detachment after silicone oil removal. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2000;78:182-6 pubmed
    ..Some criteria could be regarded as risk factors for retinal detachment after silicone oil removal. Improvement of the results should be possible by considering these factors and by control of reproliferations. ..
  22. Williams R, Wong D. The influence of explants on the physical efficiency of tamponade agents. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999;237:870-4 pubmed
    ..This modification of the tamponade effect is not observed when air is used. The position of explants is critical to the efficiency of tamponade agents. ..
  23. Li H, Zhu X, Jiang D. [Risk factors of retinal redetachment after expected silicone oil removal]. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2005;21:92-4, 98 pubmed
    ..16, P < 0.05). Aphakia is a risk factor of retinal detachment after removal of silicone oil. Prophylactic 360 degree laser retinopexy can reduce the incidence of retinal redetachment. ..
  24. Wickham L, Asaria R, Alexander R, Luthert P, Charteris D. Immunopathology of intraocular silicone oil: enucleated eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:253-7 pubmed
    ..This study shows that silicone oil may be sequestered in varied ocular tissues and is associated with localised inflammation mediated by macrophages. ..
  25. Wetterqvist C, Wong D, Williams R, Stappler T, Herbert E, Freeburn S. Tamponade efficiency of perfluorohexyloctane and silicone oil solutions in a model eye chamber. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:692-6 pubmed
    ..Solutions of silicone oil with F(6)H(8) in other proportions or with other semifluorinated alkanes may be of interest. ..
  26. Demir M, Unlu N, Yalniz Z, Acar M, Ornek F. A case of retinal detachment in retinitis pigmentosa. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:677-9 pubmed
    ..After the phacoemulsification combined with silicone oil removal the final visual acuity of counting fingers was obtained. The association of retinitis pigmentosa and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is uncommon in young patients. ..
  27. Galindo H, Revah S, Cervantes F, Arriaga S. Effect of surfactant and oil additions in the biodegradation of hexane and toluene vapours in batch tests. Environ Technol. 2011;32:167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that simultaneous addition of silicone oil and surfactant favours the mineralization, but not the rate ofbiodegradation, of toluene and hexane vapours. ..
  28. Chan C, Holland E, Sawyer W, Neff K, Petersen M, Riemann C. Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis combined with silicone oil for treatment of hypotony in prephthisical eyes. Cornea. 2011;30:1105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Boston type I KPro implantation in combination with pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular silicone oil fill can improve vision in most prephthisical eyes with hypotony. Structural findings can also improve. ..
  29. Musat O, Cristescu R, Coman C, Asandi R. [Ocular hypertension after surgery for retinal detachment]. Oftalmologia. 2012;56:40-2 pubmed
  30. Cheung G, Shen Y, Darvell B. Effect of environment on low-cycle fatigue of a nickel-titanium instrument. J Endod. 2007;33:1433-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, environmental conditions significantly affect the LCF behavior of NiTi rotary instruments. Fatigue testing of NiTi engine-files should be in a service-like environment. ..
  31. Cacciatori M, Nayak H, Arpa P. Silicone oil removal in pseudophakic and aphakic eyes. Retina. 2007;27:1300-1 pubmed
  32. Dixit N, Maloney K, Kalonia D. Application of quartz crystal microbalance to study the impact of pH and ionic strength on protein-silicone oil interactions. Int J Pharm. 2011;412:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..At higher ionic strength (150 mM), no significant pH influence on adsorption was observed. QCM could be used as a reliable technique to study the binding of proteins to silicone oil coated surfaces. ..
  33. Gabrielli E, Ferraioli G, Ferraris L, Riva A, Galli M, Filice C, et al. Enfuvirtide administration in HIV-positive transgender patient with soft tissue augmentation: US evaluation. New Microbiol. 2010;33:263-5 pubmed
    ..US can be useful in the correct management of those patients with liquid silicone oil soft tissue augmentation who require subcutaneously injected drugs. ..
  34. Gangwar A. Antimicrobial effectiveness of different preparations of calcium hydroxide. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..One hundred and twenty-five samples were divided into five experimental groups consisting of 21 samples each and one control group of the same size...
  35. Herbrig E, Sandner D, Engelmann K. Anatomical and functional results of endotamponade with heavy silicone oil - Densiron 68 - in complicated retinal detachment. Ophthalmic Res. 2007;39:198-206 pubmed
    High-density silicone oils are newly developed long-term tamponade agents for the treatment of complicated retinal detachment in the inferior retina. Previous studies describe satisfying anatomical and functional results...
  36. Matić S, Suić S, Biuk D, Matić M, Barać J, Vinković M. Influence of silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy on intraocular pressure. Coll Antropol. 2013;37 Suppl 1:227-35 pubmed
    ..Emulsification of the silicone oil may lead to the early IOP rise; especially in the diabetic patients with angle neovascularization which itself can additionally accelerate the development of the secondary glaucoma. ..
  37. Gupta P, Gupta A, Gupta V, Singh R. Successful outcome of pars plana vitreous surgery in chronic hypotony due to uveitis. Retina. 2009;29:638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To report outcome of pars plana vitrectomy in patients with chronic hypotony due to uveitis...
  38. Dong F, Dai R, Jia Y. [Clinical features of silicone oil dependent eyes]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi. 2008;44:998-1001 pubmed
    ..The incidence of silicone oil dependent eye is approximately 5.9%. This is often seen in the patients with severe or repeated PVR, or 360 degree peripheral retinotomy. The visual prognosis is poor in most cases. ..
  39. Misiuk Hojło M, Grzech A, Słownski K. [Comparison of physical characteristics of polymers used in retinal detachment surgery]. Polim Med. 2007;37:73-9 pubmed
    ..In this paper physical characteristics of the most frequently used as endotamponade polymeric liquid substances are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each of them are listed. ..
  40. Choudhary M, Choudhary M, Saeed M, Ali A. Removal of silicone oil: prognostic factors and incidence of retinal redetachment. Retina. 2012;32:2034-8 pubmed publisher
    ..46%. Aggressive removal of the vitreous base, performing retinotomies, ensuring complete silicone oil filling for adequate tamponade, and argon retinopexy can lead to low complication rates and improved outcomes. ..
  41. Yung C, Oliver A, Bonnin J, Gao H. Modified anterior capsulotomy technique and histopathology of the anterior capsule in cataracts after prolonged exposure to intravitreal silicone oil. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2008;34:2020-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a capsulotomy technique to overcome capsule rigidity, as well as the histopathological findings of the anterior capsule after prolonged exposure to silicone oil. ..
  42. Yamakiri K, Sakamoto T, Noda Y, Nakahara M, Ogino N, Kubota T, et al. Reduced incidence of intraoperative complications in a multicenter controlled clinical trial of triamcinolone in vitrectomy. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:289-96 pubmed
    ..There were no serious adverse events related to the intraoperative use of TA. Although antiglaucoma eye drops were required more frequently after TA-assisted PPV than after conventional PPV, IOP was well-controlled in both groups. ..
  43. Lebron Aguilar R, Quintanilla Lopez J, Tello A, Santiuste J. Isothermal retention indices on poly(3,3,3-trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane) stationary phases. J Chromatogr A. 2007;1160:276-88 pubmed
    ..The best model of prediction of the retention in these fluorinated stationary phases was obtained by using the Abraham's descriptors. ..
  44. Kusserow C, Muller M. [40 years of incomplete silicone oil tamponade after retinal detachment surgery]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008;225:298-301 pubmed publisher
    ..The incomplete silicone oil filling of the vitreous cavity may be responsible for the lack of serious side effects and segmental cataract. ..
  45. Lim J, Chang M, Park M, Kwak T, Kim J, Lee C. A study correlating between instrumental and consumers' subjective luster values in oriental hair tresses. J Cosmet Sci. 2006;57:475-85 pubmed
    ..This study shows that SAMBA has utility as an instrumental technique for hair luster evaluation and is in good agreement with consumers' subjective evaluation of luster. ..
  46. Maia O, Takahashi W, Nakashima Y, Primiano Júnior H, Takahashi B, Nakashima A. [Optical coherence tomography macular study on eyes filled with silicone oil]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:281-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, optical coherence tomography examination should be systematically performed in eyes filled with silicone oil to recognize changes in retinal morphology. ..
  47. Cunha L, Primiano Júnior H, Nakashima A, Trein Júnior J, Ghanem R, Santo R, et al. [Subconjunctival deposit of silicone oil after vitreoretinal surgery]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:589-92 pubmed
    ..Ophthalmologists should be aware of this possible complication after intraocular use of silicone oil after vitreoretinal surgery. ..
  48. Schurmans A, Van Calster J, Stalmans P. Macular hole surgery with inner limiting membrane peeling, endodrainage, and heavy silicone oil tamponade. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;147:495-500 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that surgery for MH with ILM peeling, endodrainage, and HSO endotamponade appears to induce a high incidence of anatomical closure with good visual outcome. ..
  49. De Souza Teixeira M, Soares Pizani N, Mathias Delorenze L, Rodrigues Bogado Leite V, Pantaleão L. Injectable silicon oils - complications. Dermatol Online J. 2016;22: pubmed
    There have been reports of the use of silicone oils in injectable form for cosmetic purposes since the 1940s. With the popularization of the use of this technique in the mid-60s, there have been a wide range of adverse effects reported...
  50. Ghosh Y, Banerjee S, Konstantinidis A, Athanasiadis I, Kirkby G, Tyagi A. Surgical management of optic disc pit associated maculopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2008;18:142-6 pubmed
    ..Silicone oil was effective in one refractory case. Cumulative data are required to define the management of this condition. ..
  51. Kubicka Trzaska A, Kobylarz J, Romanowska Dixon B. Macular microcirculation blood flow after pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade. Klin Oczna. 2011;113:146-8 pubmed
    ..We have observed that silicone oil may have a negative long-term effect on the retinal microcirculation as it was noted one month after surgery. ..
  52. Santaella R, Ng J, Wilson D. Carbon dioxide laser-induced combustion of extravasated intraocular silicone oil in the eyelid mimicking xanthelasma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27:e163-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathology report confirmed silicone oil intrusion in the conjunctiva and upper eyelid. A postoperative in vitro experiment showed that silicone oil was readily ignited by the CO2 laser. ..
  53. Ju C, Li J, Zhou F, Song Q, Wu X, Huang C, et al. Comparison of 2 modified methods for the active removal of silicone oil with a 23-gauge transconjunctival vitrectomy system. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8205 pubmed publisher
    ..The syringe dilation method caused more severe conjuntival irritation, thus we suggest using the tube adaptor method for hospitals equipped with cold sterilization equipment. ..
  54. Bae S, Hwang J, Yu H. Comparative analysis of macular microstructure by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before and after silicone oil removal. Retina. 2012;32:1874-83 pubmed
    ..Most of the microstructural changes were recovered after SO removal, if needed, combined with macular surgery. Anatomic resolution was accompanied by postoperative visual improvement. ..
  55. Jonas J, Spandau U, Rensch F, Von Baltz S, Schlichtenbrede F. Infectious and noninfectious endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007;23:240-2 pubmed
    ..The rate of infectious endophthalmitis after an intravitreal injection of 1.5 mg bevacizumab may be approximately 1:1000, similar to injections of other drugs available thus far. ..
  56. Watanabe T, Miki D, Okada A, Hirakata A. [Treatment results for acute retinal necrosis]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2011;115:7-12 pubmed
    ..Indications for the use of prophylactic vitreous surgery for ARN eyes without retinal detachment require further evaluation. ..
  57. Eames I, Angunawela R, Aylward G, Azarbadegan A. A theoretical model for predicting interfacial relationships of retinal tamponades. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The model may be used to predict the static properties of new tamponades without in vivo tests. ..
  58. Utine C, Gehlbach P, Zimmer Galler I, Akpek E. Permanent keratoprosthesis combined with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection for visual rehabilitation of chronic hypotony and corneal opacity. Cornea. 2010;29:1401-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Boston type 1 Kpro implantation, as the primary corneal procedure with pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular SO, may be a viable option in selected patients with prephthisical eyes. ..
  59. Kim S, Oh J, Yang K, Kim M, Rhim J, Huh K. Risk factors for the development of transient hypotony after silicone oil removal. Retina. 2010;30:1228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with a long axial length had increased odds of developing transient hypotony after silicone oil removal. ..
  60. Duan A, She H, Qi Y. Complications after heavy silicone oil tamponade in complicated retinal detachment. Retina. 2011;31:547-52 pubmed publisher
    ..1%), and low intraocular pressure (9.1%). Heavy silicone oil tamponade is safe and effective to treat complicated retinal detachment. The most common complications are cataract and HSO emulsification. ..
  61. Adelman R, Parnes A, Sipperley J, Ducournau D. Strategy for the management of complex retinal detachments: the European vitreo-retinal society retinal detachment study report 2. Ophthalmology. 2013;120:1809-13 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the outcome of the treatment of complex rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs)...
  62. Zelisko P, Aguilar A, Brook M. Delivery of both active enzyme and bleach from water-in-silicone oil (D(4)) emulsions. Langmuir. 2007;23:3620-5 pubmed
    ..The polyether surfactant thus protects the perborate from hydration and the enzyme from denaturing on contact with silicone oil until excess water and high shear are applied to the emulsion; protective mechanisms are discussed. ..
  63. Ghosh F, Johansson K. Neuronal and glial alterations in complex long-term rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Curr Eye Res. 2012;37:704-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings may be important when devising surgical strategies to avoid permanent retinal detachment. ..
  64. Qian J, Jiang Y. Anatomic evaluation of macular holes with silicone oil tamponades in highly myopic eyes using optical coherence tomography. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20:938-44 pubmed
  65. Kenmochi A, Satoh T, Igawa K, Yokozeki H. Silica granuloma induced by indwelling catheter. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:S54-5 pubmed
  66. Chen W, Chen H, Hou P, Fok A, Hu Y, Lam D. Midterm results of low-dose intravitreal triamcinolone as adjunctive treatment for proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Retina. 2011;31:1137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Low-dose (2 mg) triamcinolone acetonide intravitreal injection as an adjunct to vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade in treating proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade C or D) appears to be effective and safe. ..
  67. Papadopoulou D, Petropoulos I, Mangioris G, Pharmakakis N, Pournaras C. Pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of severe complicated toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011;21:83-8 pubmed
    ..To present the anatomic and functional results of pars plana vitrectomy performed in severe complicated toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis...
  68. Hamed S, Shay B, Basu A. Capillary fractionation of HPLC substrates by a microfluidic droplet generator for high throughput analysis. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:8396-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In theory, ?FD can be coupled to a wide variety of separation processes, enabling high throughput fractionation and screening of complex mixtures in ?L to sub-nL volumes. ..
  69. Patwardhan S, Azad R, Shah V, Sharma Y. The safety and efficacy of passive removal of silicone oil with 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless system. Retina. 2010;30:1237-41 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a safe and effective procedure when compared with 20-G active silicone oil removal for 1000 centistoke oil. ..
  70. Wang Z, Dong N, Kang Y, Liu X, Cao Q, Liang D, et al. [Clinical study of pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil endotamponade in posttraumatic endophthalmitis on eyes without retinal detachment]. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2007;23:48-52 pubmed
  71. Shen Y, Yang C. Extended silicone oil tamponade in primary vitrectomy for complex retinal detachment in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a long-term follow-up study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:954-60 pubmed
    ..Prolonged SO tamponade may provide anatomic success and functional stability after primary diabetic vitrectomy. Significant complications compromising visual prognosis were uncommon with prolonged SO tamponade. ..
  72. Chasan P. The history of injectable silicone fluids for soft-tissue augmentation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:2034-40; discussion 2041-3 pubmed
    ..The unanswered question remains: Are the risks worth the potential benefits of silicone oil as a permanent filler? ..
  73. Elshewy A. Surgical Management of a Case of a 360-Degree Giant Retinal Break. Ophthalmologica. 2016;235:241 pubmed publisher
    ..Direct PFC-silicone oil exchange in giant retinal breaks helps minimize the risk of retinal slippage occurrence. ..
  74. Ichhpujani P, Jindal A, Jay Katz L. Silicone oil induced glaucoma: a review. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;247:1585-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the risk factors and the pathogenesis of secondary glaucoma when using silicone oil helps guide the timely and appropriate course of treatment. ..
  75. Ghoraba H, Zaky A, Heikal M, Elgemai E, Abd Al Fatah H. Silicone Oil-Related Visual Loss. Ophthalmologica. 2017;238:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean levels of electrolytes in retro-oil fluids and vitreous humor were similar. Visual loss is a possible complication after SO use or removal. This still remains a mysterious issue which needs further research and investigation. ..
  76. Snorradóttir B, Gudnason P, Scheving R, Thorsteinsson F, Masson M. Release of anti-inflammatory drugs from a silicone elastomer matrix system. Pharmazie. 2009;64:19-25 pubmed
  77. Wang P, Gao Q, Jiang Z, Lin J, Liu Y, Chen J, et al. Biocompatibility and retinal support of a foldable capsular vitreous body injected with saline or silicone oil implanted in rabbit eyes. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;40:e67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that foldable capsular vitreous bodies injected with either saline or silicone oil showed good biocompatibility and retinal support in rabbit eyes over a 180-day implantation time. ..
  78. Watanabe H, Kohzaki K, Kubo H, Okano K, Watanabe A, Tsuneoka H. [Stickler syndrome with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;114:454-8 pubmed
    ..Pediatric retinal detachment may indicate the presence of Stickler syndrome and a complete examination of the eye as well as a full family history must be obtained in such cases. ..
  79. Sisk R, Motley W, Yang M, West C. Surgical outcomes following repair of traumatic retinal detachments in cognitively impaired adolescents with self-injurious behavior. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2013;50:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term silicone oil tamponade may prevent recurrent RD in this challenging scenario but is associated with vision loss from progressive glaucoma and corneal decompensation. ..
  80. Batman C, Ozdamar Y. The effect of bevacizumab for anterior segment neovascularization after silicone oil removal in eyes with previous vitreoretinal surgery. Eye (Lond). 2010;24:1243-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV) may develop through various mechanisms in patients with VRS after SO removal, and anterior chamber injection of bevacizumab may lead to regression of ASNV. ..