Summary: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Shepherd J, Shepherd D, Best S. Substituted hydroxyapatites for bone repair. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012;23:2335-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Even small substitutions have been shown to have very significant effects on thermal stability, solubility, osteoclastic and osteoblastic response in vitro and degradation and bone regeneration in vivo...
  2. Graeve O, Kanakala R, Madadi A, Williams B, Glass K. Luminescence variations in hydroxyapatites doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions. Biomaterials. 2010;31:4259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Excitation wavelengths of 305, 337, and 359 nm, are better at promoting the Eu(3+) and Eu(2+) emissions in hydroxyapatites. We propose that fluorescence measurements are an excellent way of qualitatively determining the phase ..
  3. Leal F, de Deus G, Brandao C, Luna A, Fidel S, Souza E. Comparison of the root-end seal provided by bioceramic repair cements and White MTA. Int Endod J. 2011;44:662-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the ability of Ceramicrete, BioAggregate and white ProRoot MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate) to prevent glucose leakage through root-end fillings...
  4. Mukhtar Fayyad D. Cytocompatibility of new bioceramic-based materials on human fibroblast cells (MRC-5). Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112:e137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of 2 bioceramic-based materials, BioAggregate and iRoot, on human fibroblast MRC-5 cells...
  5. Ren F, Xin R, Ge X, Leng Y. Characterization and structural analysis of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatites. Acta Biomater. 2009;5:3141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pure HA was well crystallized and the crystals had regular shapes, whereas the Zn-substituted apatite crystals became irregular and formed agglomerates. The lattice parameters, a and c, decreased at a Zn:(Zn+Ca) ratio of 10 mol.%...
  6. Hashem A, Wanees Amin S. The effect of acidity on dislodgment resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate in furcation perforations: an in vitro comparative study. J Endod. 2012;38:245-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the effect of acidic environment on the dislodgement resistance of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Bioaggregate (Innovative BioCeramix, Vancouver, Canada) when used as perforation repair materials...
  7. Wiglusz R, Kedziora A, Lukowiak A, Doroszkiewicz W, Strek W. Hydroxyapatites and europium(III) doped hydroxyapatites as a carrier of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2012;8:605-12 pubmed
    b>Hydroxyapatites (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and Eu3+:Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) were synthesized by aqueous synthesis route. Hydroxyapatites were impregnated with silver ions that were subsequently reduced...
  8. Saghiri M, Garcia Godoy F, Gutmann J, Lotfi M, Asatourian A, Ahmadi H. Push-out bond strength of a nano-modified mineral trioxide aggregate. Dent Traumatol. 2013;29:323-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the push-out bond strength of Angelus WMTA (Angelus Dental Products), a nano-modification of WMTA (Kamal Asgar Research Center) and Bioaggregate (Innovative Bioceramix)...
  9. Miao S, Weng W, Cheng K, Du P, Shen G, Han G, et al. In vitro bioactivity and osteoblast-like cell test of zinc containing fluoridated hydroxyapatite films. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007;18:2101-5 pubmed
    ..The results in this work suggest that ZnFHA films on Ti6Al4V substrates can function as an implant with good bioactivity and cytocompatibility...

More Information


  1. Wu Y, Ackerman J, Kim H, Rey C, Barroug A, Glimcher M. Nuclear magnetic resonance spin-spin relaxation of the crystals of bone, dental enamel, and synthetic hydroxyapatites. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:472-80 pubmed
    ..enamel crystals of different ages and the data were compared with those obtained from pure and carbonated hydroxyapatites. By measuring the 31P Hahn spin echo amplitude as a function of echo time, Van Vleck second moments (..
  2. Kim S, Lee J, Kim Y, Riu D, Jung S, Lee Y, et al. Synthesis of Si, Mg substituted hydroxyapatites and their sintering behaviors. Biomaterials. 2003;24:1389-98 pubmed
    Si, Mg-substituted hydroxyapatites, alone and co-substituted, have been prepared to obtain biomaterials having an improved biocompatibility...
  3. Moreira Gonzalez A, Jackson I, Miyawaki T, DiNick V, Yavuzer R. Augmentation of the craniomaxillofacial region using porous hydroxyapatite granules. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;111:1808-17 pubmed
    ..The correct surgical indications and adherence to the principles stated above will result in a very satisfactory long-term outcome...
  4. Kim H, Kong Y, Bae C, Noh Y, Kim H. Sol-gel derived fluor-hydroxyapatite biocoatings on zirconia substrate. Biomaterials. 2004;25:2919-26 pubmed
    ..The MG63 cells seeded onto the FHA films proliferated in a similar manner to those seeded onto pure HA ceramic and a plastic control...
  5. Leventouri T. Synthetic and biological hydroxyapatites: crystal structure questions. Biomaterials. 2006;27:3339-42 pubmed
    Experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that biological and synthetic hydroxyapatites display crystal structure similarities and differences that affect greatly the bioactivity of the synthetic materials...
  6. Sandrine B, Ange N, Didier B, Eric C, Patrick S. Removal of aqueous lead ions by hydroxyapatites: equilibria and kinetic processes. J Hazard Mater. 2007;139:443-6 pubmed
    ..Modeling of the sorption process allows to determine theoretical saturation times and residual lead concentrations at equilibrium...
  7. Fulmer M, Ison I, Hankermayer C, Constantz B, Ross J. Measurements of the solubilities and dissolution rates of several hydroxyapatites. Biomaterials. 2002;23:751-5 pubmed
    ..19 x 10(-35) for BoneSource, and 2.92 x 10(-42) for Calcitite. The increased solubility of the BoneSource and Norian CRS materials over that of Calcitite is related to their poor crystallinity compared to sintered hydroxyapatite...
  8. Werner J, Linner Krcmar B, Friess W, Greil P. Mechanical properties and in vitro cell compatibility of hydroxyapatite ceramics with graded pore structure. Biomaterials. 2002;23:4285-94 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated initial in vitro cell compatibility of the functionally graded HA materials and their potential as osteoimplants...
  9. Leukers B, Gülkan H, Irsen S, Milz S, Tille C, Schieker M, et al. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering made by 3D printing. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005;16:1121-4 pubmed
    ..In summary, the dynamic cultivation method lead to a stronger population compared to the static cultivation method. The cells proliferated deep into the structure forming close contact to Hydroxyapatite granules...
  10. da Cruz A, Pochapski M, Daher J, da Silva J, Pilatti G, Santos F. Physico-chemical characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatites. J Oral Sci. 2006;48:219-26 pubmed
    ..aim of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical and biocompatibility characteristics of two different hydroxyapatites. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed using granulometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy (..
  11. Sakamoto M, Nakasu M, Matsumoto T, Okihana H. Development of superporous hydroxyapatites and their examination with a culture of primary rat osteoblasts. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007;82:238-42 pubmed
    ..The penetrated osteoblasts maintained high alkaline phosphatase activity during the culture period. This indicates that the developed HAp-Ss are very good bone substitutes and also useful scaffolds in bone regeneration therapy...
  12. Landi E, Tampieri A, Celotti G, Sprio S, Sandri M, Logroscino G. Sr-substituted hydroxyapatites for osteoporotic bone replacement. Acta Biomater. 2007;3:961-9 pubmed
    ..Promising biomedical applications, such as resorbable bone filler or bone substitute releasing in situ Sr ions for a prolonged time, can be hypothesized for the SrHA materials when pathologies related with Sr deficiency are present...
  13. Hobar P, Pantaloni M, Byrd H. Porous hydroxyapatite granules for alloplastic enhancement of the facial region. Clin Plast Surg. 2000;27:557-69 pubmed
    ..This article describes forms of hydroxyapatite, procedures for use, and clinical examples...
  14. Mi R, Liu Y, Chen X, Shao Z. Structure and properties of various hybrids fabricated by silk nanofibrils and nanohydroxyapatite. Nanoscale. 2016;8:20096-20102 pubmed
    ..It was found that the SF-nanofibril mediated the mineralization of hydroxyapatites (HAP) in situ and the morphology of such organic/inorganic nanohybrids presented a "flower-like" structure, ..
  15. Ebrahimi M, Pripatnanont P, Monmaturapoj N, Suttapreyasri S. Fabrication and characterization of novel nano hydroxyapatite/?-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds in three different composition ratios. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012;100:2260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 MPa and collagen coating had almost no influence on mechanical behavior. Further studies may improve the physical properties of these scaffolds and investigate their exact biological behaviors. ..
  16. El Adl G, Ali A. Does bone marrow affect the radiological outcome when added to biphasic ceramic graft in treatment of benign bone lesions?. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2013;23:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..6% for group 1 patients and 39.7% for group 2 patients. Adding bone marrow aspirate to ceraform biphasic ceramic had hastened the rate of its resorption and had decreased the rate of its persistence. ..
  17. Jantova S, Letasiova S, Theiszová M, Palou M. Comparison of murine fibroblast cell response to fluor-hydroxyapatite composite, fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite by eluate assay. Acta Biol Hung. 2009;60:89-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluoridation of hydroxyapatite and different FHA and FA structure caused different cell response of NIH-3T3 cells to biomaterials. ..
  18. Vladescu A, Padmanabhan S, Ak Azem F, Braic M, Titorencu I, Birlik I, et al. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the sputtered Ti doped hydroxyapatite. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2016;63:314-325 pubmed publisher
    ..The hydroxyapatites with different Ti content were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Ti-6Al-4V alloy using pure ..
  19. Catros S, Zwetyenga N, Bareille R, Brouillaud B, Renard M, Amedee J, et al. Subcutaneous-induced membranes have no osteoinductive effect on macroporous HA-TCP in vivo. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed that induced membranes placed in a nonosseous site have no osteoinductive properties on a macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate biomaterial. ..
  20. Hole B, Keller D, Burry W, Schwarz J. Surface energetics of bone mineral and synthetic hydroxyapatite using inverse gas chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011;879:1847-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study IGC was used to characterize and compare the surface energetics of synthetic and biological hydroxyapatites (natural bone mineral)...
  21. Sairam Sundaram C, Viswanathan N, Meenakshi S. Fluoride sorption by nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin composite. J Hazard Mater. 2009;172:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Field trials were conducted with the sample collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area. ..
  22. Laure B, Petraud A, Sury F, Tranquart F, Goga D. Resistance of the sheep skull after a monocortical cranial graft harvest. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2012;40:261-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study is to quantify the loss of strength due to a monocortical cranial bone graft harvest in sheep...
  23. Ozdemir H, Ezirganli S, Isa Kara M, Mihmanli A, Barış E. Effects of platelet rich fibrin alone used with rigid titanium barrier. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58:537-44 pubmed publisher
    ..When used in conjunction with the titanium barriers, PRF use can increase the quality of the newly formed bone and enhance the rate of bone formation due to the concentration of growth factors. ..
  24. Vallés Lluch A, Ferrer G, Pradas M. Surface modification of P(EMA-co-HEA)/SiO2 nanohybrids for faster hydroxyapatite deposition in simulated body fluid?. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2009;70:218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The CaP treatment was able to coat the surfaces of the samples with a calcium phosphate layer within minutes. This amorphous calcium phosphate acted as HAp precursor, skipping the induction period in SBF. ..
  25. Duarte L, Biaggio S, Rocha Filho R, Bocchi N. Preparation and characterization of biomimetically and electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite coatings on micro-arc oxidized Ti-13Nb-13Zr. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:1663-70 pubmed publisher
  26. Ehrlich H, Hanke T, Simon P, Born R, Fischer C, Frolov A, et al. Carboxymethylation of the fibrillar collagen with respect to formation of hydroxyapatite. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;92:542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the self-organization of HAP nanocrystals on and within collagen fibrils was intensified by carboxymethylation. ..
  27. Schwartz Z, Doukarsky Marx T, Nasatzky E, Goultschin J, Ranly D, Greenspan D, et al. Differential effects of bone graft substitutes on regeneration of bone marrow. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2008;19:1233-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone graft materials should be selected not only for their ability to support new bone formation but also for their impact on the remodeling phase of bone healing. ..
  28. Lindgren C, Mordenfeld A, Hallman M. A prospective 1-year clinical and radiographic study of implants placed after maxillary sinus floor augmentation with synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate or deproteinized bovine bone. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012;14:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results were found after 1 year of functional loading for implants placed after sinus augmentation using BCP or DBB. ..
  29. Shen Y, Stojicic S, Qian W, Olsen I, Haapasalo M. The synergistic antimicrobial effect by mechanical agitation and two chlorhexidine preparations on biofilm bacteria. J Endod. 2010;36:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and the time of exposure (p < 0.001). The low-intensity ultrasonic or sonic agitation that does not disrupt biofilm or disperse the biofilm bacteria improves the action of disinfectants against biofilm bacteria. ..
  30. Yung M, Tassone P, Moumoulidis I, Vivekanandan S. Surgical management of troublesome mastoid cavities. J Laryngol Otol. 2011;125:221-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, 50.9 per cent of the ears had a 12-month post-operative air-bone gap of 20 dB or less. Revision mastoidectomy has a high success rate in converting troublesome mastoid cavities into dry, water-resistant ears. ..
  31. Fu K, Xu Q, Czernuszka J, McKenna C, Ebetino F, Russell R, et al. Prolonged osteogenesis from human mesenchymal stem cells implanted in immunodeficient mice by using coralline hydroxyapatite incorporating rhBMP2 microspheres. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;92:1256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is required to optimize the growth factor delivery system and to understand the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. ..
  32. Suzuki O, Imaizumi H, Kamakura S, Katagiri T. Bone regeneration by synthetic octacalcium phosphate and its role in biological mineralization. Curr Med Chem. 2008;15:305-13 pubmed
    ..This article reviews the possible application to bone regeneration by synthetic OCP and the mechanism to enhance bone regeneration in relation to biological mineralization in bone and tooth. ..
  33. Maddila S, Gangu K, Maddila S, Jonnalagadda S. A facile, efficient, and sustainable chitosan/CaHAp catalyst and one-pot synthesis of novel 2,6-diamino-pyran-3,5-dicarbonitriles. Mol Divers. 2017;21:247-255 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction of malononitrile, substituted aldehydes, and cyanoacetamide catalyzed by chitosan-doped calcium hydroxyapatites (CS/CaHAps) giving good to excellent yields (86-96%)...
  34. Wu C, Huang S, Lin H, Tseng T, Rao Q, Chen M. Expression of osteopontin and type I collagen of hFOB 1.19 cells on sintered fluoridated hydroxyapatite composite bone graft materials. Implant Dent. 2010;19:487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Otherwise, sintered OH-FAp composites inhibited the expression. The results revealed that sintered F-OHAp composites with both OH and OH···F bands were bioactive bone graft materials. ..
  35. Zhu L, Uskoković V, Le T, DenBesten P, Huang Y, Habelitz S, et al. Altered self-assembly and apatite binding of amelogenin induced by N-terminal proline mutation. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The disturbed regularity of amelogenin nanospheres by this single mutation resulted in an increased binding to apatite and inhibited crystal growth. ..
  36. Fan W, Wu C, Miao X, Liu G, Saifzadeh S, Sugiyama S, et al. Biomaterial scaffolds in cartilage-subchondral bone defects influencing the repair of autologous articular cartilage transplants. J Biomater Appl. 2013;27:979-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The study may provide useful information for the design and selection of proper subchondral biomaterials to support the repair of both subchondral bone and cartilage defects. ..
  37. da Silva O, Alves M, Dos Santos I, Fonseca M, Jaber M. Mesoporous calcium phosphate using casein as a template: Application to bovine serum albumin sorption. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2017;158:480-487 pubmed publisher
    Mesoporous hydroxyapatites were synthesized at room temperature using casein as a template, and key experimental factors, such as casein concentration, pH and extraction of casein in the final solids by washing and thermal treatment, ..
  38. Montazerian M, Dutra Zanotto E. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2016;104:1231-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development. ..
  39. Xiao X, Liu R, Tang X. Electrophoretic deposition of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) composite coatings. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009;20:691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After immersion in simulated body fluid for 8 days, silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) composite coatings have the ability to induce the bone-like apatite formation. ..
  40. Cheng L, Ye F, Yang R, Lu X, Shi Y, Li L, et al. Osteoinduction of hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics in mice with a fractured fibula. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:1569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the hypothesis that intrinsic osteoinduction by calcium phosphate ceramics is the result of adsorption of osteoinductive substances on the surface. ..
  41. Montazeri L, Javadpour J, Shokrgozar M, Bonakdar S, Javadian S. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite and fluorhydroxyapatite nano-size powders. Biomed Mater. 2010;5:045004 pubmed publisher
    ..Human osteoblast cells were used to assess the cellular responses to the powder samples in this study. Results demonstrated a strong dependence of different cell activities on the level of fluoridation. ..
  42. Wei L, Gellynck K, Ng Y, Gulabivala K, Buxton P. The influence of a bisphosphonate on bone generation determined using a chick-femur model. Int Endod J. 2011;44:550-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There was evidence of increased bone formation directly over the pamidronate-charged carriers. The test model established that pamidronate had a positive effect on bone generation over a period of 7 days, regardless of the carrier type. ..
  43. Gluncic V, Reid R, Baroody F, Gottlieb L, Ansari S. Hemostasis and obliteration of mandibular arteriovenous malformation through direct hydroxyapatite cement injection into the molar cavity. J Neurointerv Surg. 2011;3:92-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only was hemostasis and alveolar reconstruction achieved, but follow-up angiography demonstrated venous outlet occlusion and retrograde AVM thrombosis requiring no further treatment. ..
  44. Lee J, Ko S, Kim Y, Jung U, Choi S. Guided bone regeneration using cyanoacrylate-combined calcium phosphate in a dehiscence defect: a histologic study in dogs. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:2070-9 pubmed publisher
    ..97 mm(2)), and 2.62 ± 0.27 mm (3.43 ± 0.98 mm(2)) for the BCP + MEM, CCP + MEM, and MEM sites, respectively. CCP can be a good scaffold for supporting an MEM as opposed to acting as a substitute for the MEM in guided bone regeneration. ..
  45. Yu C, Huang X, Chen L, Xu Q, Hu W, Wang X. [Effect of nanobacteria on cell damage and crystal retention in renal tubular epithelial cells]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;42:436-42 pubmed
    ..Although nHAP also has a damage effect on HK-2 cells, it does not effect the adhering process. ..
  46. Zhao H, Wang F, Chen X, Wei Z, Yu D, Jiang Z. The formation mechanism of the beta-TCP phase in synthetic fluorohydroxyapatite with different fluorine contents. Biomed Mater. 2010;5:045011 pubmed publisher
    ..The beta-TCP phase produced as a result of the structural refinement by heat treatment is gradually reduced and dramatically suppressed with the fluorine content. ..
  47. Boos A, Loew J, Deschler G, Arkudas A, Bleiziffer O, Gulle H, et al. Directly auto-transplanted mesenchymal stem cells induce bone formation in a ceramic bone substitute in an ectopic sheep model. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:1364-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence BMP-2 stimulation might become dispensable in the future, thus providing an attractive, clinically feasible approach to bone tissue engineering. ..
  48. Wang Z, Zhao Y, Zhou C, Liao G. [Role of enamel matrix proteins in inducing biomimetic mineralization of the enamel: a study with quartz crystal microbalance technique]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:966-9 pubmed
    ..After 30 days of biomimetic mineralization, the hydroxyapatite nucleation, growth and aggregation occurred with hydroxyapatite crystal formation on the enamel surface. The EMPs play a key role in regulating enamel mineralization. ..
  49. Dong X, Zhou H, Wu T, Wang Q. Behavior regulation of adsorbed proteins via hydroxyapatite surface texture control. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:4751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that surface-engineering techniques could be employed to directly control the texture of HAP surfaces in order to regulate the behavior of a protein adsorbed onto the nanometer-scale interface. ..
  50. Casarrubios L, Matesanz M, Sánchez Salcedo S, Arcos D, Vallet Regi M, Portolés M. Nanocrystallinity effects on osteoblast and osteoclast response to silicon substituted hydroxyapatite. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2016;482:112-120 pubmed publisher
    Silicon substituted hydroxyapatites (SiHA) are highly crystalline bioceramics treated at high temperatures (about 1200°C) which have been approved for clinical use with spinal, orthopedic, periodontal, oral and craniomaxillofacial ..
  51. Wu J, Yang T, Liu Y, Guo T, Mu Y, Li Y. [Preliminary studies on repairing osteochondral defects in the rabbit knee joint by using porous PA66/n-HA combination mesenchymal stem cells]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2008;25:1349-53 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the repair tissue in Group A is nearly hyaline cartilage. So we presume that porous PA66/n-HA provides biomechanical support, and at the same time, MSCs enhance the repair effects...
  52. Heo S, Kim S, Wei J, Kim D, Hyun Y, Yun H, et al. In vitro and animal study of novel nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) composite scaffolds fabricated by layer manufacturing process. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009;15:977-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that bioactive and biocompatible n-HPC composite scaffolds prepared using an LMP have potential applications in bone tissue engineering...
  53. Pek Y, Gao S, Arshad M, Leck K, Ying J. Porous collagen-apatite nanocomposite foams as bone regeneration scaffolds. Biomaterials. 2008;29:4300-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It was osteoconductive and successfully healed a non-union fracture in rat femur as well as a critical-sized defect in pig tibia...
  54. Vestermark M. Strontium in the bone-implant interface. Dan Med Bull. 2011;58:B4286 pubmed
    ..Strontium delivered as doping of an HA bone graft extender showed potential as a dual acting agent in the interface. However, delivery methods of strontium to the bone-implant interface clearly need further investigation...
  55. Xiao J, Yang X, Jing W, Guo W, Sun Q, Lin Y, et al. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of Lin(-)CD271(+)Sca-1(+) adipose-derived stem cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;377:107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The method we established to identify ASCs as defined in vivo entities will help develop ASCs transplantation as a new therapeutic strategy for bone regeneration and adipose tissue regeneration in clinic...
  56. Baas J, Svaneby D, Jensen T, Elmengaard B, Bechtold J, Soballe K. Coralline hydroxyapatite granules inferior to morselized allograft around uncemented porous Ti implants: unchanged fixation by addition of concentrated autologous bone marrow aspirate. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011;99:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The HA-grafted implants were poorly anchored compared with allografted implants, suggesting that coralline HA granules should be considered a bone graft extender rather than a bone graft substitute...
  57. Ciobanu C, Iconaru S, Pasuk I, Vasile B, Lupu A, Hermenean A, et al. Structural properties of silver doped hydroxyapatite and their biocompatibility. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013;33:1395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Nanocrystalline silver doped HAp stimulated viability and potentiated the activation of murine macrophages. ..
  58. Kaushick B, Jayakumar N, Padmalatha O, Varghese S. Treatment of human periodontal infrabony defects with hydroxyapatite + ? tricalcium phosphate bone graft alone and in combination with platelet rich plasma: a randomized clinical trial. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:505-10 pubmed publisher
  59. Fu K, Meng Z, Li J, Li H. [Repairing the defect of benign bone tumor with the coralline hydroxyapatite]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008;33:421-4 pubmed
    ..To observe the clinical effect of repairing bone defectin post-operation benign tumor with coralline hydroxyapatite(CHAP)...
  60. Akiyama T, Miyamoto H, Yonekura Y, Tsukamoto M, Ando Y, Noda I, et al. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating has in vivo antibacterial activity in the rat tibia. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Ag-HA coatings may help prevent surgical-site infections associated with joint replacement...
  61. Yang W, Both S, van Osch G, Wang Y, Jansen J, Yang F. Performance of different three-dimensional scaffolds for in vivo endochondral bone generation. Eur Cell Mater. 2014;27:350-64 pubmed
    ..The morphology and maturity of bone formation. ..
  62. Fujioka Kobayashi M, Schaller B, Zhang Y, Pippenger B, Miron R. In vitro evaluation of an injectable biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) carrier system combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-9. Biomed Mater Eng. 2017;28:293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..I-BCP served as an excellent carrier for rhBMP9 clearly demonstrating its osteoinductive potential. We therefore confirm the great potential of rhBMP9 to serve as a future regenerative growth factor for bone applications. ..
  63. Robey P, Kuznetsov S, Riminucci M, Bianco P. Skeletal ("mesenchymal") stem cells for tissue engineering. Methods Mol Med. 2007;140:83-99 pubmed
    ..The multipotency of SSCs is probed by in vivo transplantation assays. The ability of SSCs to generate a cell strain competent to form significant amounts of bone in vivo has led to the formulation of preclinical models of bone repair...
  64. Almasri M, Altalibi M. Efficacy of reconstruction of alveolar bone using an alloplastic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate graft under biodegradable chambers. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011;49:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Synthetic products can be efficient alternatives to autogenic, allogeneic, or xenogenic grafts...
  65. Yang X, Liu C, Liang X, Sun J, Hong C. [Effects of different titanium-treated surfaces on rat's osteoblast function and cell cycle]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2009;26:1025-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the elements on the titanium surface influence the cell function, and the surface with rich PO4(3-) and Ga2+ can enhance the mineralization function of rat osteoblast...
  66. Tsurushima H, Marushima A, Suzuki K, Oyane A, Sogo Y, Nakamura K, et al. Enhanced bone formation using hydroxyapatite ceramic coated with fibroblast growth factor-2. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:2751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A specific FGF-2 concentration may be needed for bone formation, and our system can release FGF-2 at adequate concentrations to induce bone formation...
  67. Venugopal J, Giri Dev V, Senthilram T, Sathiskumar D, Gupta D, Ramakrishna S. Osteoblast mineralization with composite nanofibrous substrate for bone tissue regeneration. Cell Biol Int. 2011;35:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirmed that the electrospun composite Chit/HA nanofibrous substrate is a potential biocomposite material for the proliferation and mineralization of hFOBs required for enhanced bone tissue regeneration...
  68. Salma I, Pilmane M, Skagers A, Vetra J, Salms G, Berzina Cimdina L, et al. Early morphofunctional response of contact tissue after intraosal implantation in rabbit jaw of pure synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramic materials and HAp saturated with lidocaine. Stomatologija. 2009;11:113-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate early morphofunctional response of contact tissue to pure and saturated with lidocaine porous synthetic HAp ceramic implants inserted in holes of rabbit upper jaw...
  69. Assadian M, Jafari H, Ghaffari Shahri S, Idris M, Almasi D. Topography, wetting, and corrosion responses of electrodeposited hydroxyapatite and fluoridated hydroxyapatite on magnesium. Biomed Mater Eng. 2016;27:287-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Noticeably, the fluoride supplemented layer was efficient in lowering corrosion rate and increasing surface roughness of the specimens compared to hydroxyapatite and dicalcium-phosphate dehydrates layers. ..
  70. Cavalcanti S, Pereira C, Mazzonetto R, de Moraes M, Moreira R. Histological and histomorphometric analyses of calcium phosphate cement in rabbit calvaria. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2008;36:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess bone regeneration in critical sized defects in the rabbit calvarium, filled with the bone substitute calcium phosphate cement...
  71. Mizowaki T, Miyake S, Yoshimoto Y, Matsuura Y, Akiyama S. [Allergy of calcium phosphate cement material following skull reconstruction: a case report]. No Shinkei Geka. 2013;41:323-7 pubmed
    ..The postoperative course was uneventful 3 years after surgery. Allergy to calcium phosphate cements is rare, but must be considered in differential diagnosis of its side effects...
  72. Lescun T, Baird D, Oliver L, Adams S, Hawkins J, Moore G. Comparison of hydroxyapatite-coated and uncoated pins for transfixation casting in horses. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the extent to which a hydroxyapatite coating promotes pin stability in the third metacarpal bone during transfixation casting in horses...
  73. Wands I, Shepherd D, Hukins D. Viscoelastic properties of composites of calcium alginate and hydroxyapatite. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008;19:2417-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximate values of (E*) = square root of E'2 + E''2 are predicted by a Reuss model...
  74. Simşek N, Bulut E, AhmetoÄŸlu F, Alan H. Determination of trace elements in rat organs implanted with endodontic repair materials by ICP-MS. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2016;27:46 pubmed publisher
    ..030 and P = 0.008). MM-MTA, BA and BD were nontoxic according to trace element levels in brain, kidney and liver samples of rats. Further investigation is required to understand the systemic effects of these materials. ..
  75. Seok H, Lee S, Kim S, Kang T, Lee M, Chae W. Migration of alloplastic bone graft material in infected conditions: a case study and animal experiment. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:1093.e1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, a case of distant migration of graft material was observed, and the potential mechanisms of migration were analyzed using material analysis and in vivo experiments...
  76. Ishibe T, Goto T, Kodama T, Miyazaki T, Kobayashi S, Takahashi T. Bone formation on apatite-coated titanium with incorporated BMP-2/heparin in vivo. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;108:867-75 pubmed publisher
  77. Marković S, Veselinović L, Lukić M, Karanović L, Bracko I, Ignjatovic N, et al. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology. Biomed Mater. 2011;6:045005 pubmed publisher
    ..Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found...
  78. Paknejad M, Emtiaz S, Rokn A, Islamy B, Safiri A. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of two bone substitute materials for bone regeneration: an experimental study in sheep. Implant Dent. 2008;17:471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of the present study is the evaluation of quality, density, and thickness of the newly formed bone in experimental defects treated with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and bioapatite-collagen...
  79. Hashizume M, Nagasawa Y, Suzuki T, Kawashima S, Kamitakahara M. Effect of preparative conditions on crystallinity of apatite particles obtained from simulated body fluids. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011;84:545-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental results support that remaining water in the sample contributed to increase HAp crystallinity...
  80. Rajasekharan S, Martens L, Cauwels R, Verbeeck R. Biodentine™ material characteristics and clinical applications: a review of the literature. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014;15:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Biodentine™ is a new version of calcium silicate-based inorganic cement...
  81. Spies C, Schnürer S, Gotterbarm T, Breusch S. Efficacy of Bone Source™ and Cementek™ in comparison with Endobon™ in critical size metaphyseal defects, using a minipig model. J Appl Biomater Biomech. 2010;8:175-85 pubmed
    ..To examine and compare biocompatibility, osteocompatibility, rate of resorption, and remodelling dynamics of 2 calcium phosphate cements in comparison with a well-established hydroxyapatite ceramic...
  82. Thuaksuban N, Luntheng T, Monmaturapoj N. Physical characteristics and biocompatibility of the polycaprolactone-biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds fabricated using the modified melt stretching and multilayer deposition. J Biomater Appl. 2016;30:1460-72 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Growth of the cells seemed to relate to accumulative increase in those ions. All results between the two ratios of the scaffolds were not statistically different. ..
  83. Herford A, Lu M, Buxton A, Kim J, Henkin J, Boyne P, et al. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 combined with an osteoconductive bulking agent for mandibular continuity defects in nonhuman primates. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:703-16 pubmed publisher
    ..A challenge of this technique is the need to maintain sufficient space to avoid compression of the defect. A compression-resistant matrix (CRM) provides a bulking agent that provides support during the bone formation phase...
  84. Asefnejad A, Behnamghader A, Khorasani M, Farsadzadeh B. Polyurethane/fluor-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Part I: morphological, physical, and mechanical characterization. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering morphological, physical, and mechanical properties, the scaffold with a higher ratio of nFHA has suitable potential use in tissue regeneration...
  85. Wasielewski R, Sheridan K, Lubbers M. Coralline hydroxyapatite in complex acetabular reconstruction. Orthopedics. 2008;31:367 pubmed
    ..At latest follow-up, no cups required re-revision, but 1 had failed. Radiographic evidence of bone incorporation was observed in every coralline hydroxyapatite graft. Graft resorption was not observed...
  86. Zhu W, Xiao J, Wang D, Liu J, Xiong J, Liu L, et al. Experimental study of nano-HA artificial bone with different pore sizes for repairing the radial defect. Int Orthop. 2009;33:567-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of bone formation of nano-HA artificial bone may be affected significantly by the pore size. The material with pore size in the range of 100 -250 microm has a greater ability to form bone...
  87. Dietrich E, Oudadesse H, Lucas Girot A, Mami M. In vitro bioactivity of melt-derived glass 46S6 doped with magnesium. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;88:1087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the intensity of these effects depends on the content of magnesium introduced in the glass matrix...
  88. Grech L, Mallia B, Camilleri J. Investigation of the physical properties of tricalcium silicate cement-based root-end filling materials. Dent Mater. 2013;29:e20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The physical properties of prototype radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material was used as a control...
  89. Dohaithem A, Al Nasser A, Al Badah A, Al Nazhan S, Al Maflehi N. An in vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of bioaggregate. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011;112:e27-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the antifungal effect of bioaggregate (BA) against Candida albicans by using the direct contact method...