sodium isotopes


Summary: Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.

Top Publications

  1. Pabst T, Sandstede J, Beer M, Kenn W, Neubauer S, Hahn D. Evaluation of sodium T1 relaxation times in human heart. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2003;17:726-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the sodium longitudinal relaxation (T(1)) characteristics for myocardium and blood in humans...
  2. Alecci M, Romanzetti S, Kaffanke J, Celik A, Wegener H, Shah N. Practical design of a 4 Tesla double-tuned RF surface coil for interleaved 1H and 23Na MRI of rat brain. J Magn Reson. 2006;181:203-11 pubmed
    ..25 x 1.25 x 5mm(3)) are also reported. The in vivo SNR values obtained with this coil were comparable to, if not better than, other contemporary designs in the literature. ..
  3. Weber M, Nielles Vallespin S, Essig M, Jurkat Rott K, Kauczor H, Lehmann Horn F. Muscle Na+ channelopathies: MRI detects intracellular 23Na accumulation during episodic weakness. Neurology. 2006;67:1151-8 pubmed
    ..Muscle channelopathies such as paramyotonia, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, and potassium-aggravated myotonia are caused by gain-of-function Na+ channel mutations...
  4. Ouwerkerk R, Bottomley P, Solaiyappan M, Spooner A, Tomaselli G, Wu K, et al. Tissue sodium concentration in myocardial infarction in humans: a quantitative 23Na MR imaging study. Radiology. 2008;248:88-96 pubmed publisher
  5. Amarteifio E, Nagel A, Weber M, Jurkat Rott K, Lehmann Horn F. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis and permanent weakness: 3-T MR imaging depicts intracellular 23Na overload--initial results. Radiology. 2012;264:154-63 pubmed publisher
  6. Solanky B, Riemer F, Golay X, Wheeler Kingshott C. Sodium quantification in the spinal cord at 3T. Magn Reson Med. 2013;69:1201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Proposed here for the first time is a fast non-invasive technique to quantify total sodium in the spinal cord in vivo. This newly proposed technique has a great potential for translation into clinic, thanks to its simplicity. ..
  7. Maril N, Margalit R, Rosen S, Heyman S, Degani H. Detection of evolving acute tubular necrosis with renal 23Na MRI: studies in rats. Kidney Int. 2006;69:765-8 pubmed
    ..MRI detection of corticomedullary sodium gradient abnormalities may serve to identify evolving ATN at its early phases. ..
  8. Laustsen C, Ringgaard S, Pedersen M, Nielsen N. Quadrupolar-coupling-specific binomial pulse sequences for in vivo 23Na NMR and MRI. J Magn Reson. 2010;206:139-46 pubmed publisher
  9. Fan C, Lehmann Horn F, Weber M, Bednarz M, Groome J, Jonsson M, et al. Transient compartment-like syndrome and normokalaemic periodic paralysis due to a Ca(v)1.1 mutation. Brain. 2013;136:3775-86 pubmed publisher
    ..1 channels. Likewise, it is the first calcium channel mutation for complicated normokalaemic periodic paralysis. ..

More Information


  1. Momot K, Kuchel P, Whittaker D. Enhancement of Na+ diffusion in a bicontinuous cubic phase by the ionophore monensin. Langmuir. 2004;20:2660-6 pubmed
    ..The approach could be used to study the dynamics of hydrophilic species in the aqueous channels of BCPs and similar structures, as well as to measure the ion-transporting efficiency of ionophores. ..
  2. Kupriyanov V, Dai G, Shaw R, Sun J, Jilkina O, Luo Z, et al. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac ischemic injury using (87)Rb and (23)Na MR imaging, (31)P MR, and optical spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 2000;44:899-908 pubmed
    ..Changes in Na(+) and Rb(+) in the infarct area inversely correlated and their ratio is a more sensitive index of cell injury than either of them alone. ..
  3. Tan C, Fung B, Cho G. Phospholipid bicelles that align with their normals parallel to the magnetic field. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:11827-32 pubmed
    ..The partial alignment of maltotriose in the DBBPC/DHPC system was studied at three temperatures, and the (1)H-(13)C dipolar coupling constants are compared with those obtained for two other bicelle solutions. ..
  4. Puckeridge M, Chapman B, Conigrave A, Kuchel P. Quantitative model of NMR chemical shifts of 23Na+ induced by TmDOTP: applications in studies of Na+ transport in human erythrocytes. J Inorg Biochem. 2012;115:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the model, parameter fitting was achieved by calculating the likelihood distribution of parameters, and seeking the maximum likelihood with a Bayesian type of analysis. ..
  5. Gobet M, Mouaddab M, Cayot N, Bonny J, Guichard E, Le Quéré J, et al. The effect of salt content on the structure of iota-carrageenan systems: (23)Na DQF NMR and rheological studies. Magn Reson Chem. 2009;47:307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have allowed us to propose a model for the carrageenan gelation mechanism in the presence of Na(+) ions. ..
  6. Holloway C, Ten Hove M, Clarke K, Neubauer S. MR spectroscopy in heart failure. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011;3:331-40 pubmed
    ..MRS signals from 31P, 1H, 23Na and 13C, including novel hyperpolarization techniques, have provided considerable insight into the understanding of energy metabolism in the healthy and diseased heart...
  7. Ouwerkerk R, Bleich K, Gillen J, Pomper M, Bottomley P. Tissue sodium concentration in human brain tumors as measured with 23Na MR imaging. Radiology. 2003;227:529-37 pubmed
    ..23Na MR imaging with short echo times can be used to quantify absolute tissue sodium concentration in patients with brain tumors and shows increased sodium concentration in tumors relative to that in normal brain structures. ..
  8. Hasegawa T, Sato Y, Oda K, Wada Y, Murayama H, Yamada T. Semi-quantitative and simulation analyses of effects of ? rays on determination of calibration factors of PET scanners with point-like (22)Na sources. Phys Med Biol. 2011;56:6031-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This study thus offers an important theoretical basis for the validity of the calibration method using point-like (22)Na radioactive sources. ..
  9. Shapiro E, Borthakur A, Gougoutas A, Reddy R. 23Na MRI accurately measures fixed charge density in articular cartilage. Magn Reson Med. 2002;47:284-91 pubmed
    ..Both methodologies gave similar results, with the average sodium concentration of normal human patellar cartilage ranging from approximately 240 to 260 mM. This corresponds to FCDs of -158 mM to -182 mM. ..
  10. Abrahams I, Hawkes G, Ahmed A, Di Cristina T, Demetriou D, Ivanova G. Structures of the chain metaphosphates NaM(PO3)3 (M = Ca or Sr). Magn Reson Chem. 2008;46:316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..31)P and (23)Na NMR are entirely consistent with the crystallographic data and an empirical method for assigning (31)P resonances to particular crystallographically unique P atoms is described. ..
  11. Xu X, Akgul Y, Mahendroo M, Jerschow A. Ex vivo assessment of mouse cervical remodeling through pregnancy via 23Na MRS. NMR Biomed. 2010;23:907-12 pubmed publisher
  12. Atthe B, Babsky A, Hopewell P, Phillips C, Molitoris B, Bansal N. Early monitoring of acute tubular necrosis in the rat kidney by 23Na-MRI. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..23Na-MRI has great potential for noninvasive, clinical diagnosis of evolving ATN in the setup of acute renal failure and in differentiating ATN from other causes of renal failure where tubular function is maintained. ..
  13. Horn M. 23Na magnetic resonance imaging for the determination of myocardial viability: the status and the challenges. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2004;2:329-33 pubmed
    ..A small number of initial clinical studies show promising results for the use of this technique in humans. The development of (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging and the current status of the application are described. ..
  14. Babsky A, Ju S, Bennett S, George B, McLennan G, Bansal N. Effect of implantation site and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma on apparent diffusion coefficient of water and sodium MRI. NMR Biomed. 2012;25:312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, SQ and TQF (23)Na MRI may be complementary to diffusion imaging in areas susceptible to motion for characterizing hepatic tumors and for other applications, such as, predicting and monitoring therapy response. ..
  15. Schwaab V, Matheron C, Delort A, Gaudet G, Forano E. In vivo 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance study of maintenance of a sodium gradient in the ruminal bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:4390-2 pubmed
    ..Depletion of Na+ ions during the washing steps led to irreversible damage (modification of glucose metabolism and inability to maintain a sodium gradient). ..
  16. Naumann C, Kuchel P. Matrix-dependent modulation of anisotropic effects on NMR spectra from 7Li+ and 23Na+ encapsulated in cryptands. Eur Biophys J. 2013;42:17-23 pubmed publisher
  17. Trattnig S, Welsch G, Juras V, Szomolanyi P, Mayerhoefer M, Stelzeneder D, et al. 23Na MR imaging at 7 T after knee matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation preliminary results. Radiology. 2010;257:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..A strong correlation was found between sodium imaging and dGEMRIC in patients after MACT. ..
  18. Fiege D, Romanzetti S, Mirkes C, Brenner D, Shah N. Simultaneous single-quantum and triple-quantum-filtered MRI of 23Na (SISTINA). Magn Reson Med. 2013;69:1691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies can benefit from the evaluation of both contrasts with shortened acquisition times. ..
  19. Greiser A, Haase A, von Kienlin M. Improved cardiac sodium MR imaging by density-weighted phase-encoding. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2005;21:78-81 pubmed
    ..This new method for human cardiac sodium imaging provides high image quality combined with optimal sensitivity and thus may improve the clinical applicability of 23Na cardiac MRI. ..
  20. Johnson C, Moore E, Mortimer M. Periodic ab initio calculation of nuclear quadrupole parameters as an assignment tool in solid-state NMR spectroscopy: applications to 23Na NMR spectra of crystalline materials. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson. 2005;27:155-64 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of eta((23)Na) to hydrogen atom location is shown to be useful in testing the reported hydrogen-bonded structure of Na(2)HPO(4). ..
  21. Wu G. Recent developments in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar nuclei and applications to biological systems. Biochem Cell Biol. 1998;76:429-42 pubmed
    ..In particular, I discuss the application of solid-state NMR of (17)O, 67Zn, 59Co, 23Na, and 39K nuclei with a prognosis for future work...
  22. LaVerde G, Jungreis C, Nemoto E, Boada F. Sodium time course using 23Na MRI in reversible focal brain ischemia in the monkey. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;30:219-23 pubmed publisher
    ..147 h). The data indicate that sodium MRI increases linearly during brain ischemia, and that this increase is stopped by tissue reperfusion within 5.4 h after stroke onset. ..
  23. Veliyulin E, Egelandsdal B, Marica F, Balcom B. Quantitative 23Na magnetic resonance imaging of model foods. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:4091-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the sodium MRI invisibility is a methodological problem that can easily be circumvented by using the SPRITE MRI technique. ..
  24. Behl N, Gnahm C, Bachert P, Ladd M, Nagel A. Three-dimensional dictionary-learning reconstruction of (23)Na MRI data. Magn Reson Med. 2016;75:1605-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The 3D-DLCS algorithm enables precise reconstruction of undersampled (23)Na MRI data with markedly reduced noise and artifact levels compared with NUFFT reconstruction. Small structures are well preserved. ..
  25. Fujiwara K, Kinashi Y, Takahashi T, Yashima H, Kurihara K, Sakurai Y, et al. Induced radioactivity in the blood of cancer patients following Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. J Radiat Res. 2013;54:769-74 pubmed publisher
  26. Hiremath G, Najm I. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in animal models of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2007;48 Suppl 4:47-55 pubmed
    ..Such study allows for the identification of epileptic tissue with high sensitivity and specificity. We present here a review of the use of MRS in animal models of epilepsy. ..
  27. Ooms K, Cannella M, Vega A, Marcolongo M, Polenova T. The application of 23Na double-quantum-filter (DQF) NMR spectroscopy for the study of spinal disc degeneration. Magn Reson Med. 2008;60:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that (23)Na DQF NMR spectroscopy provides a probe of the degenerative state of the intervertebral disc tissues, and might hold potential as a novel diagnostic method for detection of disc degeneration. ..
  28. Imahashi K, Kusuoka H, Hashimoto K, Yoshioka J, Yamaguchi H, Nishimura T. Intracellular sodium accumulation during ischemia as the substrate for reperfusion injury. Circ Res. 1999;84:1401-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that intracellular Na+ accumulation during ischemia is the substrate for reperfusion injury and that the [Na+]i kinetics during reperfusion, which is coupled with Ca2+ influx, also determines the degree of injury. ..
  29. Parrish T, Fieno D, Fitzgerald S, Judd R. Theoretical basis for sodium and potassium MRI of the human heart at 1.5 T. Magn Reson Med. 1997;38:653-61 pubmed
    ..5 T scanners...
  30. Delort A, Gaudet G, Forano E. 23Na NMR study of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85: comparison of three chemical shift reagents and calculation of sodium concentration using ionophores. Anal Biochem. 2002;306:171-80 pubmed
    ..succinogenes by using ionophores. This approach avoided the problem of intracellular volume measurement and that of sodium visibility determination. ..
  31. Lee J, Regatte R, Jerschow A. Selective detection of ordered sodium signals by a jump-and-return pulse sequence. J Magn Reson. 2009;200:126-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This QJR sequence is tested with a phantom made of sodium ions in bacteriophage and in aqueous solution and its feasibility for contrast modification based on the quadrupolar coupling is demonstrated...
  32. Jacobs M, Ouwerkerk R, Kamel I, Bottomley P, Bluemke D, Kim H. Proton, diffusion-weighted imaging, and sodium (23Na) MRI of uterine leiomyomata after MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound: a preliminary study. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;29:649-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiparametric imaging permits identification of uterine leiomyomata, revealing altered 23Na MRI and DWI levels following noninvasive treatment that provides a mechanism to explore the molecular and metabolic pathways after treatment. ..
  33. Montrose M. The basis for transport across epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G941-2 pubmed
  34. Lee J, Xia D, Madelin G, Regatte R. Sodium inversion recovery MRI on the knee joint at 7 T with an optimal control pulse. J Magn Reson. 2016;262:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..While the optimal-control pulse reduces the RF power deposited to the body by 58%, the quality of fluid suppression and the signal level of sodium within cartilage are similar between two implementations. ..
  35. Houdai T, Matsuoka S, Matsumori N, Murata M. Membrane-permeabilizing activities of amphidinol 3, polyene-polyhydroxy antifungal from a marine dinoflagellate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1667:91-100 pubmed
    ..These results disclose that amphidinol 3 is one of few non-ionic compounds that possess potent membrane permeabilizing activity with non-detergent mechanism...
  36. Hancu I, Boada F, Shen G. Three-dimensional triple-quantum-filtered (23)Na imaging of in vivo human brain. Magn Reson Med. 1999;42:1146-54 pubmed
    ..0 T) in times acceptable for routine clinical examinations (20 minutes). Magn Reson Med 42:1146-1154, 1999...
  37. Goh G, Huang H, Ullman J, Borre L, Hnasko T, Trussell L, et al. Presynaptic regulation of quantal size: K+/H+ exchange stimulates vesicular glutamate transport. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulating presynaptic K(+) at a glutamatergic synapse influenced quantal size, indicating that synaptic vesicle K(+)/H(+) exchange regulates glutamate release and synaptic transmission...
  38. Sandstede J, Pabst T, Beer M, Harre K, Bäurle K, Lipke C, et al. [(23)sodium MRI for infarct imaging of the human heart]. Rofo. 2000;172:739-43 pubmed
    ..23Na MRI has previously been shown to have the potential to demonstrate myocardial infarction in an animal model. Aim of this study was, therefore, to demonstrate myocardial infarction with the use of 23Na-MRI in patients...
  39. Fechtelkord M. Influence of sodium ion dynamics on the 23Na quadrupolar interaction in sodalite: a high-temperature 23Na MAS NMR study. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson. 2000;18:70-88 pubmed
    ..Two conceivable jump mechanisms are proposed for a tetrahedral two-site jump between occupied and unoccupied tetrahedral sites...
  40. Trattnig S, Zbyn S, Schmitt B, Friedrich K, Juras V, Szomolanyi P, et al. Advanced MR methods at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) for clinical musculoskeletal applications. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:2338-46 pubmed publisher
  41. Vetter F, Plewicki M, Lindinger A, Merli A, Weber S, Wöste L. Optimized isotope-selective ionization of 23Na39K and 23Na41K by applying evolutionary strategies. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2005;7:1151-6 pubmed
    ..Our approach reveals how the optimization algorithm precisely addresses the vibrational wave functions by coherent interaction with the corresponding pulse components...
  42. Zöllner F, Konstandin S, Lommen J, Budjan J, Schoenberg S, Schad L, et al. Quantitative sodium MRI of kidney. NMR Biomed. 2016;29:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, (23)Na MRI is seen as a powerful technique with the option to establish a non-invasive renal biomarker for tissue viability, but is still a long way from real clinical implementation...
  43. Inukai M, Takeda K. Double-resonance magic angle coil spinning. J Magn Reson. 2010;202:274-8 pubmed publisher
    ..while still enjoying the merits that are intrinsic to MACS, such as high concentration sensitivity, eliminated magnetic susceptibility-induced field distortion, and an easy-to-use approach with the conventional and widespread hardware...
  44. Laymon C, Oborski M, Lee V, Davis D, Wiener E, Lieberman F, et al. Combined imaging biomarkers for therapy evaluation in glioblastoma multiforme: correlating sodium MRI and F-18 FLT PET on a voxel-wise basis. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012;30:1268-78 pubmed publisher
  45. Batista A, Marreiros B, Louro R, Pereira M. Study of ion translocation by respiratory complex I. A new insight using (23)Na NMR spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:1810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012)...
  46. Perras F, Korobkov I, Bryce D. 23Na double-rotation NMR of sodium nucleotides leads to the discovery of a new dCMP hendecahydrate. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2012;14:4677-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This hydrate crystallizes reproducibly when deuterated water is used exclusively in the preparation process...
  47. Bailey R, el Maghraby M, Balfour I, Mitchell T. Chronic glomerular nephritis in a man with an IgM cold autoantibody of anti-I specificity and a cold lymphocytotoxic antibody. J Clin Pathol. 1972;25:247-51 pubmed
    ..Although abnormal immune responses are not uncommon in chronic renal failure, it is suggested that there may be a causal relationship between the underlying renal lesion and the abnormal antibodies...
  48. Kopp C, Linz P, Wachsmuth L, Dahlmann A, Horbach T, Schofl C, et al. (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging of tissue sodium. Hypertension. 2012;59:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that, after further refinements, this tool could facilitate understanding the relationships between Na(+) accumulation and hypertension. Furthermore, with additional technical advances, a future clinical use may be possible...
  49. Weber M, Nagel A, Jurkat Rott K, Lehmann Horn F. Sodium (23Na) MRI detects elevated muscular sodium concentration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neurology. 2011;77:2017-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Using specific (23)Na MRI sequences, we tested the hypothesis that the edema is caused by an osmotic effect due to increased myoplasmic Na(+) content rather than inflammation that would lead to extracellular edema...
  50. Wang L, Wu Y, Chang G, Oesingmann N, Schweitzer M, Jerschow A, et al. Rapid isotropic 3D-sodium MRI of the knee joint in vivo at 7T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;30:606-14 pubmed publisher
    ..0T) via a 3D-radial acquisition with ultrashort echo times and clinically acceptable acquisition times...
  51. Batterton J, Van Baalen C. Growth responses of blue-green algae to sodium chloride concentration. Arch Mikrobiol. 1971;76:151-65 pubmed
  52. Rabenstein D, Bratt P, Peng J. Quantitative characterization of the binding of histamine by heparin. Biochemistry. 1998;37:14121-7 pubmed
    ..78 Na+ ions are displaced per H2A2+ bound by heparin. The results are discussed in terms of the ion exchange process which takes place when histamine is released by mast cells...
  53. Mouaddab M, Foucat L, Donnat J, Renou J, Bonny J. Absolute quantification of Na+ bound fraction by double-quantum filtered 23Na NMR spectroscopy. J Magn Reson. 2007;189:151-5 pubmed
    ..This method paves the way for absolute quantification of both bound and free fractions of Na(+), which are determining factors in the characterization of salted/brined/dried food products...
  54. Ashbrook S, Le Pollès L, Gautier R, Pickard C, Walton R. (23)Na multiple-quantum MAS NMR of the perovskites NaNbO(3) and NaTaO(3). Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2006;8:3423-31 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss the measured NMR parameters in relation to other studies of sodium in high coordination sites in the solid state...
  55. Gonzalez R, Wilson R, Wood C, Patrick M, Val A. Diverse strategies for ion regulation in fish collected from the ion-poor, acidic Rio Negro. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2002;75:37-47 pubmed
    ..This suggests that high concentrations of dissolved organic molecules in the water, which give it its dark tea color, may interact with the branchial epithelium in some protective manner...
  56. Jansen M, Shen H, Zhang L, Wolkowicz P, Balschi J. Energy requirements for the Na+ gradient in the oxygenated isolated heart: effect of changing the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H2437-45 pubmed
    ..At the highest work demand the HighBu heart Delta GATP was -54 kJ/mol and [Na+]i increased only approximately 10%. We conclude that a Delta GATP below -50 kJ/mol limits the Na+ pump and prevents maintenance of [Na+]i homeostasis...
  57. Eliav U, Keinan Adamsky K, Navon G. A new method for suppressing the central transition in I=3/2 NMR spectra with a demonstration for 23Na in bovine articular cartilage. J Magn Reson. 2003;165:276-81 pubmed
    ..A way to suppress the central signals, while preserving the lineshape and the intensity of the satellites, is suggested and tested on a liquid crystal and on bovine articular cartilage...
  58. Evgeny N, Jerschow A. Quadrupole sensitive pulse for signal filtering. J Magn Reson. 2016;265:153-63 pubmed publisher
  59. Benkhedah N, Hoffmann S, Biller A, Nagel A. Evaluation of adaptive combination of 30-channel head receive coil array data in 23Na MR imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2016;75:527-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to optimally combine multichannel coil array data in sodium ((23) Na) MRI...
  60. Constantinides C, Weiss R, Lee R, Bolar D, Bottomley P. Restoration of low resolution metabolic images with a priori anatomic information: 23Na MRI in myocardial infarction. Magn Reson Imaging. 2000;18:461-71 pubmed
    ..6-fold and by at least 3-fold, respectively, demonstrating its ability to substantially improve quantification of the extent and intensity of metabolic changes in injured tissue that is not evident by (1)H MRI...
  61. Horn M, Weidensteiner C, Scheffer H, Meininger M, de Groot M, Remkes H, et al. Detection of myocardial viability based on measurement of sodium content: A (23)Na-NMR study. Magn Reson Med. 2001;45:756-64 pubmed
    ..A threshold of 2 standard deviations of the image intensity allowed determination of infarct size, correlating with histologically determined infarct size (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001)...
  62. Kopp C, Linz P, Dahlmann A, Hammon M, Jantsch J, Muller D, et al. 23Na magnetic resonance imaging-determined tissue sodium in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2013;61:635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that (23)Na magnetic resonance imaging could have utility in assessing the role of tissue Na(+) storage for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in longitudinal studies...
  63. Southworth T, Guffanti A, Moir A, Krulwich T. GerN, an endospore germination protein of Bacillus cereus, is an Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiporter. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5896-903 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory patterns of protonophore and thiocyanate were most consistent with an electrogenic Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiport. GerN-mediated Na(+)/H(+)-K(+) antiport was much more rapid than GerN-mediated Na(+)/H(+) antiport...
  64. Sikes P, Zhao P, Maass D, Horton J. Time course of myocardial sodium accumulation after burn trauma: a (31)P- and (23)Na-NMR study. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:2695-702 pubmed
    ..Cardiomyocyte Na+ accumulation paralleled cardiac contractile dysfunction, suggesting that myocardial Na+ overload contributes, in part, to the progressive postburn decrease in ventricular performance...
  65. Sandstede J, Hillenbrand H, Beer M, Pabst T, Butter F, Machann W, et al. Time course of 23Na signal intensity after myocardial infarction in humans. Magn Reson Med. 2004;52:545-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, 23Na SI is elevated in nonviable infarction at all time points following MI, and 23Na MRI may become a suitable technique for imaging nonviable myocardium in humans...
  66. Augath M, Heiler P, Kirsch S, Schad L. In vivo(39)K, (23)Na and (1)H MR imaging using a triple resonant RF coil setup. J Magn Reson. 2009;200:134-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo MR images of (39)K and (23)Na in the rat brain were acquired as well as anatomical proton images in the same scanning session...
  67. Zhang Y, Poirer Quinot M, Springer C, Balschi J. Discrimination of intra- and extracellular 23Na+ signals in yeast cell suspensions using longitudinal magnetic resonance relaxography. J Magn Reson. 2010;205:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the measured efflux rate constant was identical. T1 MRR potentially may be used for Nai+ determination in vivo and Na+ flux measurements; with RRe for animal studies and without RRe for humans...
  68. Chandra S. Subcellular imaging of RNA distribution and DNA replication in single mammalian cells with SIMS: the localization of heat shock induced RNA in relation to the distribution of intranuclear bound calcium. J Microsc. 2008;232:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of cryogenically prepared frozen freeze-dried cells provides an ideal sample type for further understanding of the role of bound calcium in transcription of genes under physiological and pathological conditions...
  69. Weber M, Nielles Vallespin S, Huttner H, Wohrle J, Jurkat Rott K, Lehmann Horn F, et al. Evaluation of patients with paramyotonia at 23Na MR imaging during cold-induced weakness. Radiology. 2006;240:489-500 pubmed
    ..To prospectively examine whether sodium 23 (23Na) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to visualize acute intracellular Na+ accumulation and the effects of specific therapy in patients with paramyotonia congenita (PC)...
  70. Kuchel P, Naumann C, Puckeridge M, Chapman B, Szekely D. Relaxation times of spin states of all ranks and orders of quadrupolar nuclei estimated from NMR z-spectra: Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis applied to 7Li+ and 23Na+ in stretched hydrogels. J Magn Reson. 2011;212:40-6 pubmed publisher
  71. Ouwerkerk R. Sodium magnetic resonance imaging: from research to clinical use. J Am Coll Radiol. 2007;4:739-41 pubmed
  72. Kitajima A, Minamizawa T, Toyo oka T, Matsuda R, Hayashi Y. Detection limit of measurement of pharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived isotopes in HPLC with flow-through gamma-counter. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;46:177-80 pubmed
    ..99m)Tc-ECD (T(1/2)=360.6 min) that is a lipophilic compound for the diagnosis of regional brain perfusion is taken as an example...
  73. Petersen J, Fisher K, Lowe D. Structural basis for VO2+ inhibition of nitrogenase activity (A): 31P and 23Na interactions with the metal at the nucleotide binding site of the nitrogenase Fe protein identified by ENDOR spectroscopy. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2008;13:623-35 pubmed publisher
  74. Nikolic N, Vranjes Ethurić S, Janković D, Ethokić D, Mirkovic M, Bibić N, et al. Preparation and biodistribution of radiolabeled fullerene C60 nanocrystals. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:385102 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to being useful for testing the biological distribution of nanoC(60), the described radiolabeling procedure might have possible applications in cancer radiotherapy...
  75. Triba M, Zoonens M, Popot J, Devaux P, Warschawski D. Reconstitution and alignment by a magnetic field of a beta-barrel membrane protein in bicelles. Eur Biophys J. 2006;35:268-75 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that alignment in the magnetic field of membrane proteins included into bicelles may be facilitated if the protein is folded as a beta-barrel structure...
  76. Riddell F, Arumugam S, Cox B. The monensin-mediated transport of Na+ and K+ through phospholipid bilayers studied by 23Na- and 39K-NMR. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;944:279-84 pubmed
    ..Although potassium on its own is transported more rapidly, sodium forms the more stable complex and is therefore transported preferentially in competition with potassium...
  77. Malzacher M, Kalayciyan R, Konstandin S, Haneder S, Schad L. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator. Z Med Phys. 2016;26:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120ms repetition time) using this setup. ..
  78. Paling D, Solanky B, Riemer F, Tozer D, Wheeler Kingshott C, Kapoor R, et al. Sodium accumulation is associated with disability and a progressive course in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2013;136:2305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased total sodium concentration is likely to reflect neuroaxonal pathophysiology leading to clinical progression and increased disability...
  79. Van Emous J, Vleggeert Lankamp C, Nederhoff M, Ruigrok T, Van Echteld C. Postischemic Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase reactivation is delayed in the absence of glycolytic ATP in isolated rat hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H2189-95 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the delayed Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase reactivation observed in pyruvate-reperfused hearts is not due to inhibition of PDH...
  80. Marincola F, Casu M, Saba G, Lai A, Del Vecchio P, Barone G. A 23Na NMR study of the effect of D(+) and L(-) arabitol on NaDNA in aqueous solution. Int J Biol Macromol. 2001;29:237-41 pubmed
    ..These findings were analysed and discussed in terms of an effective interaction of L(-) arabitol with DNA...
  81. Aguor E, van de Kolk C, Arslan F, Nederhoff M, Doevendans P, Pasterkamp G, et al. 23Na chemical shift imaging and Gd enhancement of myocardial edema. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013;29:343-54 pubmed publisher
    ..High perfusion pressure causes more edema subendocardially than subepicardially. (23)Na-CSI is an attractive alternative for imaging of edema and is a promising tool to discriminate between edema, acute and chronic MI...
  82. Madeddu M. The influence of water content on the 23Na and 31P NMR spectral parameters in solid Na-DNA. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson. 2002;22:83-90 pubmed
    ..Our work demonstrates that the previously measured NMR parameters are in error because the relative humidity of the system had not been controlled, rendering the results irreproducible...
  83. Kuchel P, Chapman B, Muller N, Bubb W, Philp D, Torres A. Apparatus for rapid adjustment of the degree of alignment of NMR samples in aqueous media: verification with residual quadrupolar splittings in (23)Na and (133)Cs spectra. J Magn Reson. 2006;180:256-65 pubmed
    ..It should be useful with these and other cell types, for studies of metabolic and membrane transport characteristics that may change when the cells are distorted, and possibly for structural studies of macromolecules...
  84. Lu A, Atkinson I, Vaughn J, Thulborn K. Impact of gradient timing error on the tissue sodium concentration bioscale measured using flexible twisted projection imaging. J Magn Reson. 2011;213:176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The measured timing errors can be corrected prospectively or retrospectively to obtain accurate TSC values...
  85. Romanzetti S, Halse M, Kaffanke J, Zilles K, Balcom B, Shah N. A comparison of three SPRITE techniques for the quantitative 3D imaging of the 23Na spin density on a 4T whole-body machine. J Magn Reson. 2006;179:64-72 pubmed
    ..In vivo Conical-SPRITE 23Na images of the brain of a healthy volunteer were acquired in 30 min with a resolution of 7.5x7.5x7.5 mm and a signal-to-noise ratio of 23 in cerebrospinal fluid and 17 in brain tissue...
  86. Henzler T, Konstandin S, Schmid Bindert G, Apfaltrer P, Haneder S, Wenz F, et al. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer: initial results using 23Na-MRI. Rofo. 2012;184:340-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the feasibility of 23Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer...
  87. Chang G, Wang L, Schweitzer M, Regatte R. 3D 23Na MRI of human skeletal muscle at 7 Tesla: initial experience. Eur Radiol. 2010;20:2039-46 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate healthy skeletal muscle pre- and post-exercise via 7 T (23)Na MRI and muscle proton T(2) mapping, and to evaluate diabetic muscle pre- and post-exercise via 7 T (23)Na MRI...
  88. Schläpfer M, Leutert A, Voigtsberger S, Lachmann R, Booy C, Beck Schimmer B. Sevoflurane reduces severity of acute lung injury possibly by impairing formation of alveolar oedema. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;168:125-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In-vivo experiments, however, give strong evidence that sevoflurane does not affect water reabsorption and oedema resolution, but possibly oedema formation...