sulfur isotopes


Summary: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.

Top Publications

  1. Zazzo A, Monahan F, Moloney A, Green S, Schmidt O. Sulphur isotopes in animal hair track distance to sea. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011;25:2371-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Hartmann M, Nielsen H. ?(34)S values in recent sea sediments and their significance using several sediment profiles from the western Baltic Sea. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2012;48:7-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This seems to confirm the genetic relationship between the two components...
  3. Wadleigh M. Lichens and atmospheric sulphur: what stable isotopes reveal. Environ Pollut. 2003;126:345-51 pubmed
    ..Stable isotopes expand the range of applications for lichen biomonitoring of atmospheric sulphur...
  4. Bontognali T, Sessions A, Allwood A, Fischer W, Grotzinger J, Summons R, et al. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15146-51 pubmed
    ..Positive ?(33)S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities...
  5. Tanz N, Schmidt H. delta(34)S-value measurements in food origin assignments and sulfur isotope fractionations in plants and animals. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:3139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the reported agreements between delta(34)S value of biomass and primary S sources are true for only bulk material and not for individual compounds or tissues...
  6. Fry B, Silva S, Kendall C, Anderson R. Oxygen isotope corrections for online delta(34)S analysis. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2002;16:854-8 pubmed
    ..Here we provide empirical and analytical methods for correcting the S isotope values for oxygen isotope variations, and further detail a new SO(2)-SiO(2) buffering method that minimizes detrimental oxygen isotope variations in SO(2)...
  7. Valenzuela L, Chesson L, O Grady S, Cerling T, Ehleringer J. Spatial distributions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios in human hair across the central United States. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011;25:861-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The accuracy of the map was tested using hair samples not included in its generation. We conclude that sulfur isotope analysis may represent a new tool to investigate the movements and/or region-of-origin of humans...
  8. Sim M, Bosak T, Ono S. Large sulfur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. Science. 2011;333:74-7 pubmed publisher
    The composition of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary sulfides and sulfates traces the sulfur cycle throughout Earth's history...
  9. Druhan J, Conrad M, Williams K, N Guessan L, Long P, Hubbard S. Sulfur isotopes as indicators of amended bacterial sulfate reduction processes influencing field scale uranium bioremediation. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:7842-9 pubmed
    ..of Fe(ll), sulfate, sulfide, acetate, U(VI), and delta(34)S of sulfate and sulfide to explore the utility of sulfur isotopes as indicators of in situ acetate amended sulfate and uranium bioreduction processes...

More Information


  1. Johnston D, Wing B, Farquhar J, Kaufman A, Strauss H, Lyons T, et al. Active microbial sulfur disproportionation in the Mesoproterozoic. Science. 2005;310:1477-9 pubmed
    ..These measurements imply that sulfur compound disproportionation was an active part of the sulfur cycle by 1300 Ma and that progressive Earth surface oxygenation may have characterized the Mesoproterozoic...
  2. Detmers J, Brüchert V, Habicht K, Kuever J. Diversity of sulfur isotope fractionations by sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:888-94 pubmed
    ..The species-specific physiology of each sulfate reducer thus needs to be taken into account to understand the regulation of sulfur isotope fractionation during dissimilatory sulfate reduction...
  3. Davidson M, Bisher M, Pratt L, Fong J, Southam G, Pfiffner S, et al. Sulfur isotope enrichment during maintenance metabolism in the thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum putei. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:5621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..9 per thousand, than the -9.7 per thousand observed during the batch culture experiment, but differences did not attain the values observed in marine sediments...
  4. Grice K, Cao C, Love G, Bottcher M, Twitchett R, Grosjean E, et al. Photic zone euxinia during the Permian-triassic superanoxic event. Science. 2005;307:706-9 pubmed
    ..Similar conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous seas off South China. Our evidence for widespread photiczone euxinic conditions suggests that sulfide toxicity was a driver of the extinction and a factor in the protracted recovery...
  5. Bradley A, Leavitt W, Johnston D. Revisiting the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. Geobiology. 2011;9:446-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Sulfur isotopes in the geological record integrate a combination of biological and diagenetic influences, but a key control on the ratio of sulfur isotopes in sedimentary materials is the magnitude of isotope fractionation imparted ..
  6. Johnston D, Farquhar J, Habicht K, Canfield D. Sulphur isotopes and the search for life: strategies for identifying sulphur metabolisms in the rock record and beyond. Geobiology. 2008;6:425-35 pubmed publisher
  7. Pavlov A, Kasting J. Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in Archean sediments: strong evidence for an anoxic Archean atmosphere. Astrobiology. 2002;2:27-41 pubmed
    Mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of sulfur isotopes has been reported in sediments of Archean and Early Proterozoic Age (> 2.3 Ga) but not in younger rocks...
  8. Cataldi T, Lelario F, Orlando D, Bufo S. Collision-induced dissociation of the A + 2 isotope ion facilitates glucosinolates structure elucidation by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap. Anal Chem. 2010;82:5686-96 pubmed publisher
    ..1. ..
  9. Leavitt W, Venceslau S, Pereira I, Johnston D, Bradley A. Fractionation of sulfur and hydrogen isotopes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris with perturbed DsrC expression. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2016;363: pubmed
    ..For sulfate reduction, these signals include the ratio of stable sulfur isotopes preserved in minerals, as well as the hydrogen isotope ratios and structures of microbial membrane lipids ..
  10. Yang K, Isaev D, Morales M, Petroianu G, Galadari S, Oz M. The effect of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol on 5-HT3 receptors depends on the current density. Neuroscience. 2010;171:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of 5-HT(3) receptors by THC may contribute to its pharmacological actions in nociception and emesis. ..
  11. Callegher E, Seraglia R, Vettore M, Puricelli L, Millioni R, Tessari P. Kinetics of albumin homocysteinylation measured with matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization mass spectrometry versus with a radioactive tracer. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2009;23:3837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the results of the two methods were rather similar, the radioactive method appears to be more sensitive than the MALDI-MS technique. ..
  12. Druhan J, Steefel C, Molins S, Williams K, Conrad M, DePaolo D. Timing the onset of sulfate reduction over multiple subsurface acetate amendments by measurement and modeling of sulfur isotope fractionation. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:8895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a previously unrecognized hysteretic effect in the spatial distribution of biomass growth during stimulated subsurface bioremediation. ..
  13. Kester C, Rye R, Johnson C, Schwartz C, Holmes C. On-line sulfur isotope analysis of organic material by direct combustion: preliminary results and potential applications. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2001;37:53-65 pubmed
    b>Sulfur isotopes have received little attention in ecology studies because plant and animal materials typically have low sulfur concentrations (< 1 wt.%) necessitating labor-intensive chemical extraction prior to analysis...
  14. Nakano T, Tayasu I, Wada E, Igeta A, Hyodo F, Miura Y. Sulfur and strontium isotope geochemistry of tributary rivers of Lake Biwa: implications for human impact on the decadal change of lake water quality. Sci Total Environ. 2005;345:1-12 pubmed
  15. Pfeffer M, Maurer M, Köllensperger G, Hann S, Graf A, Mattanovich D. Modeling and measuring intracellular fluxes of secreted recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris with a novel 34S labeling procedure. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:47 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent sensitivity analysis of the fluxes by using MATLAB, indicate the most promising approaches for strain improvement towards increased secretion. ..
  16. Canfield D, Habicht K, Thamdrup B. The Archean sulfur cycle and the early history of atmospheric oxygen. Science. 2000;288:658-61 pubmed
    ..4 to 2.8 billion years ago). The accumulation of oxygen and sulfate began later, in the early Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.54 billion years ago). ..
  17. Ellgren M, Spano S, Hurd Y. Adolescent cannabis exposure alters opiate intake and opioid limbic neuronal populations in adult rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007;32:607-15 pubmed
  18. Heidel C, Tichomirowa M. Galena oxidation investigations on oxygen and sulphur isotopes. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2011;47:169-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Sulphur isotopes of sulphate showed an enrichment of (32)S in sulphate (relative to galena), which increases with increasing pH. Sulphur isotope enrichment processes may be associated with the formation of anglesite. ..
  19. Lee B, Muneer S, Kim K, Avice J, Ourry A, Kim T. S-deficiency responsive accumulation of amino acids is mainly due to hydrolysis of the previously synthesized proteins - not to de novo synthesis in Brassica napus. Physiol Plant. 2013;147:369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The data thus indicate that amino acid accumulation under short-term S-deficiency results from the degradation of previously synthesized proteins rather than from de novo synthesis. ..
  20. Mahlapuu R, Viht K, Balaspiri L, Bogdanovic N, Saar K, Soomets U, et al. Amyloid precursor protein carboxy-terminal fragments modulate G-proteins and adenylate cyclase activity in Alzheimer's disease brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;117:73-82 pubmed
    ..The stimulatory action of these sequences on G-protein mediated signalling suggests the region-specific formation of reactive species. ..
  21. Strauch G, Schreck P, Nardin G, Gehre M. Origin and distribution of sulphate in surface waters of the Mansfeld mining district (Central Germany)--a sulphur isotope study. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2001;37:101-12 pubmed
    ..The sulphur isotope composition in dissolved and sedimentary adsorbed sulphate differs only slightly from each other. Microbial dissimilatory sulphate reduction can not be excluded in the shallow sediment layers. ..
  22. Fischer W, Fike D, Johnson J, Raub T, Guan Y, Kirschvink J, et al. SQUID-SIMS is a useful approach to uncover primary signals in the Archean sulfur cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:5468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) of sulfur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, and (34)S), we examined drill core samples from slope and basinal environments adjacent to a ..
  23. Wortmann U, Chernyavsky B. Effect of evaporite deposition on Early Cretaceous carbon and sulphur cycling. Nature. 2007;446:654-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our findings suggest that the effect of changing seawater sulphate concentrations on the marine subsurface biosphere may be the key to understanding other large-scale perturbations of the global carbon and sulphur cycles. ..
  24. Rubino T, Forlani G, Vigano D, Zippel R, Parolaro D. Ras/ERK signalling in cannabinoid tolerance: from behaviour to cellular aspects. J Neurochem. 2005;93:984-91 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that at least in the caudate putamen and cerebellum, the Ras/ERK pathway is essential for triggering the alteration in CB1 receptor function responsible for tolerance to THC-induced hypomotility. ..
  25. Braune B, Hobson K, Malone B. Regional differences in collagen stable isotope and tissue trace element profiles in populations of long-tailed duck breeding in the Canadian Arctic. Sci Total Environ. 2005;346:156-68 pubmed
    ..However, hepatic Se concentrations in 64% of the females exceeded 10 mug/g dw and concentrations in 8% of the birds measured exceeded 33 microg/g dw suggesting levels of potential concern. ..
  26. Cervia D, Langenegger D, Schuepbach E, Cammalleri M, Schoeffter P, Schmid H, et al. Binding and functional properties of the novel somatostatin analogue KE 108 at native mouse somatostatin receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2005;48:881-93 pubmed
  27. Thomas R, Spal S, Smith K, Nippert J. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15319-24 pubmed publisher
  28. Enemark J, Astashkin A, Raitsimring A. Structures and reaction pathways of the molybdenum centres of sulfite-oxidizing enzymes by pulsed EPR spectroscopy. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:1129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This blocking of product release is a possible contributor to fatal human sulfite oxidase deficiency in young children. ..
  29. Yamaguchi M, Suzuki T, Abe S, Hori T, Kurita H, Asada T, et al. Repeated cocaine administration differentially affects NMDA receptor subunit (NR1, NR2A-C) mRNAs in rat brain. Synapse. 2002;46:157-69 pubmed
    ..Further studies on the changes in non-NMDA receptors are required to elucidate the biological significance of glutamate receptors for the mechanisms underlying the development of behavioral sensitization. ..
  30. Osorio M, Moloney A, Schmidt O, Monahan F. Beef authentication and retrospective dietary verification using stable isotope ratio analysis of bovine muscle and tail hair. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:3295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N in tail hair sections provided an archival record of changes to the diet of the cattle for periods of over 1 year preslaughter. ..
  31. HACKMAN C, Rosengard S, Vapaatalo H. Tissue distribution of chlorpromazine studied by microautoradiography. Eur J Pharmacol. 1970;9:59-66 pubmed
  32. Allen D. Sources of ground water salinity on islands using 18O, 2H, and 34S. Ground Water. 2004;42:17-31 pubmed
    ..It is proposed these waters may be late Pleistocene in age and were recharged when the island was submerged below sea level and prior to rebound at the end of the last glaciation. ..
  33. Rajchel L, Rajchel J, Szaran J, Halas S. Sulfur isotopic composition of H2S and SO4(2-) from mineral springs in the Polish Carpathians. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2002;38:277-84 pubmed
    ..The isotope fractionation between sulfate and sulfide helped to distinguish the sulfur origin. Evaluating the sulfur isotope exchange, we selected 4 springs which likely have only weakly disturbed sulfur of mantle origin. ..
  34. Tichomirowa M, Haubrich F, Klemm W, Matschullat J. Regional and temporal (1992-2004) evolution of air-borne sulphur isotope composition in Saxony, southeastern Germany, central Europe. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2007;43:295-305 pubmed
    ..The mean delta(34)S value of bulk precipitation represents more regionally well-mixed SO(2) sources and is therefore an ideal tool for monitoring regional atmospheric change. ..
  35. Gill B, Lyons T, Young S, Kump L, Knoll A, Saltzman M. Geochemical evidence for widespread euxinia in the later Cambrian ocean. Nature. 2011;469:80-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, the environmental challenges presented by widespread anoxia may have been a prevalent if not dominant influence on animal evolution in Cambrian oceans. ..
  36. Tam L, Eymann C, Albrecht D, Sietmann R, Schauer F, Hecker M, et al. Differential gene expression in response to phenol and catechol reveals different metabolic activities for the degradation of aromatic compounds in Bacillus subtilis. Environ Microbiol. 2006;8:1408-27 pubmed
    ..subtilis in the presence of catechol. Thus, our studies revealed that the catechol-2,3-dioxygenase YfiE is the key enzyme of a meta cleavage pathway in B. subtilis involved in the catabolism of catechol. ..
  37. Li X, Masuda H, Liu C. Chemical and isotopic compositions of the Minjiang River, a headwater tributary of the Yangtze River. J Environ Qual. 2008;37:409-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these rivers deserve attention and further research because the Yangtze River is the most important river in China in terms of water quality. ..
  38. Julian M, Martin A, Cuellar B, Rodriguez De Fonseca F, Navarro M, Moratalla R, et al. Neuroanatomical relationship between type 1 cannabinoid receptors and dopaminergic systems in the rat basal ganglia. Neuroscience. 2003;119:309-18 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these data provide a neuroanatomical basis to explain functional interactions between endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. ..
  39. Biondi L, D Urso M, Vasta V, Luciano G, Scerra M, Priolo A, et al. Stable isotope ratios of blood components and muscle to trace dietary changes in lambs. Animal. 2013;7:1559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..A multivariate analytical approach revealed that 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in plasma were the most powerful variables for the discrimination among the dietary treatments. ..
  40. Bahar B, Moloney A, Monahan F, Harrison S, Zazzo A, Scrimgeour C, et al. Turnover of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in bovine longissimus dorsi and psoas major muscles: Implications for isotopic authentication of meat. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:905-13 pubmed publisher
  41. Liu T, Yasuda S, Williams F, Liu M, Suiko M, Sakakibara Y, et al. A target-specific approach for the identification of tyrosine-sulfated hemostatic proteins. Anal Biochem. 2009;390:88-90 pubmed publisher
  42. Casciola Rosen L, Miagkov A, Nagaraju K, Askin F, Jacobson L, Rosen A, et al. Granzyme B: evidence for a role in the origin of myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;201-202:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence supporting a potential role for GrB in the process of initiation of MG, and are consistent with the concept of an immunodominant epsilon epitope. ..
  43. Zhang Y, Prommer H, Broers H, Slomp C, Greskowiak J, van der Grift B, et al. Model-based integration and analysis of biogeochemical and isotopic dynamics in a nitrate-polluted pyritic aquifer. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:10415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The model illustrates that denitrification largely prevented an elevated discharge of nitrate to surface waters, while sulfate discharges were significantly increased, peaking around 15 years after the maximum nitrogen inputs. ..
  44. Alonso Ferrero M, Paniagua M, Mostany R, Pilar Cuéllar F, Diez Alarcia R, Pazos A, et al. Cannabinoid system in the budgerigar brain. Brain Res. 2006;1087:105-13 pubmed
  45. Aoyama S, Ueno Y. Multiple sulfur isotope constraints on microbial sulfate reduction below an Archean seafloor hydrothermal system. Geobiology. 2018;16:107-120 pubmed publisher
    ..That evidence was found through analysis of quadruple sulfur isotopes of sulfate and sulfide minerals deposited on the seafloor...
  46. Ramos R, Gonzalez Solis J, Ruiz X. Linking isotopic and migratory patterns in a pelagic seabird. Oecologia. 2009;160:97-105 pubmed publisher
  47. Yun M, Mayer B, Taylor S. delta34S measurements on organic materials by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19:1429-36 pubmed
    ..Suggestions are made to correct the difference between measured delta34S(organic) and true delta34S values in order to obtain not only reproducible, but also accurate S isotope ratios for organic materials by EA-CF-IRMS...
  48. Pruett L, Kreutz K, Wadleigh M, Aizen V. Assessment of sulfate sources in high-elevation Asian precipitation using stable sulfur isotopes. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:4728-33 pubmed
  49. Planavsky N, McGoldrick P, Scott C, Li C, Reinhard C, Kelly A, et al. Widespread iron-rich conditions in the mid-Proterozoic ocean. Nature. 2011;477:448-51 pubmed publisher
  50. Fallick A, Boyce A, McConville P. Sulphur stable isotope systematics in diagenetic pyrite from the North Sea hydrocarbon reservoirs revealed by laser combustion analysis. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2012;48:144-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The source of the sulphur and the identity of the isotope fractionation process(es) remain enigmatic...
  51. Kawamura H, Matsuoka N, Momoshima N, Koike M, Takashima Y. Isotopic evidence in tree rings for historical changes in atmospheric sulfur sources. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:5750-4 pubmed
    ..The evidence suggests that the sigma 34S values in tree rings are a useful chronological proxy for evaluating possible causes of past atmospheric sulfur pollution...
  52. Veroni C, Grasso M, Macchia G, Ramoni C, Ceccarini M, Petrucci T, et al. beta-dystrobrevin, a kinesin-binding receptor, interacts with the extracellular matrix components pancortins. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:2631-9 pubmed
    ..We suggest that dystrobrevin, a motor protein receptor that binds kinesin heavy chain, might play a role in intracellular transport of pancortin to specific sites in the cell...
  53. Guo J, Meng F, Zhang G, Zhang Q. Free radicals are involved in continuous activation of nonreceptor tyrosine protein kinase c-Src after ischemia/reperfusion in rat hippocampus. Neurosci Lett. 2003;345:101-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that free radical production is involved in NMDA receptor-mediated continuous activation of c-Src during ischemia/reperfusion but not that during ischemia...
  54. Ogra Y, Kitaguchi T, Suzuki N, Suzuki K. In vitro translation with [34S]-labeled methionine, selenomethionine, and telluromethionine. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2008;390:45-51 pubmed
    ..figure: see text] TeMet was less incorporated into GFP than Met and SeMet due to its instability in WGE...
  55. Knoff A, Macko S, Erwin R. Diets of nesting laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia Coast Reserve: observations from stable isotope analysis. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2001;37:67-88 pubmed
    ..4, delta15N = 14.8, and delta34S = 10.4). It is important to account for such dietary variability when assessing trophic linkages in dynamic estuarine systems...
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    ..Furthermore, an improved TI was observed for PAMs compared to baclofen, indicating the PAM approach may be a viable therapeutic alternative to baclofen. ..
  58. Gu A, Gray F, Eastoe C, Norman L, Duarte O, Long A. Tracing ground water input to base flow using sulfate (S, O) isotopes. Ground Water. 2008;46:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Source A contributes 50% to 70%, with the remainder equally divided between B and C during the base flow seasons. The proportion of B generally increases downstream. The proportion of A is greatest under drought conditions...
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    ..Our findings seem to support a link between the most severe glaciations in Earth's history, the oxygenation of the Earth's surface environments, and the earliest diversification of animals...
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    ..In addition, two fertilisers widely used in the studied area are chemically and isotopically characterised and their contribution to groundwater salinisation is assessed...
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    ..a high S demanding plant, especially with regard to S limitation. The role of pod walls in the assimilation and allocation of S in well-fed and sulphate-limited conditions also needs to be clarified...
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    ..Microbial sulphate turnover is associated with an apparent isotopic fractionation between dissolved sulphate and dissolved sulphide (?(34)S) that varies between 46 and 66‰...
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    ..SULAQ technology can be a valuable alternative strategy for the quantitative comparisons in MS-based proteomics approaches characterizing bacterial and other biological samples in different growth conditions...
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    Anomalously fractionated sulfur isotopes in many sedimentary rocks older than 2.4 billion years have been widely believed to be the products of ultraviolet photolysis of volcanic sulfur dioxide in an anoxic atmosphere...
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    ..Collectively, these findings imply a highly dynamic microbially mediated cycling of sulfate and sulfide, and thus the speciation and mobility of chalcophilic contaminant metal(loid)s, in AMD-impacted marsh sediments...
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    ..These data successfully led us to determine the one elemental composition in a standard independent manner. The approach should be particularly amenable to the metabolomics research field...
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    ..Significantly, however, the interval of peak magnitude for carbon isotopes precedes that of sulfur isotopes with an estimated offset of a few hundred thousand years...
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    ..Along the thermal gradients of thermal spring outflows, the 13C/12C value of carbonates and 13C-depleted microbial organic carbon increases, principally due to the outgassing of relatively 13C-depleted CO2...
  76. Johansson J, Grönbladh A, Nyberg F, Hallberg M. Application of in vitro [³?S]GTP?-S autoradiography in studies of growth hormone effects on opioid receptors in the male rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2013;90:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity level of DOP receptors was not affected. Thus, the data support that the beneficial effect of GH on counteracting apoptosis might involve a direct or indirect effect on the MOP but not the DOP receptor...
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    ..These results support an origin other than thermochemical sulfate reduction for the mass-independent signals observed for early Earth samples...
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    ..Collectively, these results imply that the sulfation mediated by SULT1A3 may play an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of ractopamine and salbutamol...
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