silicone gels


Summary: Synthetic organosiloxane gels that are formed from synthetic polymers of silicone oxide with organic sidechains (polydimethylsiloxane) by lengthening the polymer chains. Unlike silicone elastomers, they are not treated with amorphous silica. They are used as fillers in breast implants.

Top Publications

  1. Niechajev I, Jurell G, Lohjelm L. Prospective study comparing two brands of cohesive gel breast implants with anatomic shape: 5-year follow-up evaluation. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007;31:697-710 pubmed
    ..The results also show that candidates for breast enlargement should be informed that their implanted breast may feel firmer than their natural breasts. They also may experience reduced sensation of their nipple or breast skin. ..
  2. Brown M, Shenker R, Silver S. Cohesive silicone gel breast implants in aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;116:768-79; discussion 780-1 pubmed
    ..Cohesive gel implants are likely to play an important role in aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery when silicone gel implants are reintroduced into the North American market. ..
  3. Bengtson B, Van Natta B, Murphy D, Slicton A, Maxwell G. Style 410 highly cohesive silicone breast implant core study results at 3 years. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:40S-48S pubmed
    ..These results are significant in introducing more evidence-based medicine that will allow plastic surgeons and patients to make better informed decisions regarding implant options. ..
  4. Fruhstorfer B, Hodgson E, Malata C. Early experience with an anatomical soft cohesive silicone gel prosthesis in cosmetic and reconstructive breast implant surgery. Ann Plast Surg. 2004;53:536-42 pubmed
    ..Anatomic soft cohesive gel implants provide excellent results in selected cases. They are well accepted by patients and not associated with an increased rate of complications. ..
  5. Hedén P, Boné B, Murphy D, Slicton A, Walker P. Style 410 cohesive silicone breast implants: safety and effectiveness at 5 to 9 years after implantation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118:1281-7 pubmed
    ..The authors' findings support the long-term safety and effectiveness of Inamed Style 410 cohesive breast implants and demonstrate a low prevalence of rupture. ..
  6. Spear S, Murphy D, Slicton A, Walker P. Inamed silicone breast implant core study results at 6 years. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:8S-16S; discussion 17S-18S pubmed
    ..Study results demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of Inamed silicone-filled breast implants through 6 years, including a low rupture rate and high satisfaction rate. ..
  7. Gutierrez E, Tkachenko E, Besser A, Sundd P, Ley K, Danuser G, et al. High refractive index silicone gels for simultaneous total internal reflection fluorescence and traction force microscopy of adherent cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23807 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we apply high-refractive-index silicone gels to perform TIRF microscopy on substrates with a wide range of physiological elastic moduli and simultaneously ..
  8. Janowsky E, Kupper L, Hulka B. Meta-analyses of the relation between silicone breast implants and the risk of connective-tissue diseases. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:781-90 pubmed
  9. Naim J, Satoh M, Buehner N, Ippolito K, Yoshida H, Nusz D, et al. Induction of hypergammaglobulinemia and macrophage activation by silicone gels and oils in female A.SW mice. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000;7:366-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that silicone gels and oils are capable of inducing hypergammaglobulinemia and activating macrophages in female A.SW mice.

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Karlson E, Tanasijevic M, Hankinson S, Liang M, Colditz G, Speizer F, et al. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and exposure to breast implants. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:864-7 pubmed
    ..We find little evidence to support a substantial increased risk of MGUS in women exposed to breast implants. Larger studies are needed to determine if a more modest relationship exists. ..
  2. Young V, Watson M. Breast implant research: where we have been, where we are, where we need to go. Clin Plast Surg. 2001;28:451-83, vi pubmed
  3. Englert H, Joyner E, McGill N, Chambers P, Horner D, Hunt C, et al. Women's health after plastic surgery. Intern Med J. 2001;31:77-89 pubmed
    ..Given comparable frequencies of higher titre ANA of both cohorts, the finding of elevations of low titre ANA is of dubious clinical significance. ..
  4. McLaughlin J. Long-term follow-up of women with cosmetic breast implants: how long is long enough?. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:801-3 pubmed
  5. Dessy L, Mazzocchi M, Monarca C, Onesti M, Scuderi N. Combined transdermal scopolamine and botulinum toxin A to treat a parotid fistula after a face-lift in a patient with siliconomas. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;36:949-52 pubmed
    ..The use of this conservative approach is recommended to treat complicated cases of parotid fistula. ..
  6. Christensen L, Breiting V, Janssen M, Vuust J, Hogdall E. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue permanent fillers. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2005;29:34-48 pubmed
    ..Aquamid gel may prevent formation of a biofilm through its high water-binding capacity, explaining why late inflammatory nodules are not seen after injection of this polyacrylamide hydrogel product. ..
  7. Schaub T, Ahmad J, Rohrich R. Capsular contracture with breast implants in the cosmetic patient: saline versus silicone--a systematic review of the literature. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:2140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors were unable to accept or reject their null hypothesis definitively based on this review. ..
  8. Sahoo S, Rosen P, Feddersen R, Viswanatha D, Clark D, Chadburn A. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma arising in a silicone breast implant capsule: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:e115-8 pubmed
    ..This case is unique for its unusual presentation. ..
  9. Hjellestad M, Vindenes H. [Scars management]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004;124:531-2; author reply 532 pubmed
  10. Gielens M, Koolen P, Hermens R, Rutten M. [Imaging in silicone breast implantation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2013;157:A6412 pubmed
    ..Based on two cases, a diagnostic approach is given in order to reduce health care costs. ..
  11. Wu Z, Joo H, Lee T, Lee K. Controlled release of lidocaine hydrochloride from the surfactant-doped hybrid xerogels. J Control Release. 2005;104:497-505 pubmed
  12. Wixtrom R. Silicone breast implants and platinum. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:118S-122S pubmed
    ..1 percent) that might diffuse from the implants do not represent a significant health risk to patients. ..
  13. Vincent N, Barletta L, Laguens M. Breast implants as a preventive factor. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:739-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also demonstrated that at high hormone levels, implants act as neutralizing agents. By contrast, glandular alterations with severe signs of anisocytosis and anisokoryosis were observed in nonimplanted glands. ..
  14. Awan M, Musadiq M, Sandramouli S. Soft contact lens use for upper eyelid surgery. Clin Exp Optom. 2009;92:27-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the usefulness of silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses in upper eyelid procedures...
  15. Lipworth L, Hölmich L, McLaughlin J. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease: no association. Semin Immunopathol. 2011;33:287-94 pubmed publisher
  16. Vasey F, Zarabadi S, Seleznick M, Ricca L. Where there's smoke there's fire: the silicone breast implant controversy continues to flicker: a new disease that needs to be defined. J Rheumatol. 2003;30:2092-4 pubmed
  17. Tenenbaum M, Myckatyn T. Breast augmentation. Mo Med. 2006;103:282-7; quiz 287-8 pubmed
  18. Youk J, Son E, Kim E, Kim J, Kim M, Kwak J, et al. Diagnosis of breast cancer at dynamic MRI in patients with breast augmentation by paraffin or silicone injection. Clin Radiol. 2009;64:1175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the diagnostic performance of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer in breasts augmented with liquid paraffin or silicone injection...
  19. Zambacos G, Nguyen D, Morris R. Effect of povidone iodine on silicone gel breast implants in vitro: implications for clinical practice. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;114:706-10; discussion 711-2 pubmed
    ..In addition, no correlation was shown between the concentration of the solution used and the tensile strength of the specimens. ..
  20. Ehrlich G. Silicone breast implants. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:1173-4; author reply 1174 pubmed
  21. Desai A, Browning J, Rosen T. Etanercept therapy for silicone granuloma. J Drugs Dermatol. 2006;5:894-6 pubmed
    ..The refractory silicone granuloma responded dramatically to treatment with etanercept. ..
  22. Santodomingo Rubido J. The comparative clinical performance of a new polyhexamethylene biguanide- vs a polyquad-based contact lens care regime with two silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2007;27:168-73 pubmed
    ..Both care regimes performed in a similar clinical manner and are valid for use with the two silicone hydrogel contact lenses used in this study. ..
  23. Macadam S, Ho A, Lennox P, Pusic A. Patient-reported satisfaction and health-related quality of life following breast reconstruction: a comparison of shaped cohesive gel and round cohesive gel implant recipients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;131:431-41 pubmed publisher
  24. Veiga D, Filho J, Schnaider C, Archangelo I. Late hematoma after aesthetic breast augmentation with textured silicone prosthesis: a case report. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2005;29:431-3; discussion 434 pubmed
    ..The hematoma was drained in three subsequent ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle aspirations, with no need for removal of the implant. In a 9-month follow-up period, the patient had no other problems with the implants. ..
  25. Bayram Y, Kulahci Y, Irgil C, Calikapan M, Noyan N. Skin-reducing subcutaneous mastectomy using a dermal barrier flap and immediate breast reconstruction with an implant: a new surgical design for reconstruction of early-stage breast cancer. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2010;34:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The dermal barrier flap became a reliable procedure by providing a decreased breast envelope, eliminating the risk of implant exposure, and forming a double layer of dermal tissue at the incision line. ..
  26. Lykissa E, Maharaj S. Total platinum concentration and platinum oxidation states in body fluids, tissue, and explants from women exposed to silicone and saline breast implants by IC-ICPMS. Anal Chem. 2006;78:2925-33 pubmed
  27. Prantl L, Schreml S, Fichtner Feigl S, Pöppl N, Eisenmann Klein M, Schwarze H, et al. Clinical and morphological conditions in capsular contracture formed around silicone breast implants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;120:275-84 pubmed
    ..An exact histological classification is needed to describe precisely the morphological changes in capsular contracture. ..
  28. Brown C. The use of silicon gel for treating children's burn scars in Saudi Arabia: a case study. Occup Ther Int. 2002;9:121-30 pubmed
    ..Further research with a wider sample is indicated, given the high incidence of childhood burn injuries in Saudi Arabia. ..
  29. Date R, Yue J, Barlow A, Bellamy P, Prendergast M, Gerlach R. Delivery, substantivity and clinical response of a direct application percarbonate tooth whitening film. Am J Dent. 2003;16 Spec No:3B-8B pubmed
    ..62 (0.68). The product was well-tolerated, with the primary adverse events being oral irritation (13%) and tooth sensitivity (6%). No participants discontinued product use because of a product-related adverse event. ..
  30. Ibrahim Canter H, Konas E, Bozdogan O, Vargel I, Ozbatir B, Oner F, et al. Effect of slow-release 5-Fluorouracil on capsule formation around silicone breast implants: an experimental study with mice. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007;31:674-9 pubmed
    ..Because 5-FU loaded to a gelatin carrier for its slow release seems to prevent capsule formation around silicone blocks, it may be used to prevent capsule formation around silicone breast implants. ..
  31. Macadam S, Ho A, Cook E, Lennox P, Pusic A. Patient satisfaction and health-related quality of life following breast reconstruction: patient-reported outcomes among saline and silicone implant recipients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125:761-71 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no difference in overall global health status between the two patient groups as measured by the EORTC-QLQC30 (Br23). ..
  32. Flores Lima G, Eppley B, Dimas J, Navarro D. Surgical pocket location for gluteal implants: a systematic review. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013;37:240-5 pubmed publisher
  33. Moynihan R. FDA panel approves one make of silicone breast implant in the US. BMJ. 2005;330:919 pubmed
  34. McLaughlin J, Lipworth L, Murphy D, Walker P. The safety of silicone gel-filled breast implants: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;59:569-80 pubmed
    ..Future studies are needed to determine whether the consistently observed excess of suicide among women with implants reflects underlying psychiatric illness prior to breast augmentation surgery or other factors. ..
  35. Tam D, Scamp T, Tan J. Chyle leak after breast augmentation. Aesthet Surg J. 2009;29:113-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A 34-year-old woman developed a chyle leak after removal and replacement of her breast prostheses. This is the first such case reported in the literature. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare and interesting case. ..
  36. Tebbetts J. Does fascia provide additional, meaningful coverage over a breast implant?. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:777-9; author reply 779-80 pubmed
  37. Baker R, Nguyen T, Hernandez A, Wong A, Baker C, Starnes V. Breast implants and minimally invasive cardiac surgery: a case series. Ann Plast Surg. 2012;69:10-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our series of 5 patients demonstrates that minimally invasive heart surgery performed through an inframammary incision can be safely performed in those with breast implants. ..
  38. Maijers M, Niessen F. Prevalence of rupture in poly implant Prothèse silicone breast implants, recalled from the European market in 2010. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:1372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..9 percent had bilateral rupture and 13.5 percent had extracapsular leakage. These were mostly asymptomatic ruptures. The rupture prevalence rate for Poly Implant Prothèse implants after 10 years is 24 percent. Therapeutic, IV. ..
  39. Omakobia E, Porter G, Armstrong S, Denton K. Silicone lymphadenopathy: an unexpected cause of neck lumps. J Laryngol Otol. 2012;126:970-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful initial investigation, which may be followed up by excisional biopsy and histological analysis for further confirmatory diagnostic information. ..
  40. Quaba O, Quaba A. PIP silicone breast implants: rupture rates based on the explantation of 676 implants in a single surgeon series. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013;66:1182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe this paper provides hard data enabling more informed decision making for patients, clinicians and providers in what remains an active issue affecting thousands of women. ..
  41. Bar Meir E, Eherenfeld M, Shoenfeld Y. Silicone gel breast implants and connective tissue disease--a comprehensive review. Autoimmunity. 2003;36:193-7 pubmed
    ..However, in recent years, large meta-analyses were unable to establish an association between silicone-gel breast implants and autoimmune disease. We review the current literature, emphasizing the most important epidemiologic studies. ..
  42. Rochira D, Cavalcanti P, Ottaviani A, Tambasco D. Longitudinal Ultrasound Study of Breast Implant Rupture Over a Six-Year Interval. Ann Plast Surg. 2016;76:150-4 pubmed publisher
  43. Chao A, Garza R, Povoski S. A review of the use of silicone implants in breast surgery. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2016;13:143-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, silicone breast implants are associated with a high degree of patient satisfaction and low rates of complications. Further independent research is necessary to better establish long-term outcomes. ..
  44. Gladfelter J. The return of silicone gel-filled breast implants: will you be ready?. Plast Surg Nurs. 2005;25:44-6 pubmed
  45. Camacho D, Machan S, Pilesanski U, Revelles J, Martin L, Requena L. Generalized livedo reticularis induced by silicone implants for soft tissue augmentation. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012;34:203-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we believe that the silicone implanted may have induced some kind of blood dermal perturbation resulting in the characteristic violet reticular discoloration of livedo reticularis. ..
  46. Castello M, Lazzeri D, Silvestri A, Agostini T, Pascone C, Marcelli C, et al. Maximizing the use of precapsular space and the choice of implant type in breast augmentation mammaplasty revisions: review of 49 consecutive procedures and patient satisfaction assessment. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2011;35:828-38 pubmed publisher
  47. Emekli U, Tumerdem B, Demiryont M. Rupture of a silicone gel mammary prosthesis and amyloidosis: a case report. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2002;26:383-7 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we present a case with renal amyloidosis and a history of untreated silicone implant rupture for five years. ..
  48. Saleh T, Gray R. New retinal detachment following removal of a scleral explant. Eye (Lond). 2003;17:245-6 pubmed
  49. Yiacoumettis A. Two staged breast reconstruction following prophylactic bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:299-305 pubmed
    ..In this series, not a single case of invasive cancer developed, and the aesthetic results are considered very satisfactory. This data strengthens the case of subcutaneous mastectomy as a valid prophylactic operation. ..
  50. Haeck P, Glasberg S, Roth M, Schneider Redden P. The saline versus silicone breast implant debate: separating fact from opinion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:1847-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Reish R, Eriksson E. Scars: a review of emerging and currently available therapies. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;122:1068-78 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for large controlled trials using a polytherapeutic strategy that combines existing and novel agents to provide a standardized evidence-based evaluation of efficacy. ..
  52. de Jong D, Vasmel W, de Boer J, Verhave G, Barbé E, Casparie M, et al. Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in women with breast implants. JAMA. 2008;300:2030-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings require confirmation in other studies. ..
  53. Rohrich R, Nguyen A, Kenkel J. Lexicon for soft tissue implants. Dermatol Surg. 2009;35 Suppl 2:1605-11 pubmed publisher
  54. Rhee S, Koh S, Lee D, Park B, Kim Y. Aesthetic effect of silicone gel on surgical scars in Asians. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:706-10 pubmed publisher
    ..0002; and height, P < 0.0001. The silicone gel sheet has a favorable aesthetical effect for normally created surgical scars in the Asians. Its application can reduce the conspicuousness of scars more rapidly than without. ..
  55. Schots J, Fechner M, Hoogbergen M, van Tits H. Malrotation of the McGhan Style 510 prosthesis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An obvious cause of this major problem has not been found. This led the authors to discontinue using the Style 510 prosthesis for primary aesthetic mammary augmentations in their practice. ..
  56. Zhao P, Shi X, Liu W. [Ideas about registration for breast implants]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2012;26:1130-3 pubmed
    ..The manufacturers need to be well aware of the risk of this kind of product and have the full ability to conduct the researching and developing. Only the strict risk controlling can ensure the safety and effectiveness of the product. ..
  57. Yildirimer L, Seifalian A, Butler P. Surface and mechanical analysis of explanted Poly Implant Prosthèse silicone breast implants. Br J Surg. 2013;100:761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated an increased weakness of PIP shells with time and therefore supports the argument for prophylactic removal of PIP breast implants. ..
  58. Cilotti A, Marini C, Iacconi C, Mazzotta D, Moretti M, Giaconi C, et al. Ultrasonographic appearance of breast implant complications. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;56:243-7 pubmed
  59. Patel A. Ultrasonography is more useful in assessment of suspected breast implant infections rather than capsular contracture. Ann Plast Surg. 2006;57:477-8 pubmed
  60. Nancy A, Shoenfeld Y. Chronic fatigue syndrome with autoantibodies--the result of an augmented adjuvant effect of hepatitis-B vaccine and silicone implant. Autoimmun Rev. 2008;8:52-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of combined adverse effect to vaccine and silicone. Vaccine safety in individuals with silicone implants requires further studies. ..
  61. Stevens W, Pacella S, Hirsch E, Stoker D. Patient retention and replacement trends after saline breast implants: are deflations inflationary?. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2009;33:54-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it has a positive impact on patient retention for additional aesthetic surgical or nonsurgical procedures. Economic multiplier analysis can be used to quantify the financial impact of saline deflation. ..
  62. Williams G, Caldwell J, Armstrong D, Bartsch H, Bevan R, Browne R, et al. Multicenter study to assess potential hazards from exposure to lipid peroxidation products in soya bean oil from Trilucent breast implants. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;53:107-20 pubmed publisher
  63. Ulrich D, Ulrich F, Pallua N, Eisenmann Klein M. Effect of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and matrix metalloproteinases on capsular formation around smooth and textured silicone gel implants. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2009;33:555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, a nonoperative treatment that decreases TIMPs but increases the activity of MMPs may be an appropriate therapy for patients with capsular contracture. ..
  64. Spencer J. Case series: evaluation of a liquid silicone gel on scar appearance following excisional surgery--a pilot study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2010;9:856-8 pubmed
    ..At the end of this time, the treated side was noticeably better in appearance in five of seven patients while two of seven had no difference. In no patient was the silicone treated side worse in appearance. ..
  65. Weum S, de Weerd L, Kristiansen B. Form stability of the Style 410 anatomically shaped cohesive silicone gel-filled breast implant in subglandular breast augmentation evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:409-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the supine position, there was a marked increase in implant projection in the prone position. The Style 410 implant keeps its lower pole fullness after subglandular implantation in both the supine and prone positions. ..
  66. Minoofar P, Hernandez R, Chia S, Dunn B, Zink J, Franville A. Placement and characterization of pairs of luminescent molecules in spatially separated regions of nanostructured thin films. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:14388-96 pubmed
  67. Nassif N, Bouvet O, Noelle Rager M, Roux C, Coradin T, Livage J. Living bacteria in silica gels. Nat Mater. 2002;1:42-4 pubmed
    ..When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'. ..
  68. Jensen B, Wiik A, Hechmann Wittrup I, Friis S, Shen G, Bliddal H, et al. Silicate antibodies in Danish women with silicone breast implants. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003;42:1032-5 pubmed
    ..Silicate antibodies were not consistently associated with SBIs and were not correlated with rheumatic symptoms. The clinical relevance of these antibodies remains questionable. ..
  69. Chantal M, Melis P, Marco R. Suturing of a textured breast implant filled with cohesive silicone gel to prevent dislocation. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2003;37:236-8 pubmed
    ..Fixation is possible because of the development of cohesive silicone gel in breast implants. Follow up of this patient is necessary for evaluation of long term results. ..
  70. So K, Umraw N, Scott J, Campbell K, Musgrave M, Cartotto R. Effects of enhanced patient education on compliance with silicone gel sheeting and burn scar outcome: a randomized prospective study. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2003;24:411-7; discussion 410 pubmed
    ..002) and thickness (P =.01) at 6 months based on evaluation of digital photographs. Detailed multimedia patient education improves compliance with SGS and results in a better scar outcome. ..
  71. Boutli Kasapidou F, Tsakiri A, Anagnostou E, Mourellou O. Hypertrophic and keloidal scars: an approach to polytherapy. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:324-7 pubmed
    ..0001) compared to baseline and compared to the control group. Our study suggests that polytherapy may be an effective tool in the therapy of hypertrophic and keloidal scars. ..
  72. Jones D. Approaches to treatment of HIV facial lipoatrophy. Skin Therapy Lett. 2005;10:5-7 pubmed
    ..Salient aspects of each treatment are reviewed, along with new techniques and pearls on the correct use of liquid injectable silicone. ..
  73. Wu S, Hung C, Lin C, Chen H, Lee A, Chang J. Fermentative hydrogen production and bacterial community structure in high-rate anaerobic bioreactors containing silicone-immobilized and self-flocculated sludge. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006;93:934-46 pubmed
    ..The culture with the best H2 production performance (at HRT = 0.5 h and sucrose concentration = 30 g COD/L) was eventually dominated by a presumably excellent H2-producing bacterial species identified as Clostridium pasteurianum. ..
  74. Sanz Herrero F, de Casimiro Calabuig E, López Miguel P. [Acute pneumonitis after subcutaneous injection of liquid silicone as a breast implant in a male-to-female transsexual]. Arch Bronconeumol. 2006;42:205-6 pubmed
  75. Hammond D, Migliori M, Caplin D, Garcia M, Phillips C. Mentor Contour Profile Gel implants: clinical outcomes at 6 years. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;129:1381-91 pubmed publisher
    ..At 6 years postoperatively, Contour Profile Gel breast implants were found to be effective and have an acceptable safety profile in women undergoing breast augmentation, reconstruction, and revision surgery. Therapeutic, II. ..
  76. Zambacos G, Molnar C, Mandrekas A. Silicone lymphadenopathy after breast augmentation: case reports, review of the literature, and current thoughts. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2013;37:278-89 pubmed publisher
    ..For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors . ..
  77. Gilman T. Silicone sheet for treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scar: a new proposal for the mechanism of efficacy. Wound Repair Regen. 2003;11:235-6 pubmed
  78. Ma J, Choi H, Stafford R, Miller M. Silicone-specific imaging using an inversion-recovery-prepared fast three-point Dixon technique. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2004;19:298-302 pubmed
  79. Rothschild B, Helbling M. Breast implant related disease. J Rheumatol. 2004;31:1015; author reply 1015-6 pubmed
  80. Murison M, James W. Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of dermatix silicone gel in the reduction of scar elevation and pigmentation. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:437-9 pubmed
  81. Rayatt S, Subramaniyan V, Smith G. Audit of reactions to topical silicon used in the management of hypertrophic scars. Burns. 2006;32:653-4 pubmed
  82. Maxwell G, Gabriel A. Possible future development of implants and breast augmentation. Clin Plast Surg. 2009;36:167-72, viii pubmed publisher
    ..As always in plastic surgery, our concern is with safety; as newer technology and products are introduced to us, patient education, consent, and follow-up remain important. ..
  83. Delgado J, García Guilarte R, Palazuelo M, Mendez J, Pérez C. Immediate breast reconstruction with direct, anatomic, gel-cohesive, extra-projection prosthesis: 400 cases. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;125:1599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the low rate of complications elucidated, a prostheses-based technique of breast reconstruction should be made available to the public. ..
  84. Parker M, Azhar M, Babarenda Gamage T, Alvares D, Taberner A, Nielsen P. Surface deformation tracking of a silicone gel skin phantom in response to normal indentation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:527-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying the mechanical properties of the skin has been the subject of much study in recent years, as such knowledge can provide insight into wound healing, wrinkling and minimization of scarring through surgical planning. ..
  85. Shanklin D, Smalley D. Kinetics of T lymphocyte responses to persistent antigens. Exp Mol Pathol. 2006;80:26-37 pubmed
  86. Hendricks H. Complete submuscular breast augmentation: 650 cases managed using an alternative surgical technique. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007;31:147-53 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it provides a solution for tuberous and ptotic breasts, coupled with mastopexy as required, and good results have been achieved with correctional surgery for subglandular capsular contracture, bottoming out, and rippling. ..
  87. Munhoz A, Aldrighi C, Ono C, Buchpiguel C, Montag E, Fells K, et al. The influence of subfascial transaxillary breast augmentation in axillary lymphatic drainage patterns and sentinel lymph node detection. Ann Plast Surg. 2007;58:141-9 pubmed
    ..Additional long-term studies are necessary to investigate the accuracy of SLN biopsy in subgroups of breast cancer patients with previous breast implants. ..
  88. Zhang J, Wang S, Lv C, Xing X. Treatment for long-term poorly closed incisions after hepatobiliary surgery. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2008;7:280-3 pubmed
    ..Attention should be paid to patients with complications of abdominal wall and costal margin after hepatobiliary surgery. Combined treatment or mainly operations produce satisfactory result. ..
  89. Tepper O, Small K, Unger J, Feldman D, Kumar N, Choi M, et al. 3D analysis of breast augmentation defines operative changes and their relationship to implant dimensions. Ann Plast Surg. 2009;62:570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..3D photography further highlighted that breast augmentation results in less than expected anterior-posterior projection, possibly due to tissue attenuation occurring anterior to the implant. ..
  90. Khan U. Mondor disease: a case report and review of the literature. Aesthet Surg J. 2009;29:209-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Extensive MD of the left axilla and inner arm is presented following excision of axillary nodes secondary to siliconeadenitis after cohesive gel silicone breast implant rupture. ..
  91. Madhuranthakam A, Smith M, Yu H, Shimakawa A, Reeder S, Rofsky N, et al. Water-silicone separated volumetric MR acquisition for rapid assessment of breast implants. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;35:1216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This allows comprehensive assessment of breast implant integrity in less than 10 min of total examination time. ..
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