serpentine asbestos

Summary

Summary: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)

Top Publications

  1. Lai T, Pociask D, Ferris M, Nguyen H, Miller C, Brody A, et al. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting TGF-beta1 mRNA suppress asbestos-induced expression of TGF-beta1 and CTGF in fibroblasts. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2009;28:109-19 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that siRNAs could be effective in preventing or possibly arresting the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Studies are underway in vivo to test this postulate. ..
  2. Murr L, Garza K, Soto K, Carrasco A, Powell T, Ramirez D, et al. Cytotoxicity assessment of some carbon nanotubes and related carbon nanoparticle aggregates and the implications for anthropogenic carbon nanotube aggregates in the environment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2005;2:31-42 pubmed
    ..These results also raise concerns for manufactured carbon nanotube aggregates, and related fullerene nanoparticles...
  3. Ashford N, Castleman B, Frank A, Giannasi F, Goldman L, Greenberg M, et al. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and its influence on international organizations. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2002;8:156-62 pubmed
    ..Official recognition of the ICOH compromises the credibility of the WHO and the ILO. It is inappropriate for the ICOH to continue to receive WHO and ILO recognition unless the ICOH is recognized as an industry organization...
  4. Berman D, Crump K, Chatfield E, Davis J, Jones A. The sizes, shapes, and mineralogy of asbestos structures that induce lung tumors or mesothelioma in AF/HAN rats following inhalation. Risk Anal. 1995;15:181-95 pubmed
    ..However, mineralogy appears to be important in the induction of mesothelioma with chrysotile being less potent than amphibole...
  5. Poser I, Rahman Q, Lohani M, Yadav S, Becker H, Weiss D, et al. Modulation of genotoxic effects in asbestos-exposed primary human mesothelial cells by radical scavengers, metal chelators and a glutathione precursor. Mutat Res. 2004;559:19-27 pubmed
    ..the potency of crocidolite, an amphibole asbestos fiber with a high iron content (27%), and chrysotile, a serpentine asbestos fiber with a low iron content (2%), to induce micronuclei (MN) in human mesothelial cells (HMC) after an ..
  6. Cassiola F, Rogers R, Kiyohara P, Joekes I. Yeast cells long-term interaction with asbestos fibers. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2005;41:277-83 pubmed
    ..In all cases, a delay time for the onset of fermentation was observed indicating a state of latency...
  7. Egilman D, Roberts M. Re: Controlled use of asbestos. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2004;10:99-103 pubmed
  8. Berman D, Crump K. A meta-analysis of asbestos-related cancer risk that addresses fiber size and mineral type. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008;38 Suppl 1:49-73 pubmed publisher
    ..If similar data become available for Quebec, perhaps these two size distributions can be used to eliminate the discrepancy between these two studies...
  9. Xu A, Smilenov L, He P, Masumura K, Nohmi T, Yu Z, et al. New insight into intrachromosomal deletions induced by chrysotile in the gpt delta transgenic mutation assay. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:87-92 pubmed
    ..However, there is less evidence to demonstrate the contribution of deletions to the mutagenicity of asbestos fibers in vivo...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Mirabelli D, Calisti R, Barone Adesi F, Fornero E, Merletti F, Magnani C. Excess of mesotheliomas after exposure to chrysotile in Balangero, Italy. Occup Environ Med. 2008;65:815-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, follow-up ended in 1987 and white-collar workers and the employees of subcontractors were not studied...
  2. Brorby G, Sheehan P, Berman D, Greene J, Holm S. Re-creation of historical chrysotile-containing joint compounds. Inhal Toxicol. 2008;20:1043-53 pubmed
    ..g. viscosity, workability, crack resistance), indicating that these materials are sufficiently representative of the original products to support research activities...
  3. Bernstein D, Rogers R, Smith P. The biopersistence of Canadian chrysotile asbestos following inhalation: final results through 1 year after cessation of exposure. Inhal Toxicol. 2005;17:1-14 pubmed
    ..1998). These results fully support the differentiation of chrysotile from amphiboles reported in recent evaluations of available epidemiological studies (Hodgson & Darnton, 2000; Berman & Crump, 2004)...
  4. Bernstein D, Hoskins J. The health effects of chrysotile: current perspective based upon recent data. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;45:252-64 pubmed
    ..Since total dose over time decides the likelihood of disease occurrence and progression, they also suggest that the risk of an adverse outcome may be low if even any high exposures experienced were of short duration...
  5. Bernstein D, Rogers R, Smith P. The biopersistence of Canadian chrysotile asbestos following inhalation. Inhal Toxicol. 2003;15:1247-74 pubmed
    ..Taken in context with the scientific literature to date, this report provides new robust data that clearly support the difference seen epidemiologically between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos...
  6. Schechter S, Bruns T. Serpentine and non-serpentine ecotypes of Collinsia sparsiflora associate with distinct arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal assemblages. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3198-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, relate analysis showed a relationship between ecotype AMF assemblages and soil nutrients. This study reveals a strong relationship between AMF associates and plant adaptation to edaphic extremes...
  7. Lemen R. Chrysotile asbestos as a cause of mesothelioma: application of the Hill causation model. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2004;10:233-9 pubmed
    ..Many policymakers have relied upon this model in forming public health policy as well as deciding litigation issues. Chrysotile asbestos meets Hill's nine proposed criteria, establishing chrysotile asbestos as a cause of mesothelioma...
  8. Greenberg M. The art of perpetuating a public health hazard. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47:137-44 pubmed
    ..Even when shortly after asbestos was shown to be carcinogenic, Canadian Public Relations experts assisted by their scientists exculpated chrysotile by deeming other agents to have been causal...
  9. Li L, Sun T, Zhang X, Lai R, Li X, Fan X, et al. Cohort studies on cancer mortality among workers exposed only to chrysotile asbestos: a meta-analysis. Biomed Environ Sci. 2004;17:459-68 pubmed
    ..To determine whether there was excessive risk of cancer among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone by applying a meta-analysis technique...
  10. Bernstein D, Chevalier J, Smith P. Comparison of Calidria chrysotile asbestos to pure tremolite: final results of the inhalation biopersistence and histopathology examination following short-term exposure. Inhal Toxicol. 2005;17:427-49 pubmed
    ..As Calidria chrysotile has been certified to have no tremolite fiber, the results of the current study together with the results from toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that this fiber is not associated with lung disease...
  11. Bernstein D, Rogers R, Smith P. The biopersistence of brazilian chrysotile asbestos following inhalation. Inhal Toxicol. 2004;16:745-61 pubmed
    ..These results support the evidence presented by McDonald and McDonald (1997) that the chrysotile fibers are rapidly cleared from the lung in marked contrast to amphibole fibers which persist...
  12. Loomis D, Dement J, Wolf S, Richardson D. Lung cancer mortality and fibre exposures among North Carolina asbestos textile workers. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe mortality among workers exposed to chrysotile asbestos and evaluate the relationship between lung cancer and asbestos fibre exposure...
  13. Groppo C, Tomatis M, Turci F, Gazzano E, Ghigo D, Compagnoni R, et al. Potential toxicity of nonregulated asbestiform minerals: balangeroite from the western Alps. Part 1: Identification and characterization. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005;68:1-19 pubmed
    ..Data show that chemical composition, form, durability, and cell toxicity indicate balangeroite as a potentially harmful fibrous mineral that needs to be examined by further chemical and cellular tests...
  14. Churg A, Wright J, Gilks B, Depaoli L. Rapid short-term clearance of chrysotile compared with amosite asbestos in the guinea pig. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;139:885-90 pubmed
  15. Wu P, Hyodoh F, Hatayama T, Sakaguchi H, Hatada S, Miura Y, et al. Induction of CD69 antigen expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells on exposure to silica, but not by asbestos/chrysotile-A. Immunol Lett. 2005;98:145-52 pubmed
  16. McCulloch J. Asbestos mining in Southern Africa, 1893-2002. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2003;9:230-5 pubmed
    ..The result has been a legacy of disease and environmental pollution. ..
  17. Puledda S, Ferdinandi M, Plescia P. [First intercalibration test of diffractometric measurements of asbestos in National Italian laboratories]. Med Lav. 1998;89:292-300 pubmed
  18. Turci F, Tomatis M, Compagnoni R, Fubini B. Role of associated mineral fibres in chrysotile asbestos health effects: the case of balangeroite. Ann Occup Hyg. 2009;53:491-7 pubmed publisher
  19. Kuroda A, Nishimura T, Ishida T, Hirota R, Nomura K. Detection of chrysotile asbestos by using a chrysotile-binding protein. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008;99:285-9 pubmed
    ..Also, using a fusion of DksA and green-fluorescent protein, we were able to detect chrysotile by fluorescence microscopy. ..
  20. Pang T. Precision and accuracy of asbestos fiber counting by phase contrast microscopy. AIHAJ. 2000;61:529-38 pubmed
    ..The slides may also be used to harmonize various phase contrast optical microscopy methods and proficiency testing programs...
  21. Schilling G. Division for Planetary Sciences meeting: Martian methane: rocky birth, then gone with the wind?. Science. 2005;309:1984-5 pubmed
  22. Paustenbach D, Finley B, Sheehan P, Brorby G. Re: Evaluation of the size and type of free particulates collected from unused asbestos-containing brake components as related to potential for respirability. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49:60-1; author reply 62-4 pubmed
    ..The findings of Atkinson et al. do not, in our view, "further raise concerns" about historical asbestos exposures experienced by automotive mechanics because of the vast amount of published literature to the contrary. ..
  23. Merler E, Chellini E. [Epidemiology of primary tumors of the pleura]. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 1992;28:133-46 pubmed
    ..The authors present the results of both cohort and case-control analytical studies performed in Italy, and provide suggestions for further research. ..
  24. Yoshida N, Naka T, Sengoku T, Ogawa K. Toxicity and mutagenesis of chrysotile asbestos to Agrobacterium radiobacter. Curr Microbiol. 2001;42:398-402 pubmed
    ..It was shown that one of the mutations by the asbestos in the A. radiobacter occurred only in the primer annealed region and was a point mutation or deletion. ..
  25. Pukkala E, Guo J, Kyyrönen P, Lindbohm M, Sallmen M, Kauppinen T. National job-exposure matrix in analyses of census-based estimates of occupational cancer risk. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005;31:97-107 pubmed
    ..The FINJEM-based method gives valid results, and it can be used to analyze large sets of register-based data on health outcomes. ..
  26. Maino A, Gianelle V, Onida F, Albiero S. [Occupational exposure to asbestos in removal and protective treatment of roof coverings]. Med Lav. 1995;86:546-554 pubmed
    ..In order to limit both personal and environmental risk, it is essential to observe the rules of caution and good practice. ..
  27. Yee H, Yie T, Goldberg J, Wong K, Rom W. Immunohistochemical study of fibrosis and adenocarcinoma in dominant-negative p53 transgenic mice exposed to chrysotile asbestos and benzo(a)pyrene. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2008;27:267-76 pubmed
  28. Langer A, Nolan R. Asbestos in the lungs of persons exposed in the USA. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1998;53:168-80 pubmed
  29. Mangold C, Clark K, Madl A, Paustenbach D. An exposure study of bystanders and workers during the installation and removal of asbestos gaskets and packing. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006;3:87-98 pubmed
    ..These results are not surprising given that asbestos fibers in gasket materials are encapsulated within a binder. ..
  30. Foresti E, Fornero E, Lesci I, Rinaudo C, Zuccheri T, Roveri N. Asbestos health hazard: a spectroscopic study of synthetic geoinspired Fe-doped chrysotile. J Hazard Mater. 2009;167:1070-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight the role of Fe substitution in the asbestos structure influencing the health hazard of biological systems. ..
  31. Dodic Fikfak M, Kriebel D, Quinn M, Eisen E, Wegman D. A case control study of lung cancer and exposure to chrysotile and amphibole at a slovenian asbestos-cement plant. Ann Occup Hyg. 2007;51:261-8 pubmed
    ..There are only a few asbestos-lung cancer studies with high-quality exposure data and exposures in this low range. Though imprecise, the findings are important to the ongoing debate about asbestos risks. ..
  32. Silvestri S, Veraldi A, Falcone M, Capone P, Amato G, Campopiano A, et al. [Serpentine and amphiboles in Calabria: preliminary results of a monitoring programme in the general environment and in the workplace]. Epidemiol Prev. 2005;29:63-4 pubmed
  33. Lee R, van Orden D. Airborne asbestos in buildings. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;50:218-25 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that in-place ACM does not result in elevated airborne asbestos in building atmospheres approaching regulatory levels and that it does not result in a significantly increased risk to building occupants. ..
  34. Artali R, Del Pra A, Foresti E, Lesci I, Roveri N, Sabatino P. Adsorption of human serum albumin on the chrysotile surface: a molecular dynamics and spectroscopic investigation. J R Soc Interface. 2008;5:273-83 pubmed
    ..The experimental results support the atomistic computer simulations providing a realistic description of the adsorption of plasma proteins onto chrysotile and unravelling a key step in the understanding of asbestos toxicity. ..
  35. Hein M, Stayner L, Lehman E, Dement J. Follow-up study of chrysotile textile workers: cohort mortality and exposure-response. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:616-25 pubmed
  36. Choi S, Suk M, Paik N. Asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos levels in industrial buildings in Korea. J UOEH. 2010;32:31-43 pubmed
    ..The average airborne concentration of asbestos sampled without disturbing in-place ACM was 0.0028 fibers/cc by PCM, with all measurements below the standard of recommendation for indoor air quality in Korea (0.01 fibers/cc). ..
  37. Paoletti L, Puledda S. [An approach to the classification and assessment of asbestos-containing wastes: description of a survey conducted in an industrial area]. Med Lav. 1992;83:371-80 pubmed
    ..A general approach to the solution of these issues is offered and applied to the case in question as a possible practical model of environmental control in this specific field. ..
  38. Nyberg P. Polyvinylpyridine-N-oxide and carboxymethyl cellulose inhibit mineral dust-induced production of reactive oxygen species by human macrophages. Environ Res. 1991;55:157-64 pubmed
    ..These observations may be useful in describing the pathogenesis of mineral dust-induced diseases, and may also have therapeutic implications. ..
  39. Nishimura Y, Miura Y, Maeda M, Kumagai N, Murakami S, Hayashi H, et al. Impairment in cytotoxicity and expression of NK cell- activating receptors on human NK cells following exposure to asbestos fibers. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009;22:579-90 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that exposure to asbestos has the potential to impair the cytotoxicity of NK cells and alter the expression of NK cell-activating receptors including NKG2D, 2B4 and NKp46 and intracellular perforin/granzymes. ..
  40. Rogers A, Leigh J, Berry G, Ferguson D, Mulder H, Ackad M. Relationship between lung asbestos fiber type and concentration and relative risk of mesothelioma. A case-control study. Cancer. 1991;67:1912-20 pubmed
    ..3 (95% CI, 1.0 to 5.3). An additive risk model gave similar results. In a subgroup of cases and controls with only chrysotile in the lungs, a significant trend in odds ratio with increasing fiber content was found. ..
  41. Dodson R, Williams M, Huang J, Bruce J. Tissue burden of asbestos in nonoccupationally exposed individuals from east Texas. Am J Ind Med. 1999;35:281-6 pubmed
    ..The total tissue burden of asbestos in this study is much less than earlier reported observations from other general populations. ..
  42. Harington J, McGlashan N, Chelkowska E. South Africa's export trade in asbestos: demise of an industry. Am J Ind Med. 2010;53:524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The export trade has changed significantly since 1960 from being dominantly to European countries to being directed in recent years to the Far East, with serious implications for asbestos-related ill-health in those countries. ..
  43. Blake C, Van Orden D, Banasik M, Harbison R. Airborne asbestos concentration from brake changing does not exceed permissible exposure limit. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003;38:58-70 pubmed
    ..Airborne chrysotile fiber exposures for each test remained below currently applicable limit of 0.1 fiber/ml (eight-hour time-weighted average). ..
  44. Belitskaya Levy I, Hajjou M, Su W, Yie T, Tchou Wong K, Tang M, et al. Gene profiling of normal human bronchial epithelial cells in response to asbestos and benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE). J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2007;26:281-94 pubmed
    ..These in vitro findings in NHBE cells model environment-gene interaction for asbestos and BPDE, highlighting effects of inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and DNA damage recognition and repair. ..
  45. Wang Q, Yang X, Yan L, Zhao J, Liu S, Shen H. [Effects of chrysotile asbestos on the activities of cytochrome P4501A1 and glutathione S-transferase in A549 cell line]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002;36:406-9 pubmed
  46. Langer A. Reduction of the biological potential of chrysotile asbestos arising from conditions of service on brake pads. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003;38:71-7 pubmed
  47. Morimoto Y, Tsuda T, Nakamura H, Hori H, Yamato H, Nagata N, et al. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, and extracellular matrix mRNA following exposure to mineral fibers and cigarette smoke in vivo. Environ Health Perspect. 1997;105 Suppl 5:1247-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the imbalance of the expression of MMPs, TIMPs, and extracellular matrix may be associated with the remodeling of lung tissues induced by mineral fibers and/or cigarette smoke...
  48. Rudd R. Malignant mesothelioma. Br Med Bull. 2010;93:105-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Mesothelioma is a malignant tumour of the pleura or peritoneum caused by asbestos. It is increasing in frequency and the prognosis remains grim, with average survival around 1 year...
  49. Pira E, Pelucchi C, Piolatto P, Negri E, Bilei T, La Vecchia C. Mortality from cancer and other causes in the Balangero cohort of chrysotile asbestos miners. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:805-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide further information on mortality from cancer and other causes among chrysotile asbestos miners several years after exposure ceased, we updated the analyses from the Balangero mine worker cohort with follow-up to the end of 2003...
  50. Oke Y, Yamasaki N, Amamoto G, Sasaki K, Maeta N, Fujimaki H, et al. Novel selective dyeing method for chrysotile asbestos detection in concrete materials. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:1638-42 pubmed
    ..Our results may provide a basis for further development of a simple on-site detection method for chrysotile asbestos in building materials and may facilitate the progress of control and removal of asbestos in the environment...
  51. Rajkumar M, Ma Y, Freitas H. Characterization of metal-resistant plant-growth promoting Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolated from serpentine soil in Portugal. J Basic Microbiol. 2008;48:500-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study elucidates the multifarious role of strain SM3 in plant growth promotion and its metal mobilizing potential...
  52. Yoshida N, Ide K. Plasmid DNA is released from nanosized acicular material surface by low molecular weight oligonucleotides: exogenous plasmid acquisition mechanism for penetration intermediates based on the Yoshida effect. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;80:813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that pUC18 adsorbed onto chrysotile can be released by 300-bp small RNA, replicated by DNA polymerase, and transferred to daughter cells...
  53. Arif J, Khan S, Aslam M, Mahmood N, Rahman Q. Diminution in kerosene-mediated induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by asbestos in rat lungs. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992;71:37-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that asbestos by altering the pulmonary drug metabolizing enzyme system may increase the toxic potential of kerosene and its ignition product in the respiratory system...
  54. Liddell F, Armstrong B. The combination of effects on lung cancer of cigarette smoking and exposure in quebec chrysotile miners and millers. Ann Occup Hyg. 2002;46:5-13 pubmed
    ..Indeed, there seems to be no good reason to believe that interactions conform to any simple theory. The implications are important...
  55. Smith W, Hubert D, Yazdi E, Holiat S, Bissell E, Watts L, et al. Complete remissions in chemotherapy of lung cancer models induced in mice by asbestos. Mt Sinai J Med. 2005;72:23-32 pubmed
    ..As a single agent, aziridinylbenzoquinone (AZQ) increased life span but gave no CRs. There were CRs of ASB XIII in all of 8 mice after toxic combined therapy with PCNU and AZQ. There were no CRs in 66 control mice bearing ASB XIII...
  56. Kudo Y, Watanabe M, Okada M, Shinji H, Niitsuya M, Satoh T, et al. Comparative cytotoxicity study of rock wool and chrysotile by cell magnetometric evaluation. Inhal Toxicol. 2003;15:1275-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, magnetometric measurements suggested no cytotoxicity of RW. We plan, in the future, to evaluate the safety of RW by magnetometric measurement and morphological observation of the lungs in in vivo inhalation experiments...
  57. Harington J, McGlashan N. South African asbestos: production, exports, and destinations, 1959-1993. Am J Ind Med. 1998;33:321-6 pubmed
    ..This implies that the newly importing countries can confidently expect an increase in asbestos-related disease and death well into the twenty-first century, even if the trade ceased now...
  58. Koskinen K, Zitting A, Tossavainen A, Rinne J, Roto P, Kivekäs J, et al. Radiographic abnormalities among Finnish construction, shipyard and asbestos industry workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24:109-17 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities was surveyed among Finnish construction, shipyard, and asbestos industry workers...
  59. Yoshida N, Saeki Y. Chestnut bur-shaped aggregates of chrysotile particles enable inoculation of Escherichia coli cells with plasmid DNA. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;65:566-75 pubmed
    ..The inoculation of plasmid DNA into E. coli cells demonstrates the usefulness of chrysotile for E. coli transformation...
  60. Drumm K, Oettinger R, Smolarski R, Bay M, Kienast K. In vitro study of human alveolar macrophages inflammatory mediator transcriptions and releases induced by soot FR 101, Printex 90, titandioxide and Chrysotile B. Eur J Med Res. 1998;3:432-8 pubmed
  61. Egilman D, Fehnel C, Bohme S. Exposing the "myth" of ABC, "anything but chrysotile": a critique of the Canadian asbestos mining industry and McGill University chrysotile studies. Am J Ind Med. 2003;44:540-57 pubmed
    ..Beginning in the 1930s, the Canadian asbestos industry created and advanced the idea that chrysotile asbestos is safer than asbestos of other fiber types...
  62. Sakai K, Hisanaga N, Kohyama N, Shibata E, Takeuchi Y. Airborne fiber concentration and size distribution of mineral fibers in area with serpentinite outcrops in Aichi prefecture, Japan. Ind Health. 2001;39:132-40 pubmed
    ..Tremolite/actinolite were also found in the soils. There was no significant difference among the areas in the arithmetic means of fiber size distribution of both asbestos and nonasbestos fibers...
  63. Nicholson W. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos--a review. Ind Health. 2001;39:57-64 pubmed
    ..From studies in the United States and Great Britain, chrysotile has been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer and to produce mesothelioma in exposed workers...
  64. Rees D, Phillips J, Garton E, Pooley F. Asbestos lung fibre concentrations in South African chrysotile mine workers. Ann Occup Hyg. 2001;45:473-7 pubmed
    ..Tremolite fibre concentrations exceeded those of chrysotile in only two cases. These results support the contention that South African chrysotile is not heavily contaminated by tremolite...
  65. Enrico Favero Longo S, Turci F, Tomatis M, Compagnoni R, Piervittori R, Fubini B. The effect of weathering on ecopersistence, reactivity, and potential toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos and asbestiform minerals. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:305-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Any contribution of balangeroite to chrysotile toxicity will thus be related to its quantitative occurrence and not to higher structural stability...
  66. Pugnaloni A, Giantomassi F, Lucarini G, Capella S, Belmonte M, Orciani M, et al. Effects of asbestiform antigorite on human alveolar epithelial A549 cells: a morphological and immunohistochemical study. Acta Histochem. 2010;112:133-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies indicate potential cellular toxicity of antigorite in vivo, providing the opportunity to elucidate the effect of asbestos on cancer induction and possible modes of therapy...
  67. Lim Y, Kim S, Kim K, Oh M, Lee K. Involvement of protein kinase C, phospholipase C, and protein tyrosine kinase pathways in oxygen radical generation by asbestos-stimulated alveolar macrophage. Environ Health Perspect. 1997;105 Suppl 5:1325-7 pubmed
    ..PLC and PTK inhibitors suppressed the increment of phosphoinositide turnover by amosite. These results suggest that asbestos fibers induce the generation of oxygen radicals through PTK, PLC, and PKC pathways in a dose-response pattern...
  68. Howden P, Faux S. Fibre-induced lipid peroxidation leads to DNA adduct formation in Salmonella typhimurium TA104 and rat lung fibroblasts. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:413-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, fibre-induced lipid peroxidation may be a possible mechanism in the genotoxic action of fibrous materials...
  69. Azari M, Nasermoaddeli A, Movahadi M, Mehrabi Y, Hatami H, Soori H, et al. Risk assessment of lung cancer and asbestosis in workers exposed to asbestos fibers in brake shoe factory in Iran. Ind Health. 2010;48:38-42 pubmed
    ..Negative correlation between lung function parameters (FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC) and cumulative exposures adjusted for age and BMI were significant (p<0.05)...
  70. Barbieri P, Somigliana A, Festa R, Bercich L. [Pulmonary concentration of asbestos fibers in steel workers with pleural mesothelioma]. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2010;32:149-53 pubmed
    ..This study, although based on a small number of cases, is the only one ever held in Italy on workers in this sector...
  71. Suzuki M, Piao C, Zhao Y, Hei T. Karyotype analysis of tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells transformed by chrysolite asbestos using chemically induced premature chromosome condensation technique. Int J Mol Med. 2001;8:43-7 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the karyotypic change of chromosome 5, 8 and 19 could play an important role in asbestos-induced tumorigenic conversion of human bronchial epithelial cells from an immortalized to tumorigenic state...
  72. Yadav S, Rahman Q, Geh S, Pant A. Modulatory effects of fresh garlic extract on chrysotile asbestos induced genotoxicity: an in vitro study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;77:477-83 pubmed
  73. Smailyte G, Kurtinaitis J, Andersen A. Cancer mortality and morbidity among Lithuanian asbestos-cement producing workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2004;30:64-70 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the incidence of cancer and cause-specific mortality among workers in the two Lithuanian asbestos-cement factories...
  74. Pociask D, Sime P, Brody A. Asbestos-derived reactive oxygen species activate TGF-beta1. Lab Invest. 2004;84:1013-23 pubmed
    ..The oxidized LAP could no longer form a complex with TGF-beta1. Our data support the postulate that ROS derived from asbestos provide a mechanism for activating TGF-beta1 in the alveolar environment by oxidizing amino acids in LAP...
  75. Turci F, Tomatis M, Mantegna S, Cravotto G, Fubini B. A new approach to the decontamination of asbestos-polluted waters by treatment with oxalic acid under power ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem. 2008;15:420-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as the length of these antigorite fibrils lay outside the fibre range rated as a health hazard under worldwide regulations, our procedure can be employed for the decontamination of chrysotile-polluted waters and sediments...
  76. Webber J, Czuhanich A, Carhart L. Performance of membrane filters used for TEM analysis of asbestos. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4:780-9 pubmed
    ..Variations in the geometric configuration during application of carbon films can lead to fiber loss and unacceptable grid quality for either type of filter...
  77. Tweedale G, McCulloch J. Chrysophiles versus chrysophobes: the white asbestos controversy, 1950s-2004. Isis. 2004;95:239-59 pubmed
    ..Political, economic, and social factors have militated against a speedy resolution of the debate, facilitating the continued production and use of asbestos in the developing world...
  78. Falini G, Foresti E, Lesci I, Lunelli B, Sabatino P, Roveri N. Interaction of bovine serum albumin with chrysotile: spectroscopic and morphological studies. Chemistry. 2006;12:1968-74 pubmed
  79. Bratteler M, Lexer C, Widmer A. A genetic linkage map of Silene vulgaris based on AFLP markers. Genome. 2006;49:320-7 pubmed
    ..The maps represent a first step towards the identification of quantitative trait loci associated with habitat adaptation in the non-model species Silene vulgaris...
  80. Iwagaki A, Choe N, Li Y, Hemenway D, Kagan E. Asbestos inhalation induces tyrosine nitration associated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in the rat lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;28:51-60 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that asbestos fibers may activate the ERK signaling pathway by generating ONOO- or other nitrating species that induce tyrosine nitration and phosphorylation of critical signaling molecules...
  81. Kashansky S, Domnin S, Kochelayev V, Monakhov D, Kogan F. Retrospective view of airborne dust levels in workplace of a chrysotile mine in Ural, Russia. Ind Health. 2001;39:51-6 pubmed
    ..An excessive dust level remains, despite the dust content level decrease, at the work sites of oversized lump drillers and unloaders, and oncopathology heightened risk remains in these occupational groups, as a result...
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    ..This study was undertaken to determine whether certain criteria could be used to select among asbestos-exposed subjects those who could benefit from computed tomography screening...
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    ..Asbestos bodies were seen in the lungs of treated monkeys, primarily in the interstitium near bronchioles or small pulmonary blood vessels (which also may have been near to bronchioles just out of the plane of section)...
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    ..The selected bacterial isolates were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin G and polymyxin B, whereas fungal strains showed resistance to amphotericin B, nystatin and fusidic acid...
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