sodium radioisotopes


Summary: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.

Top Publications

  1. Laurie S, Feeney K, Maathuis F, Heard P, Brown S, Leigh R. A role for HKT1 in sodium uptake by wheat roots. Plant J. 2002;32:139-49 pubmed
  2. Chen Z, Pottosin I, Cuin T, Fuglsang A, Tester M, Jha D, et al. Root plasma membrane transporters controlling K+/Na+ homeostasis in salt-stressed barley. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1714-25 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results are consistent with the idea of the cytosolic K(+)-to-Na(+) ratio being a key determinant of plant salinity tolerance, and suggest multiple pathways of controlling that important feature in salt-tolerant plants...
  3. Orlov S, Dutil J, Hamet P, Deng A. Replacement of (alpha)1-Na-K-ATPase of Dahl rats by Milan rats lowers blood pressure but does not affect its activity. Physiol Genomics. 2001;7:171-7 pubmed
    ..Thus the BP-lowering effects observed in S.M5 and S.M6 could not be attributed to the alpha(1)-Na-K-ATPase activity or its stoichiometry. Atp1a1 is not supported as a candidate to be a BP QTL. ..
  4. Velly J, Grima M, Decker N, Cragoe E, Schwartz J. Effects of amiloride and its analogues on [3H]batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha benzoate binding, [3H]tetracaine binding and 22Na influx. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;149:97-105 pubmed
    ..These results show an effect of amiloride and its analogues on the voltage-sensitive Na+ channels, which could partly explain the inotropic effects of these drugs. ..
  5. Rice G, Dantzer V, Madsen M, Skadhauge E. Gestational changes in electrolyte transport, electrical activity, and permeability of the porcine placenta. J Comp Physiol B. 1991;161:189-98 pubmed
    ..These morphological changes only partly explained the pre-term electrophysiological changes in these tissues. ..
  6. Momose T, Tsujimura N, Tasaki T, Kanai K, Kurihara O, Hayashi N, et al. Dose evaluation based on 24Na activity in the human body at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura. J Radiat Res. 2001;42 Suppl:S95-105 pubmed
    ..The maximum 24Na activity in the body was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq(24Na)/g(23Na)) and the relevant effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. ..
  7. Eladari D, Leviel F, Pezy F, Paillard M, Chambrey R. Rat proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic acid-base disorders but not to chronic changes in dietary NaCl intake. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;282:F835-43 pubmed
    ..During NaHCO(3) loading, NHE3 protein abundance was decreased by 65%. We conclude that proximal NHE3 adapts to chronic metabolic acid-base disorders but not to changes in dietary NaCl intake. ..
  8. Grima M, Velly J, Decker N, Marciniak G, Schwartz J. Inhibitory effects of some cyclohexylaralkylamines related to perhexiline on sodium influx, binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate and [3H]nitrendipine and on guinea pig left atria contractions. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;147:173-85 pubmed
    ..Our results showed that prenylamine, perhexiline and its related cyclohexylaralkylamines inhibited the fast Na+ channel far more than the slow Ca2+ channel in rat brain, rat heart and guinea pig atria. ..
  9. Cheng W, McCoy J, Thompson A, Nichols C, Nimigean C. Mechanism for selectivity-inactivation coupling in KcsA potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a molecular mechanism by which inactivation and K(+) selectivity are linked, a mechanism that may also be at work in other channels containing the canonical GYG signature sequence. ..

More Information


  1. Gesek F, Friedman P. Sodium entry mechanisms in distal convoluted tubule cells. Am J Physiol. 1995;268:F89-98 pubmed
    ..An additional 13% may enter by Na/H exchange, with the remainder mediated by Na/Ca exchange and Na-Pi cotransport. ..
  2. Liu J, Periyasamy S, Gunning W, Fedorova O, Bagrov A, Malhotra D, et al. Effects of cardiac glycosides on sodium pump expression and function in LLC-PK1 and MDCK cells. Kidney Int. 2002;62:2118-25 pubmed
    ..However, the circulating concentrations of DLS do not acutely inhibit the sodium pump to a degree consistent with the observed changes in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption...
  3. Babsky A, Hekmatyar S, Zhang H, Solomon J, Bansal N. Predicting and monitoring response to chemotherapy by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea in subcutaneously implanted 9L glioma using the apparent diffusion coefficient of water and 23Na MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2006;24:132-9 pubmed
    ..This may have important implications for monitoring therapy response in tumors. ..
  4. Schulze L, Britto D, Li M, Kronzucker H. A pharmacological analysis of high-affinity sodium transport in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): a 24Na+/42K+ study. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:2479-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study complements recent advances in the molecular biology of high-affinity Na(+) transport by uncovering new physiological foundations for this transport phenomenon, while questioning its ecological relevance. ..
  5. Fleishman D. Cosmogenic 22Na as an index of the residence time of water in freshwater basins: a review. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Now, only cosmogenic (22)Na is in the environment, and it is the single cosmogenic radionuclide at present, which can serve as a steady-state tracer for dating young waters (up to some decades). ..
  6. Musch M, Arvans D, Wu G, Chang E. Functional coupling of the downregulated in adenoma Cl-/base exchanger DRA and the apical Na+/H+ exchangers NHE2 and NHE3. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;296:G202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data support the role of DRA in electroneutral NaCl absorption involving functional coupling of Cl(-)/base exchange and apical NHE. ..
  7. Vié B, Sablayrolles S, Letienne R, Vacher B, Darmellah A, Bernard M, et al. 3-(R)-[3-(2-methoxyphenylthio-2-(S)-methylpropyl]amino-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzoxathiepine bromhydrate (F 15845) prevents ischemia-induced heart remodeling by reduction of the intracellular Na+ overload. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:696-703 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Overall, F 15845 attenuates [Na(+)](i) and prevents (or reverses) contractile and biochemical dysfunction in ischemic and remodeling heart. F 15845 constitutes a new generation of cardioprotective agent. ..
  8. Kornel L, Manisundaram B, Nelson W. Glucocorticoids regulate Na+ transport in vascular smooth muscle through the glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanism. Am J Hypertens. 1993;6:736-44 pubmed
    ..Addition of protein synthesis inhibitors, actinomycin D or cycloheximide, to VSM cells cultured in the presence of DEX prevented the increase of Na+ influx by DEX.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  9. Kronzucker H, Szczerba M, Moazami Goudarzi M, Britto D. The cytosolic Na+ : K+ ratio does not explain salinity-induced growth impairment in barley: a dual-tracer study using 42K+ and 24Na+. Plant Cell Environ. 2006;29:2228-37 pubmed
    ..We offer alternative explanations for sodium sensitivity in relation to the primary acquisition mechanisms of Na+ and K+. ..
  10. Dimroth P, Matthey U, Kaim G. Critical evaluation of the one- versus the two-channel model for the operation of the ATP synthase's F(o) motor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1459:506-13 pubmed
  11. Moehrs S, Defrise M, Belcari N, Guerra A, Bartoli A, Fabbri S, et al. Multi-ray-based system matrix generation for 3D PET reconstruction. Phys Med Biol. 2008;53:6925-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we analyse the quality of the model by reconstructing phantom data from the YAP-(S)PET II scanner. ..
  12. Ouwerkerk R, Bleich K, Gillen J, Pomper M, Bottomley P. Tissue sodium concentration in human brain tumors as measured with 23Na MR imaging. Radiology. 2003;227:529-37 pubmed
    ..23Na MR imaging with short echo times can be used to quantify absolute tissue sodium concentration in patients with brain tumors and shows increased sodium concentration in tumors relative to that in normal brain structures. ..
  13. Shimada Shimizu N, Hisamitsu T, Nakamura T, Wakabayashi S. Evidence that Na+/H+ exchanger 1 is an ATP-binding protein. FEBS J. 2013;280:1430-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that NHE1 is an ATP-binding transporter. Thus, ATP may serve as a direct activator of NHE1. ..
  14. Gusev G, Ivanova T. [Protein phosphatases in the regulation of sodium transport across erythrocyte membrane in lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2006;42:208-13 pubmed
  15. Jain D, Chhabra S, Raj H. Effect of sensitization on membrane ion fluxes & intracellular calcium in guineapigs. Indian J Med Res. 2004;120:534-41 pubmed
    ..These alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of airway hyper-responsiveness following sensitization. ..
  16. Gerencser G, Levin R, Zhang J. Sodium-phosphate symport by Aplysia californica gut. Zoolog Sci. 2002;19:163-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest the presence of a Na-PO4 symporter in the mucosal membrane of the Aplysia californica foregut absorptive cell. ..
  17. Uezono Y, Yanagihara N, Wada A, Koda Y, Yokota K, Kobayashi H, et al. Veratridine-induced phosphorylation and activation of tyrosine hydroxylase, and synthesis of catecholamines in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1989;339:653-9 pubmed
  18. Hermanne A, Takacs S, Tarkanyi F, Adam Rebeles R, Ignatyuk A. Excitation functions for 7Be, 22,24Na production in Mg and Al by deuteron irradiations up to 50 MeV. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:2763-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thick target yields were derived from fits to our cross-sections and integrated personnel dose was calculated for different irradiation cycles and exposure scenarios around high power deuteron accelerator facilities. ..
  19. Musch M, Arvans D, Paris H, Chang E. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors attenuate secretagogue-induced endocytosis and promote exocytosis of intestinal NHE2 and NHE3. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..By both blocking electrolyte secretion and promoting absorption, alpha2-agonists could be potent antidiarrheal agents that could directly counteract the actions of toxigenic pathogens and other secretagogues causing secretory diarrhea. ..
  20. Houchi H, Okuno M, Kitamura K, Ishimura Y, Ohuchi T, Tokumura A, et al. Stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on calcium efflux from cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Life Sci. 1995;56:PL109-14 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that stimulation of the angiotensin II receptor induces extracellular Na(+)-dependent Ca2+ efflux from cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, probably by acceleration of Na+/Ca2+ exchange. ..
  21. Brasitus T, Dudeja P, Foster E. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-induced alterations in Na+-H+ exchange in rat colonic brush-border membrane vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;938:483-8 pubmed
    ..This data, therefore, suggests that alterations in Na+-H+ exchange in rat colonic brush-border membranes may be involved in the malignant transformation process induced by this procarcinogen in the large intestine. ..
  22. Shah N, Oros Peusquens A, Arrubla J, Zhang K, Warbrick T, Mauler J, et al. Advances in multimodal neuroimaging: hybrid MR-PET and MR-PET-EEG at 3 T and 9.4 T. J Magn Reson. 2013;229:101-15 pubmed publisher
  23. Narins S, Ramakrishnan R, Park E, Bolno P, Haggerty D, Smith P, et al. Protein kinase C-alpha regulation of gallbladder Na+ transport becomes progressively more dysfunctional during gallstone formation. J Lab Clin Med. 2005;146:227-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PKC-alpha regulation of gallbladder NHE becomes progressively more dysfunctional and may in part account for the increased Na+ absorption observed during gallstone formation. ..
  24. Pochini L, Oppedisano F, Indiveri C. Reconstitution into liposomes and functional characterization of the carnitine transporter from renal cell plasma membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1661:78-86 pubmed
    ..The reconstituted carnitine transporter corresponds, very probably, to the OCTN2 protein. ..
  25. Moura A, Worcel M. [Ex vivo and in vitro effects of trandolapril on the efflux of 22Na from the caudal artery of the SHR rat. Inhibition of vascular angiotensin II production]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1988;81 Spec No:175-7 pubmed
    ..084 +/- 0.006 min-1 (n = 6) p less than 0.05). The effects were dose-dependent. Enalapril diacid (MK 422) also dose-dependently decreased 22Na effluxes but it was approximately 10 fold less active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  26. Staines H, Ellory J, Kirk K. Perturbation of the pump-leak balance for Na(+) and K(+) in malaria-infected erythrocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;280:C1576-87 pubmed
  27. Babický A, Pavelka S, Vobecky M. Biological half-lives of bromide and sodium in the rat are connected and dependent on the physiological state. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005;103:49-58 pubmed
    ..The determined values demonstrated that nonweaned young apparently conserve sodium, because of its relatively low concentration in mother's milk, whereas lactating dams, because of their large food intake, waste sodium...
  28. Gawenis L, Stien X, Shull G, Schultheis P, Woo A, Walker N, et al. Intestinal NaCl transport in NHE2 and NHE3 knockout mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;282:G776-84 pubmed
  29. Moon C, Kim J, Zhao T, Bae K. Quantitative (23) Na MRI of human knee cartilage using dual-tuned (1) H/(23) Na transceiver array radiofrequency coil at 7 tesla. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013;38:1063-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop quantitative dual-tuned (DT) (1) H/(23) Na MRI of human knee cartilage in vivo at 7 Tesla (T)...
  30. Perras F, Bryce D. Removal of sidebands in double-rotation NMR in real time. J Magn Reson. 2011;211:234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Advantages and shortcomings of the method compared to other DOR sideband suppression methods are explored with the aid of simulations...
  31. Hasegawa T, Oda K, Wada Y, Sato Y, Yamada T, Yoshida E, et al. A practical method of determining cross-calibration factors of PET scanners by moving a point-like (22)Na radioactive source. Ann Nucl Med. 2010;24:655-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper describes a new practical method that uses a point-like (22)Na radioactive source for determining CCFs...
  32. Simões A, Oliveira P, Sebastiao A, Ribeiro J. N6-cyclohexyladenosine inhibits veratridine-stimulated 22Na uptake by rat brain synaptosomes. J Neurochem. 1988;50:899-903 pubmed
    ..The possibility that the adenosine analogue, by activating a xanthine-sensitive adenosine receptor, can operate inhibition of the voltage-dependent sodium channels is discussed...
  33. Krishnan L, Krishnan E, Jewell W. Immediate effect of irradiation on microvasculature. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;15:147-50 pubmed
    ..These results reveal an increase in the extravascular albumin immediately after irradiation and suggest an instantaneous compromise in vascular permeability even after 2 Gy. This effect was apparently dose related...
  34. Seneviratne M, Reinhard M, Baldock C. The energy response of a T.P.A. Mk-II ionization chamber using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation. Phys Med Biol. 2007;52:3837-46 pubmed
    ..The chamber response for different compositions of detector elements was also studied. The response of the chamber depended highly on the energies of emitting particles, source position and materials used in electrodes and thimble wall...
  35. Kocinsky H, Dynia D, Wang T, Aronson P. NHE3 phosphorylation at serines 552 and 605 does not directly affect NHE3 activity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F212-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that although phosphorylation of NHE3 at serines 552 and 605 is regulated by PKA both in vivo and in vitro, phosphorylation of these sites does not directly alter Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity...
  36. Nichiporov D, Luckjashin V, Kostjuchenko V. Measurement of the activity of 11C and 22Na sources using a 4pi-beta-gamma coincidence system. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:703-16 pubmed
    ..The 4pi-beta-gamma coincidence technique and the results of modeling allow the activity measurements on 22Na and 11C sources with an estimated relative standard uncertainly on the order of one percent...
  37. Wood C, Laurent P. Na+ versus Cl- transport in the intact killifish after rapid salinity transfer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1618:106-19 pubmed
  38. Goss G, Jiang L, Vandorpe D, Kieller D, Chernova M, Robertson M, et al. Role of JNK in hypertonic activation of Cl(-)-dependent Na(+)/H(+) exchange in Xenopus oocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C1978-90 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of JNK activity prevented hypertonic activation of xoNHE but not activation by acid loading. We conclude that hypertonic activation of Na(+)/H(+) exchange in Xenopus oocytes requires Cl(-) and is mediated by activation of JNK...
  39. Reith M. [14C]guanidinium ion influx into Na+ channel preparations from mouse cerebral cortex. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990;188:33-41 pubmed
    ..The guanidinium ion assay offers the convenience of the 14C isotope as compared with the strongly radiating 22Na+ isotope...
  40. Fan S, Sun Z, Jiang D, Dai C, Ma Y, Zhao Z, et al. BmKCT toxin inhibits glioma proliferation and tumor metastasis. Cancer Lett. 2010;291:158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..5-conjugated BmKCT revealed that BmKCT selectively targeted the glioma in situ. Our data suggest that BmKCT could be exploited as a potential therapeutic for glioma diagnosis and therapy...
  41. Ando A, Ando I, Katayama M, Sanada S, Hiraki T, Mori H, et al. Biodistributions of radioactive alkaline metals in tumor bearing animals: comparison with 201Tl. Eur J Nucl Med. 1988;14:352-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, suitable radionuclides of K and K analogs can be excellent agents for visualization of viable tumor tissues...
  42. Dietlein M, Dressler J, Eschner W, Leisner B, Reiners C, Schicha H. [Procedure guideline for thyroid scintigraphy (version 3)]. Nuklearmedizin. 2007;46:203-5 pubmed
    ..For this, an imaging time of 10 minutes is generally needed using a high resolution collimator for thyroid imaging...
  43. Golbang A, Cope G, Hamad A, Murthy M, Liu C, Cuthbert A, et al. Regulation of the expression of the Na/Cl cotransporter by WNK4 and WNK1: evidence that accelerated dynamin-dependent endocytosis is not involved. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F1369-76 pubmed
    ..These results further highlight important differences in the mechanism by which WNK kinases affect expression of NCCT vs. other membrane proteins such as ROMK...
  44. Alexander B, Smart K, Segal M, Preston J. Hyperammonaemia reduces intracellular 22Na (sodium) ion and extracellular 86Rb ion concentrations in the blood-brain barrier of the rat. Metab Brain Dis. 2005;20:19-33 pubmed
    ..These observations may provide a basis for the explanation of NH+ toxicity during hepatic encephalopathy and liver failure-induced cerebral edema...
  45. Townrow S, Kilburn D, Alam A, Ubbink J. Molecular packing in amorphous carbohydrate matrixes. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:12643-8 pubmed
  46. Ishigure N, Endo A, Yamaguchi Y, Kawachi K. Calculation of the absorbed dose for the overexposed patients at the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura. J Radiat Res. 2001;42 Suppl:S137-48 pubmed
    ..The estimated neutron doses were 5.4 Gy for patient A. 2.9 Gy for patient B and 0.81 Gy for patient C. The estimated gamma-ray doses were 8.5 or 13 Gy for patient A, 4.5 or 6.9 Gy for patient B, and 1.3 or 2.0 Gy for patient C...
  47. Murphy K, Nielsen O, Clausen T. Analysis of exercise-induced Na+-K+ exchange in rat skeletal muscle in vivo. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:1249-62 pubmed publisher
  48. Homaidan F, Zhao L, Palaia T, Donovan V, Burakoff R. Morphological and functional changes in the colonic epithelial cells in a rabbit model of colitis. Inflammation. 1999;23:191-205 pubmed
    ..The reduced number of PGE2 receptors might be due to sensitization of the receptor. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that morphologically and functionally normal epithelial cells can be isolated from the rabbit inflamed distal colon...
  49. Agalakova N, Gusev G. Effect of protein kinase C activation on Na+-H+ exchange in erythrocytes of frog Rana temporaria. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003;134:11-20 pubmed
    ..Both amiloride and NaF did not affect the basal Na(+) influx in frog erythrocytes. The data indicate that the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger in the frog erythrocytes is quiescent under basal conditions and can be markedly stimulated by PMA...
  50. Glaus M, Baeyens B, Bradbury M, Jakob A, Van Loon L, Yaroshchuk A. Diffusion of 22Na and 85Sr in montmorillonite: evidence of interlayer diffusion being the dominant pathway at high compaction. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:478-85 pubmed
    ..The latter gradient is assumed to be a function of the external salt concentration, according to a calculated distribution of the tracer cation between free pore water and the interlayer water via cation exchange...
  51. Morgan T, Grosell M, Gilmour K, Playle R, Wood C. Time course analysis of the mechanism by which silver inhibits active Na+ and Cl- uptake in gills of rainbow trout. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R234-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that reduced silver bioavailability is the mechanism behind the pattern of peak and decline in gill silver accumulation previously reported for static exposures to silver...
  52. Unterweger M, Lindstrom R. Ionization chamber measurements of the half-lives of 24Na, 42K, 76As and 198Au. Appl Radiat Isot. 2004;60:325-7 pubmed
    ..Half-life measurements were carried out in the NIST 4pigamma pressurized ionization chamber. The results are compared to presently accepted values and previous NIST measurements...
  53. Gusev G, Ivanova T. Activation of Na+/H+ exchange by protein phosphatase inhibitors in red blood cells of the frog Rana ridibunda. J Comp Physiol B. 2003;173:429-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data obtained clearly indicate that Na+/H+ exchanger in the marsh frog red blood cells is under tight regulatory control, in all likelihood via protein phosphatases of types PP-1 and PP-2A...
  54. Muramatsu Y, Noda Y, Yonehara H, Ishigure N, Yoshida S, Yukawa M, et al. Determination of radionuclides produced by neutrons in heavily exposed workers of the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura for estimating an individual's neutron fluence. J Radiat Res. 2001;42 Suppl:S117-28 pubmed
    ..2 x 10(4),4.3 x 10(4) and 1.2 x 10(4) Bq24Na/g23Na. Based on these values, individual's neutron fluences were estimated to be 5.7 x 10(11), 3.0 x 10(-1) and 0.85 x 10(11) cm(-2), respectively...
  55. Bajdik J, Marciello M, Caramella C, Domján A, Süvegh K, Marek T, et al. Evaluation of surface and microstructure of differently plasticized chitosan films. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2009;49:655-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both surface and structural tests must be performed before the formulation of this type of plasticized mucoadhesive films...
  56. Prior T, Hernandez J, Tougas G, Rangachari P. Phenotypic differences in cholinergic responses of distal colonic epithelium. Exp Physiol. 2004;89:209-17 pubmed
    ..The relative contributions of each of these components were different in the two lines...
  57. Hayashi H, Suzuki T, Yamamoto T, Suzuki Y. Cholinergic inhibition of electrogenic sodium absorption in the guinea pig distal colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G617-28 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, submucosal cholinergic and noncholinergic neurons were involved in inhibiting electrogenic Na(+) absorption in colon. This inhibition by cholinergic neurons was mediated by muscarinic receptor activation...
  58. Yudowski G, Bar Shimon M, Tal D, González Lebrero R, Rossi R, Garrahan P, et al. Evidence for tryptophan residues in the cation transport path of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Biochemistry. 2003;42:10212-22 pubmed
    ..The Br-TITU appears to interact strongly with tryptophan residue(s) within the lipid or at the extracellular membrane-water interface and interfere with cation occlusion and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity...
  59. Hölttä P, Siitari Kauppi M, Hakanen M, Tukiainen V. Attempt to model laboratory-scale diffusion and retardation data. J Contam Hydrol. 2001;47:139-48 pubmed
    ..Kd values obtained from fracture column experiments were one order of magnitude lower than Kd values from batch experiments...
  60. Hasegawa T, Oda K, Sato Y, Ito H, Masuda S, Yamada T, et al. Microfocus x-ray imaging of traceable pointlike (22)Na sources for quality control. Med Phys. 2012;39:4414-22 pubmed publisher
  61. Chidlow G, Melena J, Osborne N. Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;130:759-66 pubmed
    ..The ability of betaxolol to interact with neurotoxin site 2 of the Na(+) channel and inhibit Na(+) influx may have a role in its neuroprotective action in paradigms of excitotoxicity/ischaemia and in its therapeutic effect in glaucoma...
  62. Gambhir K, Mathews J, Parui R, Cruz I, Hosten A, Dillard M. Sodium-22 influx into erythrocytes from diabetic hypertensive patients on maintenance hemodialysis. J Natl Med Assoc. 1990;82:697-9 pubmed
    ..0 x 10(9) cells/mL was 60% more (P less than .05) in diabetic uremic patients than in the controls. These studies indicate that 22Na+ influx determinations may be used to distinguish secondary hypertensive patients from normal subjects...
  63. Speake P, Mynett K, Glazier J, Greenwood S, Sibley C. Activity and expression of Na+/H+ exchanger isoforms in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta. Pflugers Arch. 2005;450:123-30 pubmed
    ..Overall these data show that under the conditions used NHE activity in the term placental syncytiotrophoblast is absent from BM. NHE activity in the MVM is attributable predominantly to NHE1...
  64. Wagstaff A, Maclean I, Michell A, Holmes P. Plasma and extracellular volume in calves: comparison between isotopic and 'cold' techniques. Res Vet Sci. 1992;53:271-3 pubmed
    ..00, 0.96; P < 0.001) and the calves had plasma and extracellular fluid volumes of 72 +/- 2 and 438 +/- 2 ml kg-1, respectively. The latter value is, though high, typical of young animals and comparable with other data in calves...
  65. Fraser G, Blendis L, Smirnoff P, Sikular E, Niv Y, Schwartz B. Portal hypertension induces sodium channel expression in colonocytes from the distal colon of the rat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G886-92 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PVL leads to induction of ENaC in rat distal colon. An increase in aldosterone levels may prevent natiuresis and is probably one of several control mechanisms involved in Na(+) retention in portal hypertension...
  66. Buther F, Ernst I, Hamill J, Eich H, Schober O, Schäfers M, et al. External radioactive markers for PET data-driven respiratory gating in positron emission tomography. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;40:602-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore combined external radioactive markers with data-driven respiratory gating in PET/CT. The feasibility and accuracy of this approach was studied for [(18)F]FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with malignant liver and lung lesions...
  67. Rapisarda E, Bettinardi V, Thielemans K, Gilardi M. Image-based point spread function implementation in a fully 3D OSEM reconstruction algorithm for PET. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:4131-51 pubmed publisher
  68. Porter L. An unusual incident: breached 22Na sealed source. Health Phys. 2004;86:S38-41 pubmed
    ..Salient features of this incident are described in conjunction with a portrayal of measures taken during early damage control and the following deliberate remediation...
  69. Pilecká N, Rakovic M. An application of neutron activation and radiotracer techniques for studying the status of sodium in the bone mineral. Acta Univ Carol Med (Praha). 1993;39:49-56 pubmed
    ..Results of a complementary experiment with ashed bone samples demonstrated an almost complete abolishment of the sodium ion release, which is in perfect agreement with a known concept of the thermal recrystallization of the bone mineral...
  70. Kronzucker H, Szczerba M, Schulze L, Britto D. Non-reciprocal interactions between K+ and Na+ ions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Exp Bot. 2008;59:2793-801 pubmed publisher
  71. Gambling L, Olver R, Fyfe G, Kemp P, Baines D. Differential regulation of Na+ and Cl- conductances by PTX-sensitive G proteins in fetal lung apical membrane vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1372:187-97 pubmed
  72. Bøttger P, Hede S, Grunnet M, Høyer B, Klaerke D, Pedersen L. Characterization of transport mechanisms and determinants critical for Na+-dependent Pi symport of the PiT family paralogs human PiT1 and PiT2. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C1377-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the results imply that putative transmembrane amino acids E(55) and E(575) are responsible for linking P(i) import to Na(+) transport in PiT2...
  73. Ribeiro J, Lobo M, Sebastião A. Endogenous adenosine modulation of 22Na uptake by rat brain synaptosomes. Neurochem Res. 2003;28:1591-5 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that adenosine is tonically inhibiting sodium uptake by rat brain synaptosomes...
  74. Komura K, Kuwahara Y, Abe T, Tanaka K, Murata Y, Inoue M. Measurements of short-lived cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides in rainwater. J Environ Radioact. 2007;96:103-9 pubmed
    ..4mBqL(-1)]), 400 to 1900L(-1) for (39)Cl (n=6, mean; 1200 [250mBqL(-1)]), 1x10(6) to 4x10(7)L(-1) for (7)Be (n=16, mean; 7x10(6) [1.05BqL(-1)]) and 2x10(3) to 1x10(5)L(-1) for (22)Na (n=9, mean; 2x10(4) [0.2mBqL(-1)])...
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    ..Thus, continuous PARP inhibition by 3-AB does not reduce reperfusion injury in the isolated rat heart, which may be because of acceleration of apoptosis...
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    ..Similar actions at synapses within the CNS may underlie the general anaesthetic effects of these agents...
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    ..It was concluded that the interaction of these drugs with the Na+ channel may reflect their anaesthetic properties while the interaction with the PCP receptors may be mainly related to their anticonvulsant and ataxic properties...
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    ..parvum-infected calf ileal tissue, whereas glutamine increases sodium uptake by an electrogenic mechanism in this same tissue...
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    ..This is thought to provide evidence of enhanced radionuclide absorption by the relatively small fraction of roots in the vicinity of the deeper water table...
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    ..The experimental procedures and results have implications for enhancement of contrast in (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging of heterogeneous systems using quadrupolar interactions...
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    ..The degree of anisotropy is slightly smaller for Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri than from Benken. This is due to the lower overburden pressure in Mont Terri resulting in a lower preferential orientation of the clay platelets...
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    ..In this case study, sodium MRI of a clinically well-functioning transplanted kidney was performed to determine whether its sodium gradient could be detected and quantified using this method...
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    ..e.: a minimum concentration of 10(-4) M of cicletanine was necessary to induce a slight cotransporter inhibition (29.5 +/- 18.2%). Cicletanine sulfate was inactive, even at 10(-4) M...
  86. Plamboeck A, Nylen T, Grip H. Uptake of cations under two different water regimes in a boreal scots pine forest. Sci Total Environ. 2000;256:175-83 pubmed
    ..The Cs distribution 1 year after the Chernobyl accident was dominated by Cs on/in needles and bark. After 10 years of redistribution, the Chernobyl Cs content of the different parts of the trees approached that of K...
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    ..The main effect is a stimulation of electroneutral and electrogenic Na+ absorption. This stimulated Na+ absorption might be causative of increased water absorption from the rumen as described previously...