reactive nitrogen species


Summary: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.

Top Publications

  1. Fan Q, Chen M, Fang X, Lau W, Xue L, Zhao L, et al. Aging might augment reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and affect reactive nitrogen species (RNS) level after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion in both humans and rats. Age (Dordr). 2013;35:1017-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are known to play vital roles in aging-related MI/R injury...
  2. Abdelwahab S, Hassan L, Sirat H, Yagi S, Koko W, Mohan S, et al. Anti-inflammatory activities of cucurbitacin E isolated from Citrullus lanatus var. citroides: role of reactive nitrogen species and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Fitoterapia. 2011;82:1190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ORAC and FRAP assays showed that CE is not a potent ROS scavenger. It could be concluded that CE is potentially useful in treating inflammation through the inhibition of COX and RNS but not ROS...
  3. Jung J, Madan Lala R, Georgieva M, Rengarajan J, Sohaskey C, Bange F, et al. The intracellular environment of human macrophages that produce nitric oxide promotes growth of mycobacteria. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3198-209 pubmed publisher
  4. Klueglein N, Kappler A. Abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) by reactive nitrogen species in cultures of the nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizer Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1 - questioning the existence of enzymatic Fe(II) oxidation. Geobiology. 2013;11:180-90 pubmed publisher
  5. Bellin D, Asai S, Delledonne M, Yoshioka H. Nitric oxide as a mediator for defense responses. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..PRR and R proteins modulate signaling networks for defense responses that rely on rapid production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  6. Lee J, Giordano S, Zhang J. Autophagy, mitochondria and oxidative stress: cross-talk and redox signalling. Biochem J. 2012;441:523-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This is particularly relevant to degenerative diseases in which oxidative stress occurs over time, and dysfunction in both the mitochondrial and autophagic pathways play a role...
  7. Fukuto J, Carrington S, Tantillo D, Harrison J, Ignarro L, Freeman B, et al. Small molecule signaling agents: the integrated chemistry and biochemistry of nitrogen oxides, oxides of carbon, dioxygen, hydrogen sulfide, and their derived species. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012;25:769-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on this chemistry and attempts to establish the chemical basis for their signaling functions...
  8. Navascues J, Pérez Rontomé C, Gay M, Marcos M, Yang F, Walker F, et al. Leghemoglobin green derivatives with nitrated hemes evidence production of highly reactive nitrogen species during aging of legume nodules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:2660-5 pubmed publisher
    ..heme ligands reveals that nitration is contingent upon the binding of nitrite to heme Fe, and that the reactive nitrogen species involved derives from nitrous acid and is most probably the nitronium cation...
  9. Wang W, Barger S. Cross-linking of serine racemase dimer by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:1218-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a compensatory feedback in which the consequences of neuroinflammation might dampen D-serine production to limit excitotoxic stimulation of NMDA receptors...

More Information


  1. Rodrigues E, Mariutti L, Faria A, Mercadante A. Microcapsules containing antioxidant molecules as scavengers of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Food Chem. 2012;134:704-11 pubmed publisher
  2. Chen X, Chen H, Xu M, Shen J. Targeting reactive nitrogen species: a promising therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013;34:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..As an important component of free radicals, reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), play important roles in the process of ..
  3. Katsurahara M, Kobayashi Y, Iwasa M, Ma N, Inoue H, Fujita N, et al. Reactive nitrogen species mediate DNA damage in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Helicobacter. 2009;14:552-8 pubmed publisher
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can play an important role in cellular injury and carcinogenesis of gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori...
  4. Bourret T, Song M, V zquez Torres A. Codependent and independent effects of nitric oxide-mediated suppression of PhoPQ and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium survival. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PhoQ sensor kinase lessens the cytotoxicity of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the innate response of mononuclear ..
  5. Laskin D, Sunil V, Fakhrzadeh L, Groves A, Gow A, Laskin J. Macrophages, reactive nitrogen species, and lung injury. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010;1203:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the mediators involved in the cytotoxic process, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are of particular interest because of their well-documented cytotoxic potential...
  6. Prior K, Hautefort I, Hinton J, Richardson D, Rowley G. All stressed out. Salmonella pathogenesis and reactive nitrogen species. Adv Microb Physiol. 2009;56:1-28 pubmed publisher
    ..and the host during the infection process, with particular emphasis on the complex bacterial response to reactive nitrogen species produced by the host...
  7. del Rio L. Peroxisomes as a cellular source of reactive nitrogen species signal molecules. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;506:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..the existence of l-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and the generation of the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) nitric oxide (NO) have been demonstrated in plant peroxisomes...
  8. Ehrt S, Schnappinger D. Mycobacterial survival strategies in the phagosome: defence against host stresses. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter three mechanisms are the focus of this review...
  9. Prochazkova D, Wilhelmová N. Nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and associated enzymes during plant senescence. Nitric Oxide. 2011;24:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, very little is known about other radicals: gaseous free radical nitric oxide and related molecules--reactive nitrogen species. This review brings a short survey of the questions.
  10. Robertson S, Mokgokong R, Kania K, Guedj A, Hladky S, Barrand M. Nitric oxide contributes to hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced P-glycoprotein expression in rat brain endothelial cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:1103-11 pubmed publisher
  11. Gong L, Liu F, Wang J, Wang X, Hou X, Sun Y, et al. Hyperglycemia induces apoptosis of pancreatic islet endothelial cells via reactive nitrogen species-mediated Jun N-terminal kinase activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, induced reactive nitrogen species (RNS) significantly increased the expression of bax, cleaved caspase-3 and poly adenosine diphosphate (..
  12. Airaki M, Leterrier M, Mateos R, Valderrama R, Chaki M, Barroso J, et al. Metabolism of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants under low temperature stress. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:281-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that ascorbate, glutathione and the NADPH-generating dehydrogenases have a role in the process of cold acclimation through their effect on the redox state of the cell...
  13. Lu Q, Xia N, Xu H, Guo L, Wenzel P, Daiber A, et al. Betulinic acid protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice by reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress. Nitric Oxide. 2011;24:132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to result from a reduction of oxidative stress (by downregulation of NOX2) and nitrosative stress (by reduction of nNOS and iNOS), and an enhancement of blood flow (by upregulation of eNOS)...
  14. Tan M, Sequeira P, Lin W, Phong W, Cliff P, Ng S, et al. Nitrate respiration protects hypoxic Mycobacterium tuberculosis against acid- and reactive nitrogen species stresses. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13356 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data shed light on a new role for nitrate respiration in protecting M. tuberculosis from acidity and reactive nitrogen species, two environmental stresses likely encountered by the pathogen during the course of infection.
  15. Jones L, Ying L, Hofseth A, Jelezcova E, Sobol R, Ambs S, et al. Differential effects of reactive nitrogen species on DNA base excision repair initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:2123-9 pubmed publisher
    Chronic generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can cause DNA damage and may also directly modify DNA repair proteins...
  16. Rehberg S, Maybauer M, Maybauer D, Traber L, Enkhbaatar P, Traber D. The role of nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen species in experimental ARDS. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2010;2:18-29 pubmed
    ..Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are increasingly regarded as key substances within the development of ARDS...
  17. Weiner D, Khankin E, Levy Y, Reznick A. Effects of cigarette smoke borne reactive nitrogen species on salivary alpha-amylase activity and protein modifications. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 5:127-32 pubmed
    ..All salivary reactive nitrogen species (RNS) analyzed from OSCC patients are significantly higher in comparison with healthy subjects...
  18. Fujita Y, Hosokawa M, Fujimoto S, Mukai E, Abudukadier A, Obara A, et al. Metformin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis and lowers fasting blood glucose levels through reactive nitrogen species in mice. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1472-81 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate AMPK activation by metformin in liver, we examined the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis.
  19. Han J, Hong J, Oh K. In vivo electron spin resonance: An effective new tool for reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species measurement. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;33:1293-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Monti M, Donnini S, Giachetti A, Mochly Rosen D, Ziche M. deltaPKC inhibition or varepsilonPKC activation repairs endothelial vascular dysfunction by regulating eNOS post-translational modification. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:746-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our data demonstrate that (1) in endothelial dysfunction, ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) formation result from uncontrolled eNOS activity mediated by activation of deltaPKC or inhibition ..
  21. Mansoor S, Gupta N, Patil A, Estrago Franco M, Ramirez C, Migon R, et al. Inhibition of apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells treated with benzo(e)pyrene, a toxic component of cigarette smoke. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2601-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the inhibitory effects of some agents or drugs (inhibitors) on benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P)-induced cell death and apoptosis on human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells in vitro...
  22. Maroz A, Shinde S, Franzblau S, Ma Z, Denny W, Palmer B, et al. Release of nitrite from the antitubercular nitroimidazole drug PA-824 and analogues upon one-electron reduction in protic, non-aqueous solvent. Org Biomol Chem. 2010;8:413-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The release of cytotoxic reactive nitrogen species through a one-electron pathway, by as yet unidentified proteins, may play a role in the activity of this ..
  23. Little J, Doyle T, Salvemini D. Reactive nitroxidative species and nociceptive processing: determining the roles for nitric oxide, superoxide, and peroxynitrite in pain. Amino Acids. 2012;42:75-94 pubmed publisher
  24. Burke A, Macmillan Crow L, Hinson J. Reactive nitrogen species in acetaminophen-induced mitochondrial damage and toxicity in mouse hepatocytes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:1286-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Since DCFH(2) may be oxidized by multiple oxidative mechanisms, we investigated the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) leading to 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins by ELISA and by immunoblots...
  25. Holthoff J, Woodling K, Doerge D, Burns S, Hinson J, Mayeux P. Resveratrol, a dietary polyphenolic phytoalexin, is a functional scavenger of peroxynitrite. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:1260-5 pubmed publisher
    Oxidant damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a major contributor to the cellular damage seen in numerous types of renal injury...
  26. Gupta Elera G, Garrett A, Robison R, O Neill K. The role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012;21:155-62 pubmed publisher
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are not only byproducts of normal cellular metabolism, but also play important roles in cell signaling...
  27. Sun Y, Huang L, MacKenzie G, Rigas B. Oxidative stress mediates through apoptosis the anticancer effect of phospho-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: implications for the role of oxidative stress in the action of anticancer agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;338:775-83 pubmed publisher
  28. Ramya T, Misro M, Sinha D, Nandan D, Mithal S. Altered levels of seminal nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, and enzymatic antioxidants and their association with sperm function in infertile subjects. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:135-40 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the association between specific reactive nitrogen species and sperm function among infertile subjects.
  29. Jackson M, McArdle A. Age-related changes in skeletal muscle reactive oxygen species generation and adaptive responses to reactive oxygen species. J Physiol. 2011;589:2139-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This age-related lack of physiological adaptations to the ROS induced by contractile activity appears to contribute to a loss of ROS homeostasis and increased oxidative damage in skeletal muscle...
  30. Arce Miranda J, Sotomayor C, Albesa I, Paraje M. Oxidative and nitrosative stress in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;315:23-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Davis M, Vigil D, Campbell S. Regulation of Ras proteins by reactive nitrogen species. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:565-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the mid-1990s, however, evidence has accumulated that small molecule reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can also influence Ras guanine nucleotide cycling...
  32. Kasic T, Colombo P, Soldani C, Wang C, Miranda E, Roncalli M, et al. Modulation of human T-cell functions by reactive nitrogen species. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1843-9 pubmed publisher
    ..have suggested that T-lymphocyte dysfunction might be attributable to nitrative stress induced by reactive nitrogen species (RNS)...
  33. Heo J, Hong I. Ras-targeting action of thiopurines in the presence of reactive nitrogen species. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3965-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that Ras plays a central role in cellular signaling pathways, any interference with Ras activity by thiopurines and redox agents has the potential for devastating cytotoxic effects...
  34. Pitocco D, Zaccardi F, Di Stasio E, Romitelli F, Santini S, Zuppi C, et al. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud. 2010;7:15-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. ..
  35. Turan B. Role of antioxidants in redox regulation of diabetic cardiovascular complications. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2010;11:819-36 pubmed
    ..In addition, we discuss studies identify redox-sensitive cardiac proteins, as well as those assessing redox signalling in cardiovascular disease...
  36. Davies B, Bogard R, Dupes N, Gerstenfeld T, Simmons L, Mekalanos J. DNA damage and reactive nitrogen species are barriers to Vibrio cholerae colonization of the infant mouse intestine. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001295 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic analysis identifies known and novel defense enzymes required for detoxifying reactive nitrogen species (but not reactive oxygen species) that are also required for V...
  37. White P, Charbonneau A, Cooney G, Marette A. Nitrosative modifications of protein and lipid signaling molecules by reactive nitrogen species. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;299:E868-78 pubmed publisher
    ..present review on the effects of nitrosative modifications of protein and lipid signaling molecules by reactive nitrogen species. The aim of this Perspectives review is to highlight the significant role that reactive nitrogen species ..
  38. Shen J, Tang A, Liu X, Fangmeier A, Goulding K, Zhang F. High concentrations and dry deposition of reactive nitrogen species at two sites in the North China Plain. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:3106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Such high concentrations and deposition rates of N(r) species in the NCP indicate very serious air pollution from anthropogenic sources and significant atmospheric N input to crops...
  39. Aliev G, Li Y, Palacios H, Obrenovich M. Oxidative stress induced mitochondrial DNA deletion as a hallmark for the drug development in the context of the cerebrovascular diseases. Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov. 2011;6:222-41 pubmed
    ..microvessels and/or parenchymal cells results in an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) compounds thus promoting leukocyte adhesion and increasing endothelial permeability...
  40. Halevas E, Nday C, Salifoglou A. Hybrid catechin silica nanoparticle influence on Cu(II) toxicity and morphological lesions in primary neuronal cells. J Inorg Biochem. 2016;163:240-249 pubmed publisher
    ..stress plays a pivotal role in regulating redox reactions generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), known contributors to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology...
  41. Truong V, Jun M, Jeong W. Role of resveratrol in regulation of cellular defense systems against oxidative stress. Biofactors. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..resveratrol can be explained through its ability of either directly neutralizing reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) or indirectly upregulating the expression of cellular defensive genes...
  42. Miller C, Gounder S, Kannan S, Goutam K, Muthusamy V, Firpo M, et al. Disruption of Nrf2/ARE signaling impairs antioxidant mechanisms and promotes cell degradation pathways in aged skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:1038-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Nrf2 signaling might be a potential therapeutic target to protect the SM from age-dependent accumulation of ROS by rescuing redox homeostasis to prevent age-related muscle disorders such as sarcopenia and myopathy. ..
  43. Zhang B, Zehnder J. Oxidative stress and immune thrombocytopenia. Semin Hematol. 2013;50:e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, oxidative stress and its impact on autoimmunity, particularly ITP, will be covered. ..
  44. Zhang Y, Liu H, Hu N. Electrochemical detection of natural DNA damage induced by in situ peroxidase-generated reactive nitrogen species in DNA layer-by-layer films. Bioelectrochemistry. 2012;86:67-71 pubmed publisher
    The NO(2)• radical is one kind of reactive nitrogen species and can be generated by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed oxidation of nitrite (NO(2)(-)) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and may cause DNA damage in ..
  45. Kwon H, Ahn E, Kim S, Kang Y, Kim M, Jin B, et al. Inhibition of UV-induced matrix metabolism by a myristoyl tetrapeptide. Cell Biol Int. 2016;40:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results demonstrate that mGLFW reversed the effects of UV exposure by enhancing the expression of collagen proteins and suppressing the expression of MMPs, which degrade the ECM. ..
  46. Skariah S, Bednarczyk R, McIntyre M, Taylor G, Mordue D. Discovery of a novel Toxoplasma gondii conoid-associated protein important for parasite resistance to reactive nitrogen intermediates. J Immunol. 2012;188:3404-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of the entire gene or just the region encoding the protein in wild-type parasites recapitulated the RNI-resistance defect in the counter-immune mutant, confirming the role of the protein in resistance to macrophage RNIs. ..
  47. Harikrishnan R, Kim D, Hong S, Mariappan P, Balasundaram C, Heo M. Non-specific immune response and disease resistance induced by Siegesbeckia glabrescens against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Epinephelus bruneus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..glabrescens extract enriched diet at 1.0% and 2.0% levels significantly enhance the immunological parameters, increase the disease resistance and minimize the cumulative mortality in E. bruneus against V. parahaemolyticus. ..
  48. Holthoff J, Wang Z, Seely K, Gokden N, Mayeux P. Resveratrol improves renal microcirculation, protects the tubular epithelium, and prolongs survival in a mouse model of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Kidney Int. 2012;81:370-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As renal microvascular failure during sepsis is correlated with the generation of reactive nitrogen species, the therapeutic potential of resveratrol, a polyphenol vasodilator that is also capable of scavenging ..
  49. Sarkar A, Das J, Manna P, Sil P. Nano-copper induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Toxicology. 2011;290:208-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Nano-copper exposure increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and altered the levels of oxidative stress related biomarkers in kidney tissue...
  50. Cadorin B, Tralli V, Ceriani E, Benetoli L, Marotta E, Ceretta C, et al. Treatment of methyl orange by nitrogen non-thermal plasma in a corona reactor: The role of reactive nitrogen species. J Hazard Mater. 2015;300:754-764 pubmed publisher
    Methyl orange (MO) azo dye served as model organic pollutant to investigate the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in non-thermal plasma (NTP) induced water treatments...
  51. Premkumar L, Pabbidi R. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013;67:373-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will address the mechanisms, especially the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the development and progression of DPN. ..
  52. Lauro F, Ilari S, Giancotti L, Ventura C, Morabito C, Gliozzi M, et al. Pharmacological effect of a new idebenone formulation in a model of carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Pharmacol Res. 2016;111:767-773 pubmed publisher
    Considerable evidence demonstrated that the central role of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in the development of thermal hyperalgesia is associated to acute and chronic inflammation...
  53. Zargan J, Umar S, Sajad M, Naime M, Ali S, Khan H. Scorpion venom (Odontobuthus doriae) induces apoptosis by depolarization of mitochondria and reduces S-phase population in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:1748-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Apoptosis was evaluated with determination of mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive nitrogen species assay, measurement of Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation analysis...
  54. Sánchez Calvo B, Barroso J, Corpas F. Hypothesis: Nitro-fatty acids play a role in plant metabolism. Plant Sci. 2013;199-200:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..NO and NO-derived molecules peroxynitrite and S-nitrosoglutathione are reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that can directly or indirectly interact with a broad spectrum of biomolecules that affect their ..
  55. Kumar A, Pant M, Singh H, Khandelwal S. Determinants of oxidative stress and DNA damage (8-OhdG) in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Indian J Cancer. 2012;49:309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from genetic configuration, environmental and lifestyle factors, as well as poor oral hygiene, provide free radical-generating environment, which may contribute to the development of cancer through DNA damage...
  56. Falabella M, Forte E, Magnifico M, Santini P, Arese M, Giuffrè A, et al. Evidence for Detrimental Cross Interactions between Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Cells. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:3187560 pubmed publisher
    ..the pathogenic mutation 11778/ND4, display increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), as revealed by flow cytometry, fluorometric measurements of nitrite/nitrate, and 3-nitrotyrosine ..
  57. Di Naso F, Rodrigues G, Simões Dias A, Porawski M, Fillmann H, Marroni N. Hepatic nitrosative stress in experimental diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2012;26:378-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of the inhibition of nitrosative stress by aminoguanidine in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated...
  58. Kellett A, Howe O, O connor M, McCann M, Creaven B, McClean S, et al. Radical-induced DNA damage by cytotoxic square-planar copper(II) complexes incorporating o-phthalate and 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-dipyridyl. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:564-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic activity assays were conducted, and these activities are related to the ability of both complexes to cleave DNA through free radical generation...
  59. Afanas ev I. ROS and RNS signaling in heart disorders: could antioxidant treatment be successful?. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2011;2011:293769 pubmed publisher
    ..their derivatives hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite (all are named reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS)) play a more important role in heart diseases through their signaling functions...
  60. da Silva C, Silva M, Reis F, Ruiz A, de Carvalho J, Santos J, et al. Studies on free radical scavenging, cancer cell antiproliferation, and calf thymus DNA interaction of Schiff bases. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;172:129-138 pubmed publisher
    ..Their reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging activity and inhibitory effects against cancer cell growth were then subsequently ..
  61. Rocha M, Herance R, Rovira S, Hernandez Mijares A, Victor V. Mitochondrial dysfunction and antioxidant therapy in sepsis. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2012;12:161-78 pubmed
  62. Napoli C, Paolisso G, Casamassimi A, Al Omran M, Barbieri M, Sommese L, et al. Effects of nitric oxide on cell proliferation: novel insights. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This growing field may lead to broad and novel targeted therapies against cardiovascular diseases, especially concomitant type 2 diabetes, as well as novel bioimaging NO-based diagnostic tools...
  63. Song M, Husain M, Jones Carson J, Liu L, Henard C, Vazquez Torres A. Low-molecular-weight thiol-dependent antioxidant and antinitrosative defences in Salmonella pathogenesis. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:609-22 pubmed publisher
    ..synthetases to NO and S-nitrosoglutathione indicates that GSH antagonizes the bacteriostatic activity of reactive nitrogen species. Metabolites of the GSH biosynthetic pathway do not affect the enzymatic activity of classical NO ..
  64. Song E, Gordon Thomson C, Cole L, Stern H, Halliday G, Damian D, et al. 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces several types of UV-induced DNA damage and contributes to photoprotection. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..least in part, the mechanism of photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D3 is likely to be through the reduction of reactive nitrogen species and the subsequent reduction in oxidative and nitrosative damage...
  65. Guerra B, Otton R. Impact of the carotenoid astaxanthin on phagocytic capacity and ROS/RNS production of human neutrophils treated with free fatty acids and high glucose. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11:2220-6 pubmed publisher
  66. Cardaci S, Filomeni G, Ciriolo M. Redox implications of AMPK-mediated signal transduction beyond energetic clues. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2115-25 pubmed publisher
  67. Setta A, Barrow P, Kaiser P, Jones M. Immune dynamics following infection of avian macrophages and epithelial cells with typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars; bacterial invasion and persistence, nitric oxide and oxygen production, differential host gene expression, NF. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;146:212-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhimurium- and S. Enteritidis-infected CKC followed by S. Hadar and S. Infantis while no significant changes were observed in S. Pullorum or S. Gallinarum-infected CKC...