rubidium radioisotopes


Summary: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.

Top Publications

  1. Fukushima K, Javadi M, Higuchi T, Lautamaki R, Merrill J, Nekolla S, et al. Prediction of short-term cardiovascular events using quantification of global myocardial flow reserve in patients referred for clinical 82Rb PET perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:726-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Current noninvasive tests for coronary artery disease detect atherosclerosis or regional ischemia. Global myocardial flow reserve is not routinely identified, although it may be an additional marker of disease development and progression...
  2. Yoshinaga K, Chow B, Williams K, Chen L, dekemp R, Garrard L, et al. What is the prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging using rubidium-82 positron emission tomography?. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1029-39 pubmed
    ..The objective was to determine the prognostic value of rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI)...
  3. Knesaurek K, Machac J, Krynyckyi B, Almeida O. Comparison of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional 82Rb myocardial perfusion PET imaging. J Nucl Med. 2003;44:1350-6 pubmed
    ..We compared 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) (82)Rb PET imaging in 3 different experiments: in a realistic heart-thorax phantom, in a uniformity-resolution phantom, and in 14 healthy volunteers...
  4. Enkvetchakul D, Jeliazkova I, Nichols C. Direct modulation of Kir channel gating by membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:35785-8 pubmed
    ..The data exclude the possibility of indirect modulation via cytoskeletal or other intermediary elements and establish a direct interaction of the channel with PIP2 in the membrane...
  5. El Fakhri G, Sitek A, Guérin B, Kijewski M, Di Carli M, Moore S. Quantitative dynamic cardiac 82Rb PET using generalized factor and compartment analyses. J Nucl Med. 2005;46:1264-71 pubmed
  6. Manabe O, Yoshinaga K, Katoh C, Naya M, dekemp R, Tamaki N. Repeatability of rest and hyperemic myocardial blood flow measurements with 82Rb dynamic PET. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:68-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The repeatability of rest and hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurements using 82Rb PET has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term repeatability of such measurements...
  7. Lautamaki R, George R, Kitagawa K, Higuchi T, Merrill J, Voicu C, et al. Rubidium-82 PET-CT for quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow: validation in a canine model of coronary artery stenosis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:576-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to reevaluate the feasibility of (82)Rb for flow quantification, using hybrid PET-CT in an animal model of coronary stenosis...
  8. Sdringola S, Johnson N, Kirkeeide R, Cid E, Gould K. Impact of unexpected factors on quantitative myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve in young, asymptomatic volunteers. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011;4:402-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to quantify ranges of normal myocardial perfusion and flow reserve in young, asymptomatic volunteers after systematic historical and laboratory screening for unexpected factors affecting coronary flow...
  9. Senthamizhchelvan S, Bravo P, Esaias C, Lodge M, Merrill J, Hobbs R, et al. Human biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 82Rb. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:1592-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior estimates of radiation-absorbed doses from (82)Rb, a frequently used PET perfusion tracer, yielded discrepant results. We reevaluated (82)Rb dosimetry using human in vivo biokinetic measurements...

More Information


  1. Yoshinaga K, Manabe O, Katoh C, Chen L, Klein R, Naya M, et al. Quantitative analysis of coronary endothelial function with generator-produced 82Rb PET: comparison with 15O-labelled water PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:2233-41 pubmed publisher
  2. Klein R, Renaud J, Ziadi M, Thorn S, Adler A, Beanlands R, et al. Intra- and inter-operator repeatability of myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve measurements using rubidium-82 pet and a highly automated analysis program. J Nucl Cardiol. 2010;17:600-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we describe a highly automated method to calculate regional and global rest, stress, S/R, and S-R polar maps of the left ventricle myocardium...
  3. El Fakhri G, Kardan A, Sitek A, Dorbala S, Abi Hatem N, Lahoud Y, et al. Reproducibility and accuracy of quantitative myocardial blood flow assessment with (82)Rb PET: comparison with (13)N-ammonia PET. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:1062-71 pubmed publisher
  4. Curillova Z, Yaman B, Dorbala S, Kwong R, Sitek A, El Fakhri G, et al. Quantitative relationship between coronary calcium content and coronary flow reserve as assessed by integrated PET/CT imaging. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:1603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and coronary vasodilator function...
  5. Ziadi M, dekemp R, Williams K, Guo A, Chow B, Renaud J, et al. Impaired myocardial flow reserve on rubidium-82 positron emission tomography imaging predicts adverse outcomes in patients assessed for myocardial ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:740-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the prognostic value of myocardial flow reserve (MFR) using rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients assessed for ischemia...
  6. Enkvetchakul D, Bhattacharyya J, Jeliazkova I, Groesbeck D, Cukras C, Nichols C. Functional characterization of a prokaryotic Kir channel. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47076-80 pubmed
    ..1 is inhibited by extraliposomal acid (pKa approximately 6). This characterization of KirBac1.1 activity now paves the way for further correlation of structure and function in this model Kir channel...
  7. Bateman T, Heller G, McGhie A, Friedman J, Case J, Bryngelson J, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of rest/stress ECG-gated Rb-82 myocardial perfusion PET: comparison with ECG-gated Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol. 2006;13:24-33 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to assess relative image quality, interpretive confidence, and diagnostic accuracy by use of contemporary technology and protocols...
  8. Schleipman A, Castronovo F, Di Carli M, Dorbala S. Occupational radiation dose associated with Rb-82 myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography imaging. J Nucl Cardiol. 2006;13:378-84 pubmed
    ..We determined staff radiation dose during rest and stress rubidium 82 myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) imaging...
  9. Kaufmann P. 82-Rubidium--the dawn of cardiac PET in Europe?. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007;34:1963-4 pubmed
  10. Sampson U, Dorbala S, Limaye A, Kwong R, Di Carli M. Diagnostic accuracy of rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion imaging with hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:1052-8 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to determine the accuracy of rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging for detecting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  11. Lortie M, Beanlands R, Yoshinaga K, Klein R, DaSilva J, dekemp R. Quantification of myocardial blood flow with 82Rb dynamic PET imaging. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007;34:1765-74 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a one-compartment model of (82)Rb kinetics for the quantification of myocardial blood flow...
  12. Groves A, Speechly Dick M, Dickson J, Kayani I, Endozo R, Blanchard P, et al. Cardiac 82Rubidium PET/CT: initial European experience. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007;34:1965-72 pubmed
    ..Myocardial perfusion with PET/CT has advantages over conventional SPECT. We describe our initial European experience using (82)Rubidium-PET/CT, as part of a clinical myocardial perfusion service...
  13. Jiang G, Cobbs S, Klein J, O Neill W. Aldosterone regulates the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in vascular smooth muscle. Hypertension. 2003;41:1131-5 pubmed
    ..This could account for the increase in Na+, K+, and Cl- fluxes previously observed in vascular smooth muscle from mineralocorticoid-treated animals and may contribute to increased vascular tone. ..
  14. Shi H, Santana C, Rivero A, Sanyal R, Esteves F, Verdes L, et al. Normal values and prospective validation of transient ischaemic dilation index in 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging. Nucl Med Commun. 2007;28:859-63 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that elevated TID index is a specific, although not sensitive marker of single and multiple vessel CAD in pharmacologically stressed Rb PET myocardial perfusion studies. ..
  15. Isenring P, Jacoby S, Chang J, Forbush B. Mutagenic mapping of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter for domains involved in ion transport and bumetanide binding. J Gen Physiol. 1998;112:549-58 pubmed
    ..Unlike for the ions, changes in bumetanide affinity were nonlinear and difficult to interpret: the Ki(bumetanide) of a number of the constructs was outside the range of sNKCC1 and hNKCC1 Kis. ..
  16. Rischpler C, Higuchi T, Fukushima K, Javadi M, Merrill J, Nekolla S, et al. Transient ischemic dilation ratio in 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging: normal values and significance as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. J Nucl Med. 2012;53:723-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary outcome analysis suggests that TID-positive subjects have a lower overall survival probability. ..
  17. Schroth H, Bialy J, Hans F, Oberhausen E, Peters J, Schmitt M, et al. [Determination of cerebral blood flow using an 81Rb/81mKr generator system]. Nuklearmedizin. 1990;29:7-12 pubmed
    ..Over the range from undisturbed to completely interrupted cerebral blood flow this quotient varied up to 25% of its initial value. ..
  18. Li J, Codina J, Petroske E, Werle M, Dubose T. The carboxy terminus of the colonic H(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit is required for stable beta subunit assembly and function. Kidney Int. 2004;65:1301-10 pubmed
    ..Otherwise, the alpha/beta complex is destined for degradation. ..
  19. van Geel I, Oppelaar H, Oussoren Y, Schuitmaker J, Stewart F. Mechanisms for optimising photodynamic therapy: second-generation photosensitisers in combination with mitomycin C. Br J Cancer. 1995;72:344-50 pubmed
    ..Reduction in both light and photosensitiser does for effective PDT regimes in combination with MMC offers substantial clinical advantages, since both treatment time and skin photosensitisation will be reduced. ..
  20. Anselm D, Anselm A, Renaud J, Atkins H, de Kemp R, Burwash I, et al. Altered myocardial glucose utilization and the reverse mismatch pattern on rubidium-82 perfusion/F-18-FDG PET during the sub-acute phase following reperfusion of acute anterior myocardial infarction. J Nucl Cardiol. 2011;18:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this represents a myocardial metabolic shift during the sub-acute phase of recovery warrants further study. ..
  21. Dhar R, Ananthasubramaniam K. Rubidium-82 cardiac positron emission tomography imaging: an overview for the general cardiologist. Cardiol Rev. 2011;19:255-63 pubmed publisher
  22. Kupriyanov V, Dai G, Shaw R, Sun J, Jilkina O, Luo Z, et al. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac ischemic injury using (87)Rb and (23)Na MR imaging, (31)P MR, and optical spectroscopy. Magn Reson Med. 2000;44:899-908 pubmed
    ..Changes in Na(+) and Rb(+) in the infarct area inversely correlated and their ratio is a more sensitive index of cell injury than either of them alone. ..
  23. Kandil S, Spahn I, Scholten B, Saleh Z, Saad S, Coenen H, et al. Excitation functions of (alpha,xn) reactions on (nat)Rb and (nat)Sr from threshold up to 26 MeV: possibility of production of (87)Y, (88)Y and (89)Zr. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:561-8 pubmed
    ..The yield is rather low but would be considerably increased if enriched (86)Sr would be used as target material. The radionuclidic impurity levels in all the three products are discussed. ..
  24. Marklund L, Andersson B, Behnam Motlagh P, Sandström P, Henriksson R, Grankvist K. Cellular potassium ion deprivation enhances apoptosis induced by cisplatin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004;94:245-51 pubmed
    ..Combinations of K+ flux modulators leading to cellular potassium ion deprivation thus augments cisplatin-induced apoptosis and could therefore possibly be used to enhance the antitumour efficacy of cisplatin treatment. ..
  25. Jain D, Chhabra S, Raj H. Effect of sensitization on membrane ion fluxes & intracellular calcium in guineapigs. Indian J Med Res. 2004;120:534-41 pubmed
    ..These alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of airway hyper-responsiveness following sensitization. ..
  26. Chow B, Dennie C, Hoffmann U, So D, de Kemp R, Ruddy T, et al. Comparison of computed tomographic angiography versus rubidium-82 positron emission tomography for the detection of patients with anatomical coronary artery disease. Can J Cardiol. 2007;23:801-7 pubmed
  27. Franzen L, Sundstrom S, Karlsson M, Gustafsson H, Littbrand B, Henriksson R. Fractionated irradiation and early changes in noradrenaline induced potassium efflux (86Rb+) in rat parotid gland. Acta Oncol. 1992;31:359-64 pubmed
    ..The effect was dose-dependent. Based on the data available, alpha/beta ratio of the used system was calculated to about 20 Gy, which corresponds to other results regarding early radiation effects. ..
  28. Andersen G, Oie E, Vinge L, Yndestad A, Attramadal H, Skomedal T, et al. Increased expression and function of the myocardial Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in failing rat hearts. Basic Res Cardiol. 2006;101:471-8 pubmed
    ..05). Thus, our data indicate cardiomyocyte specific increase in NKCC mRNA levels and increased NKCC activity in post-infarction heart failure. Our results may indicate a potential role of NKCC during post-infarction remodeling. ..
  29. Sun B, Wang W, Salvaterra P. Functional analysis and tissue-specific expression of Drosophila Na+,K+-ATPase subunits. J Neurochem. 1998;71:142-51 pubmed
    ..It will now be possible to use the advantages of Drosophila molecular and classical genetics to investigate the phenotypic consequences of altering Na+,K+-ATPase expression in various cell and tissue types. ..
  30. Grau C, Khalil A, Nordsmark M, Horsman M, Overgaard J. The relationship between carbon monoxide breathing, tumour oxygenation and local tumour control in the C3H mammary carcinoma in vivo. Br J Cancer. 1994;69:50-7 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that elevated HbCO levels to increased tumour hypoxia and that the induced hypoxia has a significant impact on the local tumour control also after fractionated irradiation. ..
  31. Weinmann P. Comparing rubidium 82 myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography and SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol. 2006;13:591; author reply 591-2 pubmed
  32. Holloway C, Ten Hove M, Clarke K, Neubauer S. MR spectroscopy in heart failure. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011;3:331-40 pubmed
    ..MRS signals from 31P, 1H, 23Na and 13C, including novel hyperpolarization techniques, have provided considerable insight into the understanding of energy metabolism in the healthy and diseased heart...
  33. Votaw J, White M. Comparison of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cardiac 82Rb PET studies. J Nucl Med. 2001;42:701-6 pubmed
    ..Cardiac 82Rb studies should be performed in 2D mode when using the ECAT EXACT scanner. ..
  34. Shemon A, Sluyter R, Conigrave A, Wiley J. Chelerythrine and other benzophenanthridine alkaloids block the human P2X7 receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142:1015-9 pubmed
    ..2+/-21.9% and the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced PLD stimulation by 68.2+/-7.4%. 6 This study demonstrates that chelerythrine in addition to PKC inhibition has a noncompetitive inhibitory action on the P2X7 receptor itself. ..
  35. Saraste A, Kajander S, Han C, Nesterov S, Knuuti J. PET: Is myocardial flow quantification a clinical reality?. J Nucl Cardiol. 2012;19:1044-59 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews recent advances and experience in the quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging together with issues that need to be resolved for quantitative analysis to become clinical reality. ..
  36. El Ani D, Zimlichman R, Mashiach Y, Shainberg A. Adenosine and TNF-alpha exert similar inotropic effect on heart cultures, suggesting a cardioprotective mechanism against hypoxia. Life Sci. 2007;81:803-13 pubmed
    ..Our findings further suggest that TNF-alpha, as well as adenosine, may mediate an adaptive effect in the heart by preventing Ca(2+) overload via activation of SR Ca-ATPase (SERCA(2)a). ..
  37. Khundmiri S, Amin V, Henson J, Lewis J, Ameen M, Rane M, et al. Ouabain stimulates protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation in opossum kidney proximal tubule cells through an ERK-dependent pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1171-80 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that ouabain-stimulated ERK phosphorylation is required for Akt phosphorylation on Ser(473), cell proliferation, and stimulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-mediated (86)Rb uptake in OK cells. ..
  38. Hopp L, Megee S, Lloyd J. Bisphenols that stimulate cells to release alkali metal cations: a structure-activity study. J Med Chem. 1998;41:4421-3 pubmed
    ..Because 2 and 5 are readily available, comparative studies on the mechanism of action of these biphenols at the cellular level can now be undertaken. ..
  39. Clausen T, Overgaard K. The role of K+ channels in the force recovery elicited by Na+-K+ pump stimulation in Ba2+-paralysed rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000;527 Pt 2:325-32 pubmed
  40. Lindstrom P, Norlund L, Sandstöm P, Sehlin J. Evidence for co-transport of sodium, potassium and chloride in mouse pancreatic islets. J Physiol. 1988;400:223-36 pubmed
    ..6. These data are compatible with the operation in the pancreatic beta-cells of a loop diuretic-sensitive co-transport system for Na+, K+ and Cl-, that may serve as an inwardly directed Cl- pump. ..
  41. Brown T, Merrill J, Volokh L, Bengel F. Determinants of the response of left ventricular ejection fraction to vasodilator stress in electrocardiographically gated (82)rubidium myocardial perfusion PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008;35:336-42 pubmed
    ..The magnitude of LVEF increase is determined by stress perfusion/reversible perfusion defects. Functional response to hyperemia may thus be incorporated in future evaluations of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms based on (82)Rb PET. ..
  42. Stoll H, Huwer H, Vollmar B, Bialy J, Schmitt M, Peters J, et al. Experimental validation of a new coronary guide wire labeled with rubidium 81/krypton 81m for continuous assessment of myocardial blood flow. J Nucl Cardiol. 2000;7:255-62 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of wire production is tested, and application of the method is investigated in the canine model...
  43. Cullom S, Case J, Courter S, McGhie A, Bateman T. Regadenoson pharmacologic rubidium-82 PET: a comparison of quantitative perfusion and function to dipyridamole. J Nucl Cardiol. 2013;20:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..99, r = 0.82. Regadenoson stress (82)RbCl PET perfusion defect and cardiac function measurements are visually and quantitatively equivalent to dipyridamole studies and can be obtained with the clinical advantages of regadenoson. ..
  44. Layne J, Yip S, Crook R. Down-regulation of Na-K-Cl cotransport by protein kinase C is mediated by protein phosphatase 1 in pigmented ciliary epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2001;72:371-9 pubmed
    ..None prevented activation of Na-K-Cl cotransport by calyculin A, suggesting that these kinases are not involved in the activation of Na-K-Cl cotransport. ..
  45. Piccinelli M, Faber T, Arepalli C, Appia V, Vinten Johansen J, Schmarkey S, et al. Automatic detection of left and right ventricles from CTA enables efficient alignment of anatomy with myocardial perfusion data. J Nucl Cardiol. 2014;21:96-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific difficulties in a reliable segmentation of the apex and base regions will require further improvements in the automated technique. ..
  46. Roberts V, Greenwood S, Elliott A, Sibley C, Waters L. Purinergic receptors in human placenta: evidence for functionally active P2X4, P2X7, P2Y2, and P2Y6. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R1374-86 pubmed
    ..We propose that activation of these receptors, and subsequent elevation of [Ca2+]i, modulates syncytiotrophoblast homeostasis and/or maternofetal ion exchange in response to extracellular nucleotides. ..
  47. Marklund L, Behnam Motlagh P, Henriksson R, Grankvist K. Bumetanide annihilation of amphotericin B-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity is due to its effect on cellular K+ flux. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;48:781-6 pubmed
    ..We suggest that bumetanide hampering of amphotericin B-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis could be due to an immediate reduction of cellular K+ efflux as well as disordered K+ influx. ..
  48. Santana C, Faber T, Soler Peter M, Sanyal R, Esteves F, Ornelas M, et al. Prognostic performance of quantitative PET tools for stratification of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy undergoing myocardial viability assessment. Nucl Med Commun. 2008;29:970-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to determine the prognostic performance of quantitative PET tools in the stratification of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy undergoing myocardial viability assessment...
  49. Lai F, Madan N, Ye Q, Duan Q, Li Z, Wang S, et al. Identification of a mutant ?1 Na/K-ATPase that pumps but is defective in signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:13295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..It has not been possible to study the pumping and signaling functions of Na/K-ATPase independently in live cells...
  50. Farzaneh T, Tinker A. Differences in the mechanism of metabolic regulation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels containing Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 subunits. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;79:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..2 containing complexes, such as those present in cardiac myocytes. Thus, we investigated differences in the mechanism of metabolic regulation of Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 containing K(ATP) channels...
  51. Berenbrink M, Völkel S, Koldkjaer P, Heisler N, Nikinmaa M. Two different oxygen sensors regulate oxygen-sensitive K+ transport in crucian carp red blood cells. J Physiol. 2006;575:37-48 pubmed
    ..These results are relevant for the pathologically altered O2 sensitivity of RBC ion transport in certain human haemoglobinopathies...
  52. Stern N, Palant C, Ozaki L, Tuck M. Dexamethasone enhances active cation transport in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells. Am J Hypertens. 1994;7:146-50 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a direct effect of glucocorticoids on arterial Na,K pump. The physiopathological significance of this effect remains to be determined...
  53. Stanimirovic D, Wong J, Ball R, Durkin J. Free radical-induced endothelial membrane dysfunction at the site of blood-brain barrier: relationship between lipid peroxidation, Na,K-ATPase activity, and 51Cr release. Neurochem Res. 1995;20:1417-27 pubmed
  54. Nobel C, Aronson J, van den Dobbelsteen D, Slater A. Inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase may be one mechanism contributing to potassium efflux and cell shrinkage in CD95-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2000;5:153-63 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the observed inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase during apoptosis may also facilitate apoptotic cell shrinkage...
  55. Kupriyanov V, Xiang B, Sun J, Jilkina O, Kuzio B. Imaging of ischemia and infarction in blood-perfused pig hearts using 87Rb MRI. Magn Reson Med. 2003;49:99-107 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that blood does not interfere with the ability of (87)Rb MRI to detect ischemic and infarct areas...
  56. Alam M, Green R, de Kemp R, Beanlands R, Chow B. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness as a predictor of impaired microvascular function in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease. J Nucl Cardiol. 2013;20:804-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) measured by cardiac CT could be associated with impaired myocardial flow reserve (MFR) in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD)...
  57. Wells R, Soueidan K, Timmins R, Ruddy T. Comparison of attenuation, dual-energy-window, and model-based scatter correction of low-count SPECT to 82Rb PET/CT quantified myocardial perfusion scores. J Nucl Cardiol. 2013;20:785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared no corrections (NC) to attenuation correction (AC) with and without scatter correction by either a dual-energy-window (AC-DEW) or model-based (AC-ESSE) approach. All reconstructions included resolution recovery...
  58. Kaster T, Mylonas I, Renaud J, Wells G, Beanlands R, dekemp R. Accuracy of low-dose rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion imaging for detection of coronary artery disease using 3D PET and normal database interpretation. J Nucl Cardiol. 2012;19:1135-45 pubmed publisher
  59. Chien D, Bravo P, Higuchi T, Merrill J, Bengel F. Washout of ?²Rb as a marker of impaired tissue integrity, obtained by list-mode cardiac PET/CT: relationship with perfusion/metabolism patterns of myocardial viability. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011;38:1507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Few studies have evaluated its usefulness for viability assessment, and controversial results were reported. We revisited this topic using list-mode positron emission tomography (PET)/CT...
  60. Jansen M, Shen H, Zhang L, Wolkowicz P, Balschi J. Energy requirements for the Na+ gradient in the oxygenated isolated heart: effect of changing the free energy of ATP hydrolysis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H2437-45 pubmed
    ..At the highest work demand the HighBu heart Delta GATP was -54 kJ/mol and [Na+]i increased only approximately 10%. We conclude that a Delta GATP below -50 kJ/mol limits the Na+ pump and prevents maintenance of [Na+]i homeostasis...
  61. Varma S, Hegde K, Kovtun S. UV-B-induced damage to the lens in vitro: prevention by caffeine. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2008;24:439-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of caffeine to the medium prevented such deleterious effects. That caffeine and perhaps other xanthinoids have a protective effect against cataract formation induced by UV has hence been demonstrated for the first time...
  62. Chow B, Wong J, Yoshinaga K, Ruddy T, Williams K, dekemp R, et al. Prognostic significance of dipyridamole-induced ST depression in patients with normal 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med. 2005;46:1095-101 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine the prognostic importance of dipyridamole-induced ischemic ECG changes in patients with normal 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion images...
  63. Payne J. Functional characterization of the neuronal-specific K-Cl cotransporter: implications for [K+]o regulation. Am J Physiol. 1997;273:C1516-25 pubmed
  64. Worrell R, Merk L, Matthews J. Ammonium transport in the colonic crypt cell line, T84: role for Rhesus glycoproteins and NKCC1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G429-40 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that we rethink the present limited understanding of NH(4)(+) handling by the distal colon as being due solely to passive absorption...
  65. Priyadarshi S, Valentine B, Han C, Fedorova O, Bagrov A, Liu J, et al. Effect of green tea extract on cardiac hypertrophy following 5/6 nephrectomy in the rat. Kidney Int. 2003;63:1785-90 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, studied whether green tea supplementation could attenuate the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in an animal model of chronic renal failure...
  66. Bae I, Cho Y, Lee H, Kim Y, Moon H. Superluminal propagation of pulsed pseudo-thermal light in atomic vapor. Opt Express. 2010;18:19693-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also demonstrated that the photon number statistics of the pseudo-thermal light is preserved for both the subluminal and superluminal cases...
  67. O Neill J, McCarthy P, Brunken R, Buda T, Hoercher K, Young J, et al. PET abnormalities in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. J Card Fail. 2004;10:244-9 pubmed
    ..We sought to ascertain the prevalence of regional defects in DCM by multiple imaging modalities and to establish the relationship between QRS width and these defects...
  68. Baines A, Ho P. Glucose stimulates O2 consumption, NOS, and Na/H exchange in diabetic rat proximal tubules. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F286-93 pubmed
    ..Uncontrolled diabetes for 3-5 wk increases NOS protein in proximal tubules and makes NOS activity sensitive to glucose concentration. Under these conditions, NO stimulates Na-K-ATPase and QO2 in proximal tubules...
  69. Montes M, González Lebrero R, Garrahan P, Rossi R. Quantitative analysis of the interaction between the fluorescent probe eosin and the Na+/K+-ATPase studied through Rb+ occlusion. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2062-9 pubmed
    ..Interactions between eosin and ATP on Rb(+)-release experiments seem to indicate that eosin binds to the low-affinity site of ATP from which it exerts effects that are similar to those of the nucleotide...
  70. Kevrekidis P, Susanto H, Carretero González R, Malomed B, Frantzeskakis D. Vector solitons with an embedded domain wall. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2005;72:066604 pubmed
    ..We also briefly discuss the possibility of generating such families of solutions in the presence of linear coupling between the components, and an application of the model to bimodal light propagation in nonlinear optics...
  71. Mc Ardle B, Dowsley T, dekemp R, Wells G, Beanlands R. Does rubidium-82 PET have superior accuracy to SPECT perfusion imaging for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary disease?: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60:1828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of rubidium (Rb)-82 positron emission tomography (PET) for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison to single-photon emission tomography (SPECT)...
  72. Monette M, Somasekharan S, Forbush B. Molecular motions involved in Na-K-Cl cotransporter-mediated ion transport and transporter activation revealed by internal cross-linking between transmembrane domains 10 and 11/12. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:7569-79 pubmed publisher
  73. Mason R, Simpson Small T, Hopp L. Regulation of 86Rb+ ion transport across polarized human colonocytes by bis-phenolic compounds. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003;30:623-6 pubmed
    ..10. The results also indicate that bis-phenolic compounds interact specifically with some apical but not basolateral membrane structures in regulating 86Rb+ efflux from polarized T84 cells...
  74. He X, Xu P, Wang J, Zhan M. High efficient loading of two atoms into a microscopic optical trap by dynamically reshaping the trap with a spatial light modulator. Opt Express. 2010;18:13586-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The detected success rate of this manipulation is larger than 90%. Under imposing the near resonance light, we observed strong light-induce collision between two atoms...
  75. Odin C. Evidence of a phase transition of RbHCO3 from high-resolution solid-state 13C and 87Rb NMR by comparison with KHCO3. Magn Reson Chem. 2004;42:381-8 pubmed
    ..By comparison with recent solid-state NMR experimental results on KHCO3, we show that RbHCO3 undergoes a phase transition at Tc approximately 245 K, and give evidence that the proton dynamic disorder in both compounds is very similar...
  76. Lambrecht R, Sajjad M. Aluminum and nickel targets for rubidium-81 production. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1988;39:1081-3 pubmed
    ..Nickel is superior to aluminum for the cyclotron targetry utilized in 81Rb production. Ni gives consistent and predictable yields in routine use...
  77. Nimigean C. A radioactive uptake assay to measure ion transport across ion channel-containing liposomes. Nat Protoc. 2006;1:1207-12 pubmed
    ..The 86Rb flux assay takes 2-5 hours depending on the reaction rate and the number of desired time points...
  78. Alam A, Shi N, Jiang Y. Structural insight into Ca2+ specificity in tetrameric cation channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15334-9 pubmed publisher
  79. Sayre G, Bacharach S, Dae M, Seo Y. Combining dynamic and ECG-gated ?²Rb-PET for practical implementation in the clinic. Nucl Med Commun. 2012;33:4-13 pubmed publisher
  80. Jijakli H, Malaisse W. Effect of D-mannoheptulose upon the cationic and secretory responses to alpha-D-glucose pentaacetate in perifused rat pancreatic islets. Endocrine. 1999;10:219-24 pubmed
  81. Piermarini P, Hine R, Schepel M, Miyauchi J, Beyenbach K. Role of an apical K,Cl cotransporter in urine formation by renal tubules of the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301:R1318-37 pubmed publisher
  82. Garty H, Lindzen M, Scanzano R, Aizman R, Fuzesi M, Goldshleger R, et al. A functional interaction between CHIF and Na-K-ATPase: implication for regulation by FXYD proteins. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F607-15 pubmed
    ..The functional effects of CHIF differ from those of gamma. An implication of these findings is that other FXYD proteins could act as tissue-specific modulators of Na-K-ATPase...
  83. Vinichuk M, Johanson K, Rydin H, Rosen K. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K...
  84. Beller G, Bergmann S. Myocardial perfusion imaging agents: SPECT and PET. J Nucl Cardiol. 2004;11:71-86 pubmed
  85. von Scholten B, Hasbak P, Christensen T, Ghotbi A, Kjaer A, Rossing P, et al. Cardiac (82)Rb PET/CT for fast and non-invasive assessment of microvascular function and structure in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2016;59:371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective studies are needed to show the prognostic significance of this finding. ..
  86. Goodman J, Neil J, Ackerman J. Biomedical applications of 133Cs NMR. NMR Biomed. 2005;18:125-34 pubmed
    ..We also review the application of 133Cs NMR to evaluation of ion transport across membranes and the kinetic/chemical environment of the intracellular space in systems ranging from red blood cells to rat brain...
  87. Song L, Mercado A, Vazquez N, Xie Q, Desai R, George A, et al. Molecular, functional, and genomic characterization of human KCC2, the neuronal K-Cl cotransporter. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;103:91-105 pubmed
    ..3+/-1.8 mM and 6.8+/-0.9 mM, respectively; both affinities are significantly higher than KCC1 and KCC4. The K(m) for Cl(-) is close to the intracellular Cl(-) activity of mature neurons, as befits a neuronal efflux mechanism...
  88. Beyer G, Ravn H. A 81Rb/81mKr generator made by ion implantation. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1991;42:141-2 pubmed
    ..It was seen that the densities below 5 x 10(12) Rb atoms/cm2 provide a high yield for elution both by liquid and air. The first 100 MBq implantation-type generator was tested by making a lung-ventilation study in man...