dietary phosphorus


Summary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.

Top Publications

  1. Driver J, Pesti G, Bakalli R, Edwards H. The effect of feeding calcium- and phosphorus-deficient diets to broiler chickens during the starting and growing-finishing phases on carcass quality. Poult Sci. 2006;85:1939-46 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that carcass quality depends on the levels of Ca and P fed and the age of the bird. Tibia ash, traditionally used as an indication of bone strength, was better correlated to the incidence of bloody breasts...
  2. Perkins M, Woods H, Harrison J, Elser J. Dietary phosphorus affects the growth of larval Manduca sexta. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2004;55:153-68 pubmed
    ..20, 0.55, or 1.2% phosphorus by dry weight). For both artificial and natural diets, increased dietary phosphorus significantly increased growth rates and body phosphorus contents, and shortened the time to the final ..
  3. Segawa H, Yamanaka S, Ito M, Kuwahata M, Shono M, Yamamoto T, et al. Internalization of renal type IIc Na-Pi cotransporter in response to a high-phosphate diet. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;288:F587-96 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the mechanisms of the internalization of the type IIc transporter are distinct from those of the type IIa transporter...
  4. Antoniucci D, Yamashita T, Portale A. Dietary phosphorus regulates serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:3144-9 pubmed
    ..Restriction of the dietary intake of phosphorus increases renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25(OH)(2)D production, whereas the opposite occurs when dietary phosphorus is supplemented.
  5. Uribarri J. Phosphorus homeostasis in normal health and in chronic kidney disease patients with special emphasis on dietary phosphorus intake. Semin Dial. 2007;20:295-301 pubmed
    ..We briefly review here all these exchanges with a particular emphasis on dietary phosphorus intake...
  6. Jin H, Chang S, Xu C, Shin J, Chung Y, Park S, et al. High dietary inorganic phosphate affects lung through altering protein translation, cell cycle, and angiogenesis in developing mice. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:215-23 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that Pi works as a critical signal molecule for normal lung growth and suggest that careful restriction of Pi consumption may be important in maintaining a normal development...
  7. Kalantar Zadeh K, Gutekunst L, Mehrotra R, Kovesdy C, Bross R, Shinaberger C, et al. Understanding sources of dietary phosphorus in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:519-30 pubmed publisher
    In individuals with chronic kidney disease, high dietary phosphorus (P) burden may worsen hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy, promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events, and increase mortality...
  8. Masuyama R, Nakaya Y, Tanaka S, Tsurukami H, Nakamura T, Watanabe S, et al. Dietary phosphorus restriction reverses the impaired bone mineralization in vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2001;142:494-7 pubmed
    ..The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of dietary phosphorus on mineral mobilization and bone mineralization...
  9. Morishita K, Shirai A, Kubota M, Katakura Y, Nabeshima Y, Takeshige K, et al. The progression of aging in klotho mutant mice can be modified by dietary phosphorus and zinc. J Nutr. 2001;131:3182-8 pubmed
    ..4 g/100 g phosphorus diet (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary phosphorus and zinc modulate the phenotypes of klotho mice, and that klotho expression in the kidneys is regulated not ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang M, Wang X, Wang J, Compagnone N, Mellon S, Olson J, et al. Dietary phosphorus transcriptionally regulates 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase gene expression in the proximal renal tubule. Endocrinology. 2002;143:587-95 pubmed
    ..We sought to characterize the effects of changes in dietary phosphorus on the kinetics of renal mitochondrial 1alpha-hydroxylase activity and the renal expression of P450c1alpha ..
  2. Jokinen E, Vielma J, Aaltonen T, Koskela J. The effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the immune responses of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;15:159-68 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that P deficiency has only minor effects on the immune parameters in whitefish, and the practical aquafeed with P contents sufficient for normal growth does not compromise immune functions of this species...
  3. Matsuzaki H, Masuyama R, Uehara M, Nakamura K, Suzuki K. Effects of simultaneous increases in dietary phosphorus and magnesium concentrations on nephrocalcinosis and kidney function in female rats. Magnes Res. 2004;17:14-9 pubmed
    The effects of simultaneous increases in dietary phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations while maintaining a constant P:Mg ratio on nephrocalcinosis and kidney function in female rats was investigated...
  4. Koshihara M, Katsumata S, Uehara M, Suzuki K. Effects of dietary phosphorus intake on bone mineralization and calcium absorption in adult female rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1025-8 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the bone mineralization and calcium (Ca) absorption in adult female rats...
  5. Oste L, Behets G, Dams G, Bervoets A, Marynissen R, Geryl H, et al. Role of dietary phosphorus and degree of uremia in the development of renal bone disease in rats. Ren Fail. 2007;29:1-12 pubmed
    ..The present study aimed to assess the effect of the dietary phosphorus availability and of the severity of renal failure on bone histomorphometric changes and various biochemical ..
  6. Metzler B, Mosenthin R, Baumgärtel T, Rodehutscord M. The effect of dietary phosphorus and calcium level, phytase supplementation, and ileal infusion of pectin on the chemical composition and carbohydrase activity of fecal bacteria and the level of microbial metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract of . J Anim Sci. 2008;86:1544-55 pubmed publisher
  7. Shuto E, Taketani Y, Tanaka R, Harada N, Isshiki M, Sato M, et al. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;20:1504-12 pubmed publisher
    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood...
  8. Lake J, Gravel C, Koko G, Robert C, Vandenberg G. Combining suppressive subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarrays to identify dietary phosphorus-responsive genes of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) kidney. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2010;5:24-35 pubmed publisher
  9. Noori N, Sims J, Kopple J, Shah A, Colman S, Shinaberger C, et al. Organic and inorganic dietary phosphorus and its management in chronic kidney disease. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2010;4:89-100 pubmed
    b>Dietary phosphorus control is often a main strategy in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease. Dietary protein is a major source of phosphorus intake...
  10. Elliott P, Kesteloot H, Appel L, Dyer A, Ueshima H, Chan Q, et al. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure. Hypertension. 2008;51:669-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium ..
  11. Stein H, Kadzere C, Kim S, Miller P. Influence of dietary phosphorus concentration on the digestibility of phosphorus in monocalcium phosphate by growing pigs. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:1861-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 88.5% and was not affected by the concentration of P in the diet. Results of this experiment demonstrated that the digestibility and absorption of P from MCP are not influenced by the dietary concentration of P...
  12. Sherman R, Mehta O. Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Information about the phosphorus content of prepared foods generally is unavailable, but it is believed to contribute significantly to the phosphorus burden of patients with chronic kidney disease...
  13. Alonso A, Nettleton J, Ix J, De Boer I, Folsom A, Bidulescu A, et al. Dietary phosphorus, blood pressure, and incidence of hypertension in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study and the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Hypertension. 2010;55:776-84 pubmed publisher
    ..04 (0.93 to 1.17; P for trend=0.48) for phosphorus from other foods. These findings could indicate an effect of phosphorus in conjunction with other dairy constituents or of dairy itself without involvement of phosphorus. ..
  14. Noori N, Kalantar Zadeh K, Kovesdy C, Bross R, Benner D, Kopple J. Association of dietary phosphorus intake and phosphorus to protein ratio with mortality in hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis that higher dietary phosphorus intake and higher phosphorus content per gram of dietary protein intake are each associated with increased ..
  15. GUTIERREZ O, Wolf M. Dietary phosphorus restriction in advanced chronic kidney disease: merits, challenges, and emerging strategies. Semin Dial. 2010;23:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Since phosphorus clearance by standard three times-weekly dialysis is insufficient to balance ongoing dietary phosphorus intake, strategies to prevent absorption of dietary phosphorus are essential for attenuating increased serum ..
  16. Tenenhouse H, Beck L. Renal Na(+)-phosphate cotransporter gene expression in X-linked Hyp and Gy mice. Kidney Int. 1996;49:1027-32 pubmed
    ..Pi-deprived Hyp and Gy mice fail to show an increase in Tmp/GFR, indicating that adaptation at the BBM is not sufficient for the overall increase in Tmp/GFR in response to low Pi diet. ..
  17. Babarykin D, Adamsone I, Amerika D, Spudass A, Moisejev V, Berzina N, et al. Calcium-enriched bread for treatment of uremic hyperphosphatemia. J Ren Nutr. 2004;14:149-56 pubmed
    ..5%. Ca-bread allows for effective amelioration of hyperphosphatemia without inducing hypercalcemia. Furthermore, patient compliance may increase if hyperphosphatemia can be treated by consuming bread with an elevated calcium content. ..
  18. Banks K, Thompson K, Jaynes P, Applegate T. The effects of copper on the efficacy of phytase, growth, and phosphorus retention in broiler chicks. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1335-41 pubmed
    ..e., improvement in apparent P retention with phytase supplementation) but did decrease apparent P retention, BW gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, and tibia ash and toe ash weights. ..
  19. Tokumoto T, Tanabe K, Toma H, Akiba T. [Treatment of bone disease in chronic kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients under K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines]. Clin Calcium. 2004;14:710-8 pubmed
    ..When renal bone disease is assessed using a combination of biochemical markers, histology and bone densitometry, early intervention and carefully effective therapies might be reduced the morbidity associated with these common problems. ..
  20. Costa J, Sartori M, Nascimento N, Kadri S, Ribolla P, Pinhal D, et al. Inadequate Dietary Phosphorus Levels Cause Skeletal Anomalies and Alter Osteocalcin Gene Expression in Zebrafish. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..Increases in dietary phosphorus were inversely proportional to the occurrence of partial spine fusions, the absence of spine fusions, ..
  21. Erickson G, Klopfenstein T, Milton C, Brink D, Orth M, Whittet K. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves. J Anim Sci. 2002;80:1690-5 pubmed
    ..16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements. ..
  22. Keshavarz K. Effects of continuous feeding of low-phosphorus diets with and without phytase during the growing and laying periods on performance of two strains of Leghorns. Poult Sci. 2003;82:1444-56 pubmed
    ..Additional experiments involving longer laying cycles are warranted prior to making practical recommendations. ..
  23. Tallam S, Ealy A, Bryan K, Wu Z. Ovarian activity and reproductive performance of dairy cows fed different amounts of phosphorus. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:3609-18 pubmed
    ..5 and 39.0 kg/d for the 0.35 and 0.47% P groups, respectively. Overall, varying dietary P from 0.35 to 0.47% did not affect postpartum ovarian activity, reproductive performance, or milk production. ..
  24. Kumar R. The phosphatonins and the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2006;67:142-6 pubmed
  25. Kestenbaum B. Phosphate metabolism in the setting of chronic kidney disease: significance and recommendations for treatment. Semin Dial. 2007;20:286-94 pubmed
    ..This review discusses PO(4) metabolism in the context of CKD, examines associations of PO(4) levels with adverse outcomes in the CKD setting, and suggests treatment strategies for moderating serum PO(4) levels. ..
  26. Lippuner K, Perrelet R, Casez J, Popp A, Uskokovic M, Jaeger P. 1,25-(OH)2-16ene-23yne-D3 reduces secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic rats with little calcemic effect. Horm Res. 2004;61:7-16 pubmed
    ..1,25-(OH)(2)-16ene-23yne-D(3) (RO(2)) may represent a novel candidate for the treatment of renal osteodystrophy in humans. ..
  27. Hoppe C, Mølgaard C, Dalum C, Vaag A, Michaelsen K. Differential effects of casein versus whey on fasting plasma levels of insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3: results from a randomized 7-day supplementation study in prepubertal boys. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:1076-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The main milk protein fractions exhibit important but different growth-promoting effects by increasing either fasting insulin (whey) or IGF-1 (casein) levels. ..
  28. Alvarez Fuentes G, Appuhamy J, Kebreab E. Prediction of phosphorus output in manure and milk by lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:771-82 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dietary phosphorus intake (Pi) was the major determinant of Pf and PMa...
  29. Chen K, Zhou X, Jiang W, Wu P, Liu Y, Jiang J, et al. Impaired intestinal immune barrier and physical barrier function by phosphorus deficiency: Regulation of TOR, NF-?B, MLCK, JNK and Nrf2 signalling in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) after infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;74:175-189 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we assume that dietary phosphorus might enhance intestinal immune barrier and physical barrier function to reduce the occurrence of enteritis ..
  30. Liesegang A, Ursprung R, Gasser J, Sassi M, Risteli J, Riond J, et al. Influence of dietary phosphorus deficiency with or without addition of fumaric acid to a diet in pigs on bone parameters. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2002;86:1-16 pubmed
    ..Fumaric acid did not influence the degree of bone loss. With a better understanding of its effect on bone, dietary phosphorus requirements in pigs could be more precisely defined.
  31. Ferrara E, Lemire J, Reznik V, Grimm P. Dietary phosphorus reduction by pretreatment of human breast milk with sevelamer. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:775-9 pubmed
    ..The supernatant can be fed to infants or instilled through a gastrostomy tube without difficulty since the viscous hydrogel settles rapidly to the bottom of the container. ..
  32. Cerosaletti P, Fox D, Chase L. Phosphorus reduction through precision feeding of dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:2314-23 pubmed
    ..Mean herd phosphorus intakes in the 4 herds ranged from 107 to 165% of requirement. Dietary phosphorus intakes in the 2 herds where diets were modified were reduced from 153% of requirement to 111%, an average ..
  33. Segawa H, Onitsuka A, Furutani J, Kaneko I, Aranami F, Matsumoto N, et al. Npt2a and Npt2c in mice play distinct and synergistic roles in inorganic phosphate metabolism and skeletal development. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F671-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A high-P(i) diet after weaning rescued plasma phosphate levels and the bone phenotype in DKO mice. Our findings thus showed in mice that Npt2a and Npt2c have independent roles in the regulation of plasma P(i) and bone mineralization. ..
  34. Shen Y, Fan M, Ajakaiye A, Archbold T. Use of the regression analysis technique to determine the true phosphorus digestibility and the endogenous phosphorus output associated with corn in growing pigs. J Nutr. 2002;132:1199-206 pubmed
    ..Current diet formulation on the bases of total, apparent P digestibility and availability values in corn inevitably leads to P overfeeding and excessive P excretion in pigs. ..
  35. Jang D, Fadel J, Klasing K, Mireles A, Ernst R, Young K, et al. Evaluation of low-phytate corn and barley on broiler chick performance. Poult Sci. 2003;82:1914-24 pubmed
    ..Feeding low-phytate grains will reduce the need for supplemental P in chick diets. ..
  36. Mehrotra R, Supasyndh O, Berman N, Kaysen G, Hurst L, Leonardi M, et al. Age-related decline in serum parathyroid hormone in maintenance hemodialysis patients is independent of inflammation and dietary nutrient intake. J Ren Nutr. 2004;14:134-42 pubmed
    ..decline in serum iPTH levels remains unclear, although others have proposed that it is related to low dietary phosphorus intakes...
  37. Pettey L, Cromwell G, Lindemann M. Estimation of endogenous phosphorus loss in growing and finishing pigs fed semi-purified diets. J Anim Sci. 2006;84:618-26 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we estimate the endogenous P loss of pigs fed highly digestible, semi-purified diets to increase by approximately 1.632 mg for each 1-kg increase in BW from 25 to 100 kg. ..
  38. Moore L, Bradlee M, Gao D, Singer M. Effects of average childhood dairy intake on adolescent bone health. J Pediatr. 2008;153:667-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1 g), and children consuming less of each had the lowest BMC (2740.2 g). These prospective data provide evidence for a beneficial effect of childhood dairy consumption on adolescent bone health. ..
  39. Román García P, Carrillo López N, Cannata Andia J. Pathogenesis of bone and mineral related disorders in chronic kidney disease: key role of hyperphosphatemia. J Ren Care. 2009;35 Suppl 1:34-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between hyperphosphaemia and vascular calcification, and the interventions that can be used to control plasma phosphate are also discussed. ..
  40. Sherman R, Mehta O. Phosphorus and potassium content of enhanced meat and poultry products: implications for patients who receive dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:1370-3 pubmed publisher
  41. Knowlton K, Herbein J, Meister Weisbarth M, Wark W. Nitrogen and phosphorus partitioning in lactating Holstein cows fed different sources of dietary protein and phosphorus. J Dairy Sci. 2001;84:1210-7 pubmed
  42. Whitehead C, McCormack H, McTeir L, Fleming R. The maximum legal limit for vitamin D3 in broiler diets may need to be increased. Br Poult Sci. 2004;45 Suppl 1:S24-6 pubmed
  43. Hamada Y, Fukagawa M. [Management of phosphate in nutrition therapy for chronic kidney disease]. Clin Calcium. 2009;19:186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Concerning management of serum phosphate levels, regulation of protein intake, appropriate administration of phosphate binder, and prevention of constipation are essential. ..
  44. Rousseau X, Valable A, Létourneau Montminy M, Même N, Godet E, Magnin M, et al. Adaptive response of broilers to dietary phosphorus and calcium restrictions. Poult Sci. 2016;95:2849-2860 pubmed
  45. Neiman M, Krist A. Sensitivity to dietary phosphorus limitation in native vs. invasive lineages of a New Zealand freshwater snail. Ecol Appl. 2016;26:2218-2224 pubmed publisher
    ..antipodarum, as well for as other invasive taxa. ..
  46. Slatopolsky E, Brown A, Dusso A. Role of phosphorus in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37:S54-7 pubmed
    ..High dietary phosphorus (P), independent of calcium and calcitriol, further enhances uremia-induced PTG hyperplasia and PTH ..
  47. Schulin Zeuthen M, Lopes J, Kebreab E, Vitti D, Abdalla A, Haddad M, et al. Effects of phosphorus intake on phosphorus flow in growing pigs: application and comparison of two models. J Theor Biol. 2005;236:115-25 pubmed
    ..The pigs maintained their P homeostasis in blood by regulation of P excretion in urine. ..
  48. Savica V, Calo L, Monardo P, Santoro D, Bellinghieri G. Phosphate binders and management of hyperphosphataemia in end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:2065-8 pubmed
  49. Satomura K. [Neonatal hypocalcemia]. Nihon Rinsho. 2006;Suppl 2:185-8 pubmed
  50. Dahifar H, Faraji A, Ghorbani A, Yassobi S. Impact of dietary and lifestyle on vitamin D in healthy student girls aged 11-15 years. J Med Invest. 2006;53:204-8 pubmed
    ..05). Vitamin D deficiency developed in rapid growth period of girls without clear clinical rickets in sunny temperate climate city in Iran which vitamin D supplementation improved biochemical findings better than sunlight exposure. ..
  51. Taketani Y, Shuto E, Arai H, Nishida Y, Tanaka R, Uebanso T, et al. Advantage of a low glycemic index and low phosphate diet on diabetic nephropathy and aging-related diseases. J Med Invest. 2007;54:359-65 pubmed
    ..A low glycemic index and low phosphate diet may provide an advantage in the prevention of aging-related diseases in healthy individuals as well as in those with chronic kidney disease. ..
  52. Esser N, Hoffman P, Coblentz W, Orth M, Weigel K. The effect of dietary phosphorus on bone development in dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:1741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 vs. 18.6%) in heifers fed no supplemental P. Data suggest P supplementation to heifers modestly increased bone P content but increased bone P was not reflected in frame growth, bone density, or bone metabolism. ..
  53. Breusegem S, Takahashi H, Giral Arnal H, Wang X, Jiang T, Verlander J, et al. Differential regulation of the renal sodium-phosphate cotransporters NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIc, and PiT-2 in dietary potassium deficiency. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F350-61 pubmed publisher
  54. Canalejo A, Canalejo R, Rodriguez M, Martinez Moreno J, Felsenfeld A, Rodriguez M, et al. Development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia without uremia: role of dietary calcium and phosphate. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:1087-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The recovery from the HPD or LCD to a control diet results in a more rapid reduction in PTH than in cell proliferation...
  55. Masuyama R, Suzuki K. High phosphorus feeding decreases the expression of renal PTH/PTHRP-receptor mRNA in rats. Biofactors. 2000;12:53-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present study indicated that high P dietary intake rather reduces the PTH actions in kidney though the serum PTH is increased...
  56. Gaddi A, Cicero A, Wani F, Dormi A, Pasquarelli V, D Addato S. The realization of a project aimed at reducing the plasmatic lipid level in a large Italian population improves the mean calcium daily intake: the Brisighella Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55:97-106 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of the impact of a coronary heart disease prevention program on calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin D dietary intake in respect of recommended daily allowances in a large Italian rural population...
  57. Ohnishi R, Segawa H, Kawakami E, Furutani J, Ito M, Tatsumi S, et al. Control of phosphate appetite in young rats. J Med Invest. 2007;54:366-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that an appetite for Pi can be induced in rats, perhaps through lowered plasma and CSF Pi levels...
  58. Kariyawasam D. Phosphate management-a dietitian's perspective. J Ren Care. 2009;35 Suppl 1:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..g. adherence to a low phosphate diet, adequate dialysis, hyperparathyroidism and concordance with phosphate binders. This article looks at the issues to consider and provides a dietitian's perspective on phosphate management...
  59. Fouque D. Why is the diet intervention so critical during chronic kidney disease?. J Ren Nutr. 2003;13:173 pubmed
  60. Snow J, Douglas M, Koelkebeck K, Batal A, Persia M, Biggs P, et al. Minimum phosphorus requirement of one-cycle and two-cycle (molted) hens. Poult Sci. 2004;83:917-24 pubmed
    ..45% AP. The results of our study indicated that first-cycle hens required approximately 0.18% AP or 198 mg AP/hen per day, and molted hens in their second cycle had a requirement that was greater than 0.20% AP or 209 mg AP/hen per day...
  61. Wendt P, Rodehutscord M. Investigations on the availability of inorganic phosphate from different sources with growing White Pekin ducks. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1572-9 pubmed
    ..Similar to results from other species, the availability of inorganic feed phosphates for ducks is on an overall high level, but differences between P sources should be considered in diet formulation...
  62. Lean I, DeGaris P, McNeil D, Block E. Hypocalcemia in dairy cows: meta-analysis and dietary cation anion difference theory revisited. J Dairy Sci. 2006;89:669-84 pubmed
    ..006) and Model 2 (odds ratio = 0.001). Increasing dietary phosphorus concentrations prepartum increased the risk of milk fever (Model 1, odds ratio = 6...
  63. Rodehutscord M, Faust M, Pfeffer E. The course of phosphorus excretion in growing pigs fed continuously increasing phosphorus concentrations after a phosphorus depletion. Arch Tierernahr. 1999;52:323-34 pubmed
    ..Once the renal P excretion of growing pigs exceeds a level of 25 mg/d, intake of digestible P cannot be regarded sufficiently low to measure P digestibility as a capacity of the feedstuff...
  64. Rutherfurd S, Chung T, Moughan P. The effect of microbial phytase on ileal phosphorus and amino acid digestibility in the broiler chicken. Br Poult Sci. 2002;43:598-606 pubmed
    ..6. It appears that microbial phytase improves phosphorus digestibility and amino acid digestibility for certain plant-based feedstuffs...
  65. Koh J, Koo W. Chinese nutrition educational materials for renal patients. J Ren Nutr. 2007;17:357-9 pubmed
    ..Paul's Hospital's Renal Program. The goal was to support this patient subgroup to understand and practice the complicated diet guidelines within their own language and cultural contexts...
  66. Frost P, Ebert D, Larson J, Marcus M, Wagner N, Zalewski A. Transgenerational effects of poor elemental food quality on Daphnia magna. Oecologia. 2010;162:865-72 pubmed publisher
  67. Watson B, Matthews J, Southern L, Shelton J. The interactive effects of Eimeria acervulina infection and phytase for broiler chicks. Poult Sci. 2005;84:910-3 pubmed
    ..Also, phytase increased average daily gain and average daily feed intake in uninfected chicks fed diets formulated to be adequate (or in excess) in all nutrients for male broiler chicks...
  68. Feigin K, Mayer J, Solano M. What is your diagnosis? Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a leopard. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228:1865-6 pubmed
  69. McDevitt R, McEntee G, Rance K. Bone breaking strength and apparent metabolisability of calcium and phosphorus in selected and unselected broiler chicken genotypes. Br Poult Sci. 2006;47:613-21 pubmed
    ..6. The tibiotarsi of the selected broilers were stronger, or at least as strong, as those of the unselected broiler genotype, which may be due to similar levels of apparent calcium metabolisability of the selected chickens...
  70. Onyango E, Asem E, Adeola O. Dietary cholecalciferol and phosphorus influence intestinal mucosa phytase activity in broiler chicks. Br Poult Sci. 2006;47:632-9 pubmed
    ..5. In conclusion, both dietary P and cholecalciferol influenced the activity of intestinal mucosa phytase...
  71. Masse P, Dosy J, Tranchant C, Dallaire R. Dietary macro- and micronutrient intakes of nonsupplemented pre- and postmenopausal women with a perspective on menopause-associated diseases. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004;17:121-32 pubmed
    ..To assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of menopausal women relative to premenopausal women, and to determine whether their diets are compatible with reducing risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis...
  72. Cupisti A, D Alessandro C, Baldi R, Barsotti G. Dietary habits and counseling focused on phosphate intake in hemodialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia. J Ren Nutr. 2004;14:220-5 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the dietary habits of hemodialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia and the effects of a dietetic intervention focused on limiting dietary phosphate load...
  73. McDaniel N, Sugiura S, Kehler T, Fletcher J, Coloso R, Weis P, et al. Dissolved oxygen and dietary phosphorus modulate utilization and effluent partitioning of phosphorus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture. Environ Pollut. 2005;138:350-7 pubmed
    ..Soluble effluent P was greater in fish fed 1.0% P. DO increases fish growth and modulates P partitioning in aquaculture effluent...
  74. Bohlke R, Thaler R, Stein H. Calcium, phosphorus, and amino acid digestibility in low-phytate corn, normal corn, and soybean meal by growing pigs. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:2396-403 pubmed
  75. Nitrayová S, Patras P, Sommer A, Heger J. Effect of microbial phytase on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of phosphorus-adequate diets in growing pigs. Arch Anim Nutr. 2006;60:131-40 pubmed
  76. Taketani Y, Yamamoto H, Takeda E, Miyamoto K. [Vitamin D and phosphate metabolism; relationship with aging-regulating gene]. Clin Calcium. 2006;16:1137-42 pubmed
    ..Regulation of vitamin D and phosphate metabolism is closely related to aging processes as well as bone and mineral metabolism...
  77. Jin H, Xu C, Lim H, Park S, Shin J, Chung Y, et al. High dietary inorganic phosphate increases lung tumorigenesis and alters Akt signaling. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies have indicated that elevated Pi activates the Akt signaling pathway. An increased knowledge of the response of lung cancer tissue to high dietary Pi may provide an important link between diet and lung tumorigenesis...
  78. Kopko I, Kyryliv I, Stoianovs ka H. [Effect of exogenous factors on metabolism of phosphorous compounds in the chicken tissues]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2003;75:90-4 pubmed
    ..The microbic phytase positive action on the metabolism of phosphorus in the chicken organism has been determined through the experimental investigations...
  79. Webster A. Welfare implications of avian osteoporosis. Poult Sci. 2004;83:184-92 pubmed
    ..Overall, the evidence indicates that cage layer osteoporosis is a serious animal welfare problem. A determined effort must be made to make the laying hen no longer susceptible to the harmful effects of excessive bone loss...
  80. Godwin J, Grimes J, Christensen V, Wineland M. Effect of dietary phosphorus and phytase levels on the reproductive performance of large white turkey breeder hens. Poult Sci. 2005;84:485-93 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that phosphorus could be lowered in turkey breeder hen diets, compared with current surveyed industry levels, without impairing reproductive performance...
  81. Kies A, Kemme P, Sebek L, van Diepen J, Jongbloed A. Effect of graded doses and a high dose of microbial phytase on the digestibility of various minerals in weaner pigs. J Anim Sci. 2006;84:1169-75 pubmed
    ..Up to 85% of the phytate-P was digested. Thus, dietary phytase supplementation beyond present day standards (500 FTU/kg) could further improve mineral use and consequently reduce mineral output to the environment...
  82. Sunwold D. Notes from the CKD kitchen: restaurant dining. J Ren Nutr. 2007;17:355-6 pubmed
    ..If I'm not able to give the restaurant any advance notice, I follow four simple steps once I arrive at that restaurant to create a wonderful meal that will follow my doctor's and dietitian's nutritional guidelines...
  83. Agbede J, Kluth H, Rodehutscord M. Studies on the effects of microbial phytase on amino acid digestibility and energy metabolisability in caecectomised laying hens and the interaction with the dietary phosphorus level. Br Poult Sci. 2009;50:583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..digestibility and energy metabolisability using (1) diets with phytate-rich protein sources and (2) with two dietary phosphorus (P) levels. The two assays followed a 2 x 2-factorial arrangement of treatments using 8 hens per treatment...
  84. Felsenfeld A, Jara A, Avedian G, Kleeman C. Effects of fasting, feeding, and bisphosphonate administration on serum calcitriol levels in phosphate-deprived rats. Kidney Int. 2000;58:1016-22 pubmed
  85. Sugiura S, McDaniel N, Ferraris R. In vivo fractional P(i) absorption and NaPi-II mRNA expression in rainbow trout are upregulated by dietary P restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R770-81 pubmed
    ..cotransporter (NaPi-II) and inorganic phosphate uptake stimulator (PiUS) genes are upregulated by dietary phosphorus (P) restriction to increase intestinal and renal P transport, but little is known about NaPi-II and PiUS ..
  86. Bar A, Razaphkovsky V, Vax E, Plavnik I. Performance and bone development in broiler chickens given 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Br Poult Sci. 2003;44:224-33 pubmed
    ..4. 25OHD3 restrained the effect of moderate dietary P restriction, but not of Ca restriction, on BW gain and bone ash in 22-d-old chickens. This effect could not be explained by an higher P bioavailability in the 25OHD3-fed chickens...
  87. Wu Y, Ravindran V, Thomas D, Birtles M, Hendriks W. Influence of phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, on performance, apparent metabolisable energy, digestive tract measurements and gut morphology in broilers fed wheat-based diets containing adequate level of phosphorus. Br Poult Sci. 2004;45:76-84 pubmed
    ..Improved performance with enzyme supplementation was generally associated with reduced digesta viscosity, increased AME, and reduced relative weight and length of small intestine...
  88. Chapuis Lardy L, Fiorini J, Toth J, Dou Z. Phosphorus concentration and solubility in dairy feces: variability and affecting factors. J Dairy Sci. 2004;87:4334-41 pubmed
  89. Peterson A, Orth M, Goff J, Beede D. Periparturient responses of multiparous Holstein cows fed different dietary phosphorus concentrations prepartum. J Dairy Sci. 2005;88:3582-94 pubmed
    Our objective was to compare the effects of different prepartum dietary phosphorus concentrations on periparturient metabolism and performance. Forty-two late pregnant multiparous Holstein cows were fed 0.21, 0.31, or 0...
  90. Hanai M, Esashi T. The effects of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and zinc in improving the depression of gonadal development in growing male rats kept under a disturbed daily rhythm-investigations based on the L(16)(2(15))-type orthogonal array. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006;52:368-75 pubmed
    ..It became clear that the amount of dietary Ca necessary for the gonadal development of rats increases when rats are kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm compared with the normal lighting condition...
  91. Gotch F, Panlilio F, Sergeyeva O, Rosales L, Folden T, Kaysen G, et al. A kinetic model of inorganic phosphorus mass balance in hemodialysis therapy. Blood Purif. 2003;21:51-7 pubmed
    ..We have developed a kinetic model (iPKM) designed to monitor these three parameters of iP mass balance in individual patients and report here preliminary evaluation of the model in 23 HD patients...
  92. Orita H, Akizawa T. [Outlines of K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Bone Metabolism and Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease]. Clin Calcium. 2004;14:693-7 pubmed
    ..This article briefly summarizes the outlines of these guidelines...