magnesium sulfate

Summary

Summary: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)

Top Publications

  1. Alauddin M, Sarkar M, Munshi S, Tapan N, Maltrayee S. Efficacy and safety of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the treatment of eclampsia. J Indian Med Assoc. 2011;109:485-6, 488 pubmed
    ..Maternal mortality rate was 3.70% and perinatal mortality 9.15%. The results suggest that MgSO4 is very safe and effective for treating eclampsia and offers good prognosis for both mother and foetus...
  2. Uysal N, Baykara B, Kiray M, Cetin F, Aksu I, Dayi A, et al. Combined treatment with progesterone and magnesium sulfate positively affects traumatic brain injury in immature rats. Turk Neurosurg. 2013;23:129-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to explore the neuroprotective effect of combination therapy with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and progesterone in the 7-days-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury...
  3. Burd I, Breen K, Friedman A, Chai J, Elovitz M. Magnesium sulfate reduces inflammation-associated brain injury in fetal mice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:292.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) prevents fetal brain injury in inflammation-associated preterm birth (PTB).
  4. Ma L, Liu W, Zhang J, Chen G, Fan J, Sheng H. Magnesium sulphate in the management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of prospective controlled trials. Brain Inj. 2010;24:730-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of intravenous magnesium therapy in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)...
  5. Khalili G, Janghorbani M, Sajedi P, Ahmadi G. Effects of adjunct intrathecal magnesium sulfate to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia: a randomized, double-blind trial in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery. J Anesth. 2011;25:892-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) 100 mg to intrathecal (IT) isobaric 0.5% bupivacaine 3 ml on spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing lower extremity orthopedic surgery.
  6. Dorhout Mees S, Algra A, Vandertop W, Van Kooten F, Kuijsten H, Boiten J, et al. Magnesium for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (MASH-2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2012;380:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravenous magnesium sulphate does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, therefore routine administration of magnesium cannot be recommended. Netherlands Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council. ..
  7. McDonald S, Lutsiv O, Dzaja N, Duley L. A systematic review of maternal and infant outcomes following magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in real-world use. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012;118:90-6 pubmed publisher
    Evidence from RCTs shows that magnesium sulfate reduces the risk of seizures and mortality for women with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia...
  8. Kao M, Jan W, Tsai P, Wang T, Huang C. Magnesium sulfate mitigates lung injury induced by bilateral lower limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. J Surg Res. 2011;171:e97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) possesses potent anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation capacity...
  9. Mori K, Yamamoto T, Nakao Y, Miyazaki M, Iwata J, Tamura M, et al. Novel neuroprotective effect of cisternal and intra-cerebral magnesium sulfate solution infusion on delayed cerebral death in rat hippocampal neurons after transient global ischemia. Brain Res. 2012;1480:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The neuroprotective effects of cisternal and intra-cerebral infusion of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) solution were evaluated against delayed neuronal death (DND) of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ..

More Information

Publications65

  1. Gozdemir M, Usta B, Demircioglu R, Muslu B, Sert H, Karatas O. Magnesium sulfate infusion prevents shivering during transurethral prostatectomy with spinal anesthesia: a randomized, double-blinded, controlled study. J Clin Anesth. 2010;22:184-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) infusion during surgery reduces shivering during spinal anesthesia.
  2. Eshkoli T, Holcberg G, Bronfenmacher B, Amash A, Huleihel M, Erez O. Perfusion with magnesium sulfate increases sFlt-1 secretion only in the fetal side of placenta of women with preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;26:116-22 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) on sFlt (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase)-1 in the fetal and maternal compartments of normotensive and preeclamptic placentas.
  3. Westermaier T, Stetter C, Vince G, Pham M, Tejon J, Eriskat J, et al. Prophylactic intravenous magnesium sulfate for treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:1284-90 pubmed publisher
    To examine whether the maintenance of elevated magnesium serum concentrations by intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate can reduce the occurrence of cerebral ischemic events after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  4. Tukur J, Muhammad Z. Management of eclampsia at AKTH: before and after magnesium sulphate. Niger J Med. 2010;19:104-7 pubmed
    ..This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of the introduction of magnesium sulphate for the management of eclamptic seizures on maternal and fetal indices in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital [AKTH], Kano...
  5. Mori K, Yamamoto T, Miyazaki M, Hara Y, Aiko Y, Koike N, et al. Optimal cerebrospinal fluid magnesium ion concentration for vasodilatory effect and duration after intracisternal injection of magnesium sulfate solution in a canine subarachnoid hemorrhage model. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:1168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The temporal profile of the vasodilatory effect and optimal CSF Mg(++) concentration after the intracisternal injection of MgSO(4) solution were investigated in an SAH model in canines...
  6. Suarez J. Magnesium sulfate administration in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2011;15:302-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Benefit was likewise not supported in the single phase III clinical trial...
  7. Gao F, Ding B, Zhou L, Gao X, Guo H, Xu H. Magnesium sulfate provides neuroprotection in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary microglia by inhibiting NF-?B pathway. J Surg Res. 2013;184:944-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Magnesium sulfate has been used as an anticonvulsant in severe preeclamptic or eclamptic women prior to surgical trauma, but its effects on neuroinflammation is not well defined...
  8. Wong G, Poon W, Chan M, Boet R, Gin T, Ng S, et al. Plasma magnesium concentrations and clinical outcomes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: post hoc analysis of intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage trial. Stroke. 2010;41:1841-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Conflicting data have been obtained on optimal plasma magnesium concentrations for clinical outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage...
  9. Muganyizi P, Shagdara M. Predictors of extra care among magnesium sulphate treated eclamptic patients at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011;11:41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to establish predictors of extra care in ICU among eclamptic patients after treatment with MgSO4 at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH)...
  10. Dhakal G, Subedi M, Paudel K. Magnesium sulphate in management of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2012;10:113-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of the study was to explore current situation of SPE/E management using MgSO4 in 10 health facilities of Mid Western Development Region...
  11. Zou L, Wang X, Dong C, Chen C, Zhao W, Zhao R. Three-week combination treatment with ACTH + magnesium sulfate versus ACTH monotherapy for infantile spasms: a 24-week, randomized, open-label, follow-up study in China. Clin Ther. 2010;32:692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnesium ion is an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-noncompetitive antagonist that might inhibit NMDA activity and has antiepileptic and neuroprotective effects...
  12. Twickler D, McIntire D, Alexander J, Leveno K. Effects of magnesium sulfate on preterm fetal cerebral blood flow using Doppler analysis: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:21-5 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the effects of maternal administration of magnesium sulfate on the fetal middle cerebral artery using Doppler.
  13. Smith J, Lowe R, Fullerton J, Currie S, Harris L, Felker Kantor E. An integrative review of the side effects related to the use of magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia management. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for prevention of seizures as part of comprehensive management of the disease...
  14. Sharma N, Cho D, Kim S, Bhattarai J, Hwang P, Han S. Magnesium sulfate suppresses L-type calcium currents on the basilar artery smooth muscle cells in rabbits. Neurol Res. 2012;34:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of L-type Ca(2+) channels in the magnesium-induced relaxation of basilar smooth muscle cells, we examined the effect of magnesium sulfate on L-type Ca(2+) currents using freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from rabbit basilar arteries.
  15. Bryskin R, Weldon B. Dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate in the perioperative management of a child undergoing laparoscopic resection of bilateral pheochromocytomas. J Clin Anesth. 2010;22:126-9 pubmed publisher
    ..8 year-old boy undergoing resection of pheochromocytoma, who received a combination of dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) for hemodynamic control, is reported. He was prepared for surgery with phenoxybenzamine and atenolol...
  16. Reeves S, Gibbs R, Clark S. Magnesium for fetal neuroprotection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:202.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    Available evidence now suggests that magnesium sulfate administered to mothers prior to early preterm delivery reduces the risk of cerebral palsy in surviving neonates...
  17. van Dam R, Hogan A, McCullough C, Houston M, Humphrey C, Harford A. Aquatic toxicity of magnesium sulfate, and the influence of calcium, in very low ionic concentration water. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:410-21 pubmed publisher
    The toxicity of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)), and the influence of calcium (Ca), were assessed in very soft freshwater (natural Magela Creek water [NMCW]) using six freshwater species (Chlorella sp...
  18. Dowling O, Chatterjee P, Gupta M, Tam Tam H, Xue X, Lewis D, et al. Magnesium sulfate reduces bacterial LPS-induced inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface. Placenta. 2012;33:392-8 pubmed publisher
    Maternal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration exerts anti-inflammatory and fetal neuroprotective effects...
  19. Vergouwen M. Magnesium sulfate for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: the end of the road or more trials?. Crit Care. 2011;15:140 pubmed publisher
    ..a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of magnesium sulfate in patients with aneurysmal SAH...
  20. Bhattacharjee N, Saha S, Ganguly R, Patra K, Dhali B, Das N, et al. A randomised comparative study between low-dose intravenous magnesium sulphate and standard intramuscular regimen for treatment of eclampsia. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011;31:298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..0001), in which no patient developed magnesium toxicity. Low-dose intravenous magnesium sulphate was found to be as effective as the standard intramuscular regimen, while maintaining a high safety margin...
  21. Johnson L, Mapp D, Rouse D, Spong C, Mercer B, Leveno K, et al. Association of cord blood magnesium concentration and neonatal resuscitation. J Pediatr. 2012;160:573-577.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the relationship between umbilical cord blood magnesium concentration and level of delivery room resuscitation received by neonates...
  22. Demir B, Ozerkan K, Ozbek S, Yıldırım Eryılmaz N, Ocakoglu G. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and mannitol in treatment of eclamptic women with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;286:287-93 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) and mannitol in the treatment of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) in eclamptic women.
  23. Getaneh W, Kumbi S. Use of magnesium sulfate in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in teaching hospitals in Addis Ababa: a practice audit. Ethiop Med J. 2010;48:157-64 pubmed
    ..However, the drug was introduced in practice in teaching hospitals in Addis Ababa recently. Hence, it is important to audit its use at this stage...
  24. Huang C, Liou Y, Chung S, Pai P, Kan C, Kuo C, et al. Increased expression of glucose transporter 3 in gerbil brains following magnesium sulfate treatment and focal cerebral ischemic injury. Cell Biochem Funct. 2010;28:313-20 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) ameliorates ischemia-induced neuronal death in the rat and gerbil model...
  25. Conde Agudelo A, Romero R, Kusanovic J. Nifedipine in the management of preterm labor: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:134.e1-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the efficacy and safety of nifedipine as a tocolytic agent in women with preterm labor...
  26. Ridge A, Bero L, Hill S. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: a case study in Zambia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10:340 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System...
  27. Mori K, Miyazaki M, Hara Y, Aiko Y, Yamamoto T, Nakao Y, et al. Temporal profile of the effects of intracisternal injection of magnesium sulfate solution on vasodilation of spastic cerebral arteries in the canine SAH model. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2011;110:39-42 pubmed publisher
    the temporal profiles of the effects of intracisternal injection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) on vasodilation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) concentration were investigated in the canine subarachnoid hemorrhage (..
  28. Funai Y, Ikeda Y, Takahashi R, Asada A. [Prolonged apnea from rocuronium in a patient with hypermagnesemia after cesarean section: a case report]. Masui. 2010;59:721-3 pubmed
    ..8 kg. She received intravenous magnesium sulfate 1 g x hr(-1) as tocolytic agent for threatened premature delivery...
  29. Song J, Lee Y, Yoon K, Park S, Shim Y. Magnesium sulfate prevents remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:390-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In a randomized, double-blind, prospective study, we investigated whether an intraoperative high versus low dose of remifentanil increased postoperative hyperalgesia and whether magnesium can prevent remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia...
  30. Amash A, Holcberg G, Sapir O, Huleihel M. Placental secretion of interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in preeclampsia: effect of magnesium sulfate. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:432-41 pubmed publisher
    ..the circulatory levels of IL-1? and its natural inhibitor IL-1Ra in preeclampsia, and the possible effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) on these levels...
  31. Su N, Peng T, Tsai P, Huang C. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in mediating the anti-inflammation effects of magnesium sulfate. J Surg Res. 2013;185:726-32 pubmed publisher
    We sought to elucidate whether enhancing phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activity is a crucial mechanism underlying the anti-inflammation effects of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4).
  32. Cahill A, Odibo A, Stout M, Grobman W, Macones G, Caughey A. Magnesium sulfate therapy for the prevention of cerebral palsy in preterm infants: a decision-analytic and economic analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:542.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of magnesium neuroprophylaxis for all women at risk for preterm birth <32 weeks...
  33. Zhou Q, Shen J, Zhou G, Shen L, Zhou S, Li X. Effects of magnesium sulfate on heart rate, blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity in preeclamptic rats treated with L-NAME. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2013;32:422-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Magnesium sulfate is used for the treatment of preeclampsia...
  34. Wolf H, Hegaard H, Greisen G, Huusom L, Hedegaard M. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;32:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The effective dose and timing, however, is not defined and given the lack of mechanistic understanding of the effect of MgSO(4), a reasonable alternative is a large-scale pragmatic clinical trial...
  35. Wong G, Boet R, Poon W, Chan M, Gin T, Ng S, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systemic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2011;15:R52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was thus to perform an up-to-date systemic review and meta-analysis of published data on the use of magnesium sulphate infusion in aneurysmal SAH patients...
  36. Magee L, Sawchuck D, Synnes A, von Dadelszen P. SOGC Clinical Practice Guideline. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2011;33:516-529 pubmed publisher
    ..To provide guidelines for the use of antenatal magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for fetal neuroprotection of the preterm infant...
  37. Tang F, Xiao B, Xiong Q, Yang M. A case report: magnesium intoxication occurring in the process of total serum magnesium decrease. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36:174-7 pubmed publisher
    ..66 mg/dL. We concluded that the serum magnesium level cannot be represented by the total serum magnesium concentration to a full extent; a lower total serum magnesium concentration may still lead to magnesium intoxication...
  38. Wong G, Poon W, Chan M, Boet R, Gin T, Ng S, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (IMASH): a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase III trial. Stroke. 2010;41:921-6 pubmed publisher
    Pilot clinical trials using magnesium sulfate in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage have reported trends toward improvement in clinical outcomes...
  39. Gallegos Solórzano M, Perez Padilla R, Hernández Zenteno R. Usefulness of inhaled magnesium sulfate in the coadjuvant management of severe asthma crisis in an emergency department. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010;23:432-7 pubmed publisher
    Treatment of severe asthma may be difficult despite the use of several medications including parenteral corticosteroids. Intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) is one ancillary drug for severe crisis; its inhaled use is controversial.
  40. Dabbagh A, Rajaei S, Shamsolahrar M. The effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate on acute postoperative bleeding in elective coronary artery bypass surgery. J Perianesth Nurs. 2010;25:290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate infusion on postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) ..
  41. Duley L, Gulmezoglu A, Henderson Smart D, Chou D. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;:CD000025 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice for treating eclampsia. This review assesses its use for preventing eclampsia...
  42. Cetinkaya M, Alkan T, Ozyener F, Kafa I, Kurt M, Koksal N. Possible neuroprotective effects of magnesium sulfate and melatonin as both pre- and post-treatment in a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic rat model. Neonatology. 2011;99:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of mortality and long-term neurological deficits...
  43. Dasgupta S, Ghosh D, Seal S, Kamilya G, Karmakar M, Saha D. Randomized controlled study comparing effect of magnesium sulfate with placebo on fetal umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery blood flow in mild preeclampsia at ? 34 weeks gestational age. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012;38:763-71 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether prophylactic magnesium sulfate given in women with mild preeclampsia or gestational hypertension brings any significant change in umbilical artery and fetal middle cerebral artery pulsatility ..
  44. Mebazaa M, Ouerghi S, Frikha N, Moncer K, Mestiri T, James M, et al. Is magnesium sulfate by the intrathecal route efficient and safe?. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2011;30:47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of these studies justifies further investigation of the use of magnesium sulphate by the intrathecal route...
  45. Sugimoto J, ROMANI A, Valentin Torres A, Luciano A, Ramirez Kitchen C, Funderburg N, et al. Magnesium decreases inflammatory cytokine production: a novel innate immunomodulatory mechanism. J Immunol. 2012;188:6338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a new paradigm for innate immunoregulation, whereby magnesium plays a critical regulatory role in NF-?B activation, cytokine production, and disease pathogenesis...
  46. Tam Tam H, Dowling O, Xue X, Lewis D, Rochelson B, Metz C. Magnesium sulfate ameliorates maternal and fetal inflammation in a rat model of maternal infection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:364.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Magnesium sulfate is proposed to have neuroprotective effects in the offspring. We examined the effects of maternal magnesium sulfate administration on maternal and fetal inflammatory responses in a rat model of maternal infection.
  47. Goldenberg R, McClure E, Macguire E, Kamath B, Jobe A. Lessons for low-income regions following the reduction in hypertension-related maternal mortality in high-income countries. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;113:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-associated maternal mortality in high-income countries to understand better the potential improvements in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-related mortality in low-income countries...
  48. Doyle L. Antenatal magnesium sulfate and neuroprotection. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2012;24:154-9 pubmed publisher
    Antenatal magnesium sulfate may reduce the excessive rates of cerebral palsy in survivors of very preterm birth.
  49. McDonnell N, Muchatuta N, Paech M. Acute magnesium toxicity in an obstetric patient undergoing general anaesthesia for caesarean delivery. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2010;19:226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a guideline for the management of life-threatening magnesium toxicity and discuss measures that may prevent future similar occurrences...
  50. Mori K, Yamamoto T, Miyazaki M, Hara Y, Aiko Y, Koike N, et al. Effect of intrathecal magnesium sulfate solution injection via a microcatheter in the cisterna magna on cerebral vasospasm in the canine subarachnoid haemorrhage model. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26:64-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate intracisternal injection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) solution via a lumbar catheter for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm in the canine subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) model.
  51. Euser A, Cipolla M. Magnesium sulfate for the treatment of eclampsia: a brief review. Stroke. 2009;40:1169-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Magnesium sulfate is used extensively for prevention of eclamptic seizures. Empirical and clinical evidence supports the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate; however, questions remain as to its safety and mechanism...
  52. Catanzarite V, Gambling D, Bird L, Honold J, Perkins E. Respiratory compromise after MgSO4 therapy for preterm labor in a woman with myotonic dystrophy: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:220-2 pubmed
    ..Beta-2 sympathomimetics have been reported to precipitate myotonia. This case illustrates the potential for MgSO4 to cause respiratory embarrassment. Indomethacin may be the tocolytic of choice in myotonic dystrophy. ..
  53. Nassar A, Salti I, Makarem N, Usta I. Marked hypocalcemia after tocolytic magnesium sulphate therapy. Am J Perinatol. 2007;24:481-2 pubmed
    Symptomatic hypocalcemia has been reported infrequently in association with magnesium sulfate (MgSO (4)) tocolytic therapy. We report a 38-year-old woman who presented in preterm labor at 24 3/7 weeks...
  54. Hung J, Tsai M, Yang B, Chen J. Maternal osteoporosis after prolonged magnesium sulfate tocolysis therapy: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86:146-9 pubmed
    Tocolysis therapy with magnesium sulfate is known to affect calcium homeostasis...
  55. Mori K, Yamamoto T, Nakao Y, Osada H, Hara Y, Oyama K, et al. Initial clinical experience of vasodilatory effect of intra-cisternal infusion of magnesium sulfate for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2009;49:139-44; discussion 144-5 pubmed
    The vasodilatory effect of intra-cisternal infusion of magnesium sulfate solution was evaluated in 10 patients with symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent early clipping surgery...
  56. Aaserud M, Lewin S, Innvaer S, Paulsen E, Dahlgren A, Trommald M, et al. Translating research into policy and practice in developing countries: a case study of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia. BMC Health Serv Res. 2005;5:68 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the factors that might affect the translation of randomised controlled trial (RCT) findings into policies and practice in developing countries...