lithium chloride


Summary: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.

Top Publications

  1. Yang Y, Yang J, Liu R, Li H, Luo X, Yang G. Accumulation of ?-catenin by lithium chloride in porcine myoblast cultures accelerates cell differentiation. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:2043-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lithium chloride (LiCl) is known to activate canonical Wnt signaling by inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase-3? and ..
  2. Novetsky A, Thompson D, Zighelboim I, Thaker P, Powell M, Mutch D, et al. Lithium chloride and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β as a potential therapy for serous ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:361-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been shown to demonstrate anticancer properties at supratherapeutic doses...
  3. Kowalczyk S, Wells D, Aksimentiev A, Dekker C. Slowing down DNA translocation through a nanopore in lithium chloride. Nano Lett. 2012;12:1038-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These fundamental insights into the counterion binding to DNA also provide a practical method for achieving at least 10-fold enhanced resolution in nanopore applications...
  4. Verhees K, Schols A, Kelders M, Op den Kamp C, Van Der Velden J, Langen R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3? is required for the induction of skeletal muscle atrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C995-C1007 pubmed publisher
  5. Vidal F, de Araujo W, Cruz A, Tanaka M, Viola J, Morgado Diaz J. Lithium reduces tumorigenic potential in response to EGF signaling in human colorectal cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:1365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Caco-2 cells, a well-established model used to study CRC, and treatments with lithium chloride, as a modulator of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, and with EGF as an inducer of EGFR signaling...
  6. De Meyer I, Martinet W, Van Hove C, Schrijvers D, Hoymans V, Van Vaeck L, et al. Inhibition of inositol monophosphatase by lithium chloride induces selective macrophage apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:1410-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithium chloride (LiCl) inhibits inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) at therapeutic concentrations...
  7. Ma Y, Hoepker A, Gupta L, Faggin M, Collum D. 1,4-addition of lithium diisopropylamide to unsaturated esters: role of rate-limiting deaggregation, autocatalysis, lithium chloride catalysis, and other mixed aggregation effects. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:15610-23 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mol % LiCl. Rate and mechanistic studies have revealed that the uncatalyzed and catalyzed pathways funnel through a common monosolvated-monomer-based intermediate. Four distinct classes of mixed aggregation effects are discussed...
  8. Li J, Khavandgar Z, Lin S, Murshed M. Lithium chloride attenuates BMP-2 signaling and inhibits osteogenic differentiation through a novel WNT/GSK3- independent mechanism. Bone. 2011;48:321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work suggests the presence of a novel GSK3/WNT-independent mechanism of lithium action during the early stages of osteogenic differentiation...
  9. Choi S, Jang H, Kang Y, Jung J, Han S, Kim H, et al. Atherosclerosis induced by a high-fat diet is alleviated by lithium chloride via reduction of VCAM expression in ApoE-deficient mice. Vascul Pharmacol. 2010;53:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated whether lithium chloride (LiCl), an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), could counteract atherosclerosis induced by a ..

More Information


  1. Kwon B, Houpt T. Mitogen-activated protein kinase in the amygdala plays a critical role in lithium chloride-induced taste aversion learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2012;97:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the functional role of MAPK activation in the amygdala during lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced CTA learning has not been established...
  2. Galli C, Piemontese M, Lumetti S, Manfredi E, Macaluso G, Passeri G. GSK3b-inhibitor lithium chloride enhances activation of Wnt canonical signaling and osteoblast differentiation on hydrophilic titanium surfaces. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2013;24:921-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated whether stimulation of Wnt signaling by GSK3b inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl) could affect the response of mesenchymal or osteoblastic cells growing on titanium surfaces with ..
  3. Suganthi M, Sangeetha G, Gayathri G, Ravi Sankar B. Biphasic dose-dependent effect of lithium chloride on survival of human hormone-dependent breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;150:477-86 pubmed publisher
    Lithium, the first element of Group I in the periodic system, is used to treat bipolar psychiatric disorders. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?), a serine/threonine kinase that ..
  4. Agrawal S, Gollapudi S, Gupta S, Agrawal A. Dendritic cells from the elderly display an intrinsic defect in the production of IL-10 in response to lithium chloride. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48:1285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of Lithium Chloride (LiCl) was compared on the response of TLR4 agonist, LPS and TLR2 agonist, PAM3CSK4 stimulated aged and young ..
  5. Chen K, Wu Y, Zhu M, Deng Q, Nie X, Li M, et al. Lithium chloride promotes host resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1502-14 pubmed
    To explore the role of lithium chloride (LiCl) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis.
  6. Wang Z, Zhang X, Chen S, Wang D, Wu J, Liang T, et al. Lithium chloride inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration and alleviates injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia via induction of PGC-1?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55471 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to determine if lithium chloride (LiCl) retards VSMC proliferation and migration and if PGC-1? mediates the effects of lithium on VSMCs...
  7. Abu Baker A, Laganiere J, Gaudet R, Rochefort D, Brais B, Neri C, et al. Lithium chloride attenuates cell death in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy by perturbing Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e821 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we explored a pharmacological manipulation of a Wnt signaling pathway using lithium chloride (LiCl), a GSK-3? inhibitor, and observed the enhanced expression of ?-catenin protein as well as the ..
  8. Jeerage K, Oreskovic T, Hume S. Neurite outgrowth and differentiation of rat cortex progenitor cells are sensitive to lithium chloride at non-cytotoxic exposures. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:1170-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Cultures exposed to 30 mmol/L or 10 mmol/L lithium chloride (LiCl) had significantly lower metabolic activity than control cultures, as reported by adenosine ..
  9. Ren X, Meng F, Yin J, Li G, Li X, Wang C, et al. Action mechanisms of lithium chloride on cell infection by transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18669 pubmed publisher
    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been found to be effective against several DNA viruses, such as Herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus...
  10. Noël A, Barrier L, Rinaldi F, Hubert C, Fauconneau B, Ingrand S. Lithium chloride and staurosporine potentiate the accumulation of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3?/Tyr216, resulting in glycogen synthase kinase 3? activation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell lines. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:755-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lithium chloride (LiCl) is usually described to increase pGSK3?Ser9 through the PI3K/Akt pathway, resulting in GSK3? ..
  11. Jia D, Zhang L, Chen Z, Wang C, Huang F, Duan R, et al. Lithium chloride alleviates neurodegeneration partly by inhibiting activity of GSK3? in a SCA3 Drosophila model. Cerebellum. 2013;12:892-901 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that chronic treatment with lithium chloride at specific doses notably prevented eye depigmentation, alleviated locomotor disability, and extended the ..
  12. Windsor P, Leys S. Wnt signaling and induction in the sponge aquiferous system: evidence for an ancient origin of the organizer. Evol Dev. 2010;12:484-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lithium chloride and alsterpaullone, which mimic canonical Wnt signaling in other animals, caused formation of ectopic oscula ..
  13. Hofmann C, Dunger N, Scholmerich J, Falk W, Obermeier F. Glycogen synthase kinase 3-?: a master regulator of toll-like receptor-mediated chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:1850-8 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK3-? inhibition therefore constitutes a promising therapeutic option for selectively reducing exaggerated intestinal immune reactions toward the luminal flora in inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  14. Terashima Y, Sato T, Yano T, Maas O, Itoh T, Miki T, et al. Roles of phospho-GSK-3? in myocardial protection afforded by activation of the mitochondrial K ATP channel. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:762-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of CypD-ANT interaction may contribute to mK(ATP)-induced myocardial protection, though it is not the sole mechanism of phospho-GSK-3?-mediated cytoprotection...
  15. Azimian Zavareh V, Hossein G, Janzamin E. Effect of lithium chloride and antineoplastic drugs on survival and cell cycle of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCap cells. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44:714-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to determine the usefulness of lithium chloride (LiCl) as a highly selective inhibitor of GSK-3? to increase the sensitivity of LNCap cells to doxorubicin (..
  16. Gaultier A, Meunier Salaün M, Malbert C, Val Laillet D. Flavour exposures after conditioned aversion or preference trigger different brain processes in anaesthetised pigs. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:1500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals the unconscious cognitive dimension evoked by food flavours according to the individual experience, and highlights the importance of the food sensory image on hedonism and anticipatory eating behaviour...
  17. Bahremand A, Ziai P, Payandemehr B, Rahimian R, Amouzegar A, Khezrian M, et al. Additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of ??-adrenoceptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;666:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, acute administration of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the seizure threshold...
  18. Zhu Q, Yang J, Han S, Liu J, Holzbeierlein J, Thrasher J, et al. Suppression of glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity reduces tumor growth of prostate cancer in vivo. Prostate. 2011;71:835-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that suppression of GSK-3 activity with lithium chloride (LiCl) or small chemical inhibitors impaired cellular DNA synthesis and reduced cell proliferation in ..
  19. Nowicki M, Dmitrieva N, Stein A, Cutter J, Godlewski J, Saeki Y, et al. Lithium inhibits invasion of glioma cells; possible involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3. Neuro Oncol. 2008;10:690-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data outline previously unidentified pathways and inhibitors that may be useful for the development of novel anti-invasive therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors. ..
  20. Adler J, Hottinger D, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H. Inhibition of growth in medullary thyroid cancer cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors and lithium chloride. J Surg Res. 2010;159:640-4 pubmed publisher
    ..valproic acid (VPA) and suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) activate the Notch1 signaling pathway, while lithium chloride inhibits the glycogen synthase kinase-3ss (GSK-3ss) pathway...
  21. Parkinson J, Chaudhri O, Kuo Y, Field B, Herlihy A, Dhillo W, et al. Differential patterns of neuronal activation in the brainstem and hypothalamus following peripheral injection of GLP-1, oxyntomodulin and lithium chloride in mice detected by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Neuroimage. 2009;44:1022-31 pubmed publisher peripheral injection of the anorexigenic agents glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM) and lithium chloride. Administration of both GLP-1 and OXM resulted in a significant increase in signal intensity (SI) in the area ..
  22. Gupta L, Hoepker A, Singh K, Collum D. Lithium diisopropylamide-mediated ortholithiations: lithium chloride catalysis. J Org Chem. 2009;74:2231-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Other lithium salts elicit more modest accelerations. The mechanism is not discussed...
  23. Escribano C, Delgado Martín C, Rodríguez Fernández J. CCR7-dependent stimulation of survival in dendritic cells involves inhibition of GSK3beta. J Immunol. 2009;183:6282-95 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that upon stimulation of CCR7, Akt-mediated phosphorylation/inhibition of GSK3beta may be required to allow complete translocations of FOXO and NF-kappaB that confer DCs an extended survival...
  24. Su H, Zhang W, Guo J, Guo A, Yuan Q, Wu W. Lithium enhances the neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells in vitro and after transplantation into the avulsed ventral horn of adult rats through the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J Neurochem. 2009;108:1385-98 pubmed publisher
  25. Terracciano C, Nogalska A, Engel W, Askanas V. In AbetaPP-overexpressing cultured human muscle fibers proteasome inhibition enhances phosphorylation of AbetaPP751 and GSK3beta activation: effects mitigated by lithium and apparently relevant to sporadic inclusion-body myositis. J Neurochem. 2010;112:389-96 pubmed publisher
    ..2) In biopsied s-IBM muscle fibers, GSK3beta is significantly activated and AbetaPP is phosphorylated on Thr724. Accordingly, treatment with lithium, or other GSK3beta inhibitors, might benefit s-IBM patients...
  26. Bilir A, Erguven M, Yazihan N, Aktas E, Oktem G, Sabanci A. Enhancement of vinorelbine-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis by clomipramine and lithium chloride in human neuroblastoma cancer cell line SH-SY5Y. J Neurooncol. 2010;100:385-95 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work is to investigate whether clomipramine (CIM) and lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiate the cytotoxicity of vinorelbine (VNR) on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and whether midkine (MK) can be a resistance ..
  27. Sui X, Yin J, Ren X. Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate and lithium chloride on cell infection by pseudorabies herpesvirus. Antiviral Res. 2010;85:346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, lithium chloride (LiCl), a chemical reagent with potential antiviral activity was compared with DG for their inhibitory ..
  28. Harkness J, Webb S, Grimm J. Abstinence-dependent transfer of lithium chloride-induced sucrose aversion to a sucrose-paired cue in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;208:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..If the incentive value of a cue depends on the incentive value of the primary reward, devaluing the primary reward should reduce cue reactivity...
  29. Harrison S, Tarpey I, Rothwell L, Kaiser P, Hiscox J. Lithium chloride inhibits the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus in cell culture. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:109-14 pubmed
    ..Effective antiviral agents may therefore be advantageous in the treatment of IBV. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a potent inhibitor of the DNA virus herpes simplex virus but not RNA viruses...
  30. Marchi N, Fan Q, Ghosh C, Fazio V, Bertolini F, Betto G, et al. Antagonism of peripheral inflammation reduces the severity of status epilepticus. Neurobiol Dis. 2009;33:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Animals pre-treated with IL-1ra exhibited significant reduction of SE onset and of BBB damage. Our data support the concept of targeting systemic inflammation and BBB for the prevention of status epilepticus...
  31. Plant K, Anderson E, Simecek N, Brown R, Forster S, Spinks J, et al. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235:124-34 pubmed publisher
    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics...
  32. Rinaman L, Dzmura V. Experimental dissociation of neural circuits underlying conditioned avoidance and hypophagic responses to lithium chloride. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1495-503 pubmed
    ..To determine whether NST NA neurons also are necessary for lithium chloride (LiCl) to inhibit food intake and/or to support conditioned avoidance behavior, saporin toxin conjugated to ..
  33. Polotsky A, Zhu L, Santoro N, Pollard J. Lithium chloride treatment induces epithelial cell proliferation in xenografted human endometrium. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:1960-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a functional model of xenografted human endometrium to test whether similar mechanisms are operative in the human by using Lithium chloride (LiCl), an inhibitor of GSK3beta.
  34. Ronchi A, Salaroli R, Rivetti S, Della Bella E, Di Tomaso T, Voltattorni M, et al. Lithium induces mortality in medulloblastoma cell lines. Int J Oncol. 2010;37:745-52 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, lithium could be a promising drug in MB, but an accurate molecular profile predictive of drug response still needs to be clarified...
  35. Silva A, Yi H, Hayes S, Seigel G, Hackam A. Lithium chloride regulates the proliferation of stem-like cells in retinoblastoma cell lines: a potential role for the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Mol Vis. 2010;16:36-45 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated whether the Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride (LiCl) regulates proliferation of retinoblastoma cancer stem-like cells.
  36. Bahremand A, Nasrabady S, Ziai P, Rahimian R, Hedayat T, Payandemehr B, et al. Involvement of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in the anticonvulsant effects of lithium chloride on PTZ-induced seizure in mice. Epilepsy Res. 2010;89:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Injection of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) increased significantly the seizure threshold (P<0.01)...
  37. Vazey E, Connor B. In vitro priming to direct neuronal fate in adult neural progenitor cells. Exp Neurol. 2009;216:520-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that transient exposure to lithium chloride during in vitro proliferation of adult SVZ-derived NPCs has the ability to alter differential fate in vitro ..
  38. Zhang M, Jin W, Zhou X, Yu J, Lee A, Sun S. Deregulation of Tpl2 and NF-kappaB signaling and induction of macrophage apoptosis by the anti-depressant drug lithium. Cell Signal. 2009;21:559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, lithium both attenuates LPS-mediated pro-inflammatory gene induction and induces apoptosis in macrophages. These results provide novel insight into the anti-inflammatory function of lithium...
  39. Hill E, Woehrling E, Prince M, Coleman M. Differentiating human NT2/D1 neurospheres as a versatile in vitro 3D model system for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Toxicology. 2008;249:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Acrylamide reduced neurosphere viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Overall, this NT2/D1-based neurosphere model of neurogenesis, may provide the basis for a model of developmental neurotoxicity in vitro...
  40. Sen B, Xie Z, Case N, Ma M, Rubin C, Rubin J. Mechanical strain inhibits adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells by stimulating a durable beta-catenin signal. Endocrinology. 2008;149:6065-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta by lithium chloride or SB415286 also prevented adipogenesis, suggesting that preservation of beta-catenin levels was important to ..
  41. Liu K, Lee Y, Yang Y, Shih N, Ho C, Wu Y, et al. Modulation of the development of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by lithium chloride. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (DC) play a central role in regulating immune responses, this study investigated the influence of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the development and function of DC...
  42. Du W, Li J, Wang Q, Hou J, Yu B. Lithium chloride preconditioning optimizes skeletal myoblast functions for cellular cardiomyoplasty in vitro via glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/beta-catenin signaling. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;190:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that LiCl preconditioning may be a novel strategy to optimize SkM function for cellular cardiomyoplasty in vitro...
  43. Jonkman S, Kosaki Y, Everitt B, Dickinson A. The role of contextual conditioning in the effect of reinforcer devaluation on instrumental performance by rats. Behav Processes. 2010;83:276-81 pubmed publisher
  44. Yazlovitskaya E, Edwards E, Thotala D, Fu A, Osusky K, Whetsell W, et al. Lithium treatment prevents neurocognitive deficit resulting from cranial irradiation. Cancer Res. 2006;66:11179-86 pubmed
    ..In summary, we propose lithium treatment as a novel therapy for prevention of deleterious neurocognitive consequences of cranial irradiation...
  45. Li J, Yin J, Sui X, Li G, Ren X. Comparative analysis of the effect of glycyrrhizin diammonium and lithium chloride on infectious bronchitis virus infection in vitro. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:215-21 pubmed publisher
    The effects of glycyrrhizin diammonium (GD) and lithium chloride (LiCl) on cell infection by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were investigated using cytopathic effect observation, plaque-reduction assay and reverse transcriptase-..
  46. Du W, Li J, Wang Q, Hou J, Yu B. Lithium chloride regulates connexin43 in skeletal myoblasts in vitro: possible involvement in Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Cell Commun Adhes. 2008;15:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the aim was to study whether lithium chloride (LiCl) could regulate Cx43 expression and gap junction channel function by mimicking the Wnt/beta-catenin ..
  47. GEDDES R, Han L, Baldwin A, Norgren R, Grigson P. Gustatory insular cortex lesions disrupt drug-induced, but not lithium chloride-induced, suppression of conditioned stimulus intake. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122:1038-50 pubmed publisher
    ..15% saccharin conditioned stimulus (CS) when it is paired with an aversive agent like lithium chloride (LiCl) or a preferred substance such as sucrose or a drug of abuse...
  48. Wu X, Zvonic S, Floyd Z, Kilroy G, Goh B, Hernandez T, et al. Induction of circadian gene expression in human subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15:2560-70 pubmed
    ..This study tests the hypothesis that human subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) provide an in vitro model in which to monitor the activity of the core circadian transcriptional apparatus...
  49. Yasuda S, Liang M, Marinova Z, Yahyavi A, Chuang D. The mood stabilizers lithium and valproate selectively activate the promoter IV of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurons. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:51-9 pubmed
    ..Our results have strong implications for the therapeutic actions of these two mood stabilizers...
  50. Gould T, O Donnell K, Picchini A, Manji H. Strain differences in lithium attenuation of d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion: a mouse model for the genetics of clinical response to lithium. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:1321-33 pubmed
  51. Shanely R, Zwetsloot K, Childs T, Lees S, Tsika R, Booth F. IGF-I activates the mouse type IIb myosin heavy chain gene. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C1019-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, IGF-I stimulation of C2C12 myotubes increases mouse type IIb MyHC promoter activity, likely through signaling of PI3K, GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, and a Tcf/Lef binding site at -1,206 to -1,201 bp in the promoter...
  52. Adler J, Hottinger D, Kunnimalaiyaan M, Chen H. Combination therapy with histone deacetylase inhibitors and lithium chloride: a novel treatment for carcinoid tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16:481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that lower-dose combination therapy of HDAC inhibitors and lithium chloride could achieve similar growth inhibition to that of the drugs alone...
  53. Zhang P, Katz J, Michalek S. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) inhibition suppresses the inflammatory response to Francisella infection and protects against tularemia in mice. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:677-87 pubmed publisher
    ..tularensis LVS infection, and suggest that inhibition of GSK3beta may represent a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of tularemia...
  54. Struewing I, Barnett C, Tang T, Mao C. Lithium increases PGC-1alpha expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells. FEBS J. 2007;274:2749-65 pubmed
  55. Kunnimalaiyaan M, Vaccaro A, Ndiaye M, Chen H. Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, a downstream target of the raf-1 pathway, is associated with growth suppression in medullary thyroid cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1151-8 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of GSK-3beta in TT cells with well-known GSK-3beta inhibitors such as lithium chloride (LiCl) and SB216763 is associated with both growth suppression and a significant decrease in neuroendocrine ..
  56. St Andre J, Albanos K, Reilly S. C-fos expression in the rat brain following lithium chloride-induced illness. Brain Res. 2007;1135:122-8 pubmed
    The present study examined c-Fos expression in selected brain areas consequent to administration of lithium chloride, the typical illness-inducing agent used in laboratory studies of conditioned taste aversion...