krypton radioisotopes


Summary: Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.

Top Publications

  1. Kalinowski M, Sartorius H, Uhl S, Weiss W. Conclusions on plutonium separation from atmospheric krypton-85 measured at various distances from the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. J Environ Radioact. 2004;73:203-22 pubmed
    ..The minimum separation rates that could have been detected are 2 gram of weapons-grade plutonium per week at a distance of less than 1 km, 40 g/week at 5 km, 200 g/week at 39 km, and 1000 g/week at 130 km. ..
  2. Winger K, Feichter J, Kalinowski M, Sartorius H, Schlosser C. A new compilation of the atmospheric 85krypton inventories from 1945 to 2000 and its evaluation in a global transport model. J Environ Radioact. 2005;80:183-215 pubmed
    ..Production of isotopes for radiopharmaceuticals like technetium-99m from highly enriched uranium is the most likely explanation...
  3. Ahlswede J, Hebel S, Ross J, Schoetter R, Kalinowski M. Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory. J Environ Radioact. 2013;115:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The correctness if the inventory has been proven by meteorological simulations and its error is assumed to be in the range of a few percent...
  4. Cinotti L, Susskind H, Zubal I, Meignan M, Bennett G, Slosman D, et al. Measurement of lung volume with 81Krm in a dynamic scintigram. Nucl Med Commun. 1987;8:479-88 pubmed
    ..93). No correlation was obtained between counts and flow rate or flow/volume ratio. Thus, we conclude that 81Krm count variations in gated scans correlate well with tidal volume. ..
  5. Isawa T, Teshima T, Anazawa Y, Miki M, Soni P. Technegas versus krypton-81m gas as an inhalation agent. Comparison of pulmonary distribution at total lung capacity. Clin Nucl Med. 1994;19:1085-90 pubmed
    ..Despite these statistical differences, they were visually, or qualitatively, similar. From a practical and clinical standpoint, Technegas seems to be useful as an inhalation agent, unless quantitative analyses are required. ..
  6. Oliver R, Fleming J, Waller D. Right ventricular function at rest and during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Comparison of two radionuclide techniques. Chest. 1993;103:74-80 pubmed
    ..In contrast to normal subjects, many show an inability to augment right ventricular function during exercise that may contribute to the reduced exercise capacity observed in these patients. ..
  7. Honda N, Machida K, Mamiya T, Takahashi T, Kamano T, Kashimada A, et al. [Dual-energy data acquisition for simultaneous 81mKr ventilation/99mTc-MAA perfusion SPECT: ventilation/perfusion ratio mapping in cross section]. Kaku Igaku. 1993;30:789-94 pubmed
    ..Examination time was about 40 minutes, and the V/Q ratio maps in cross section were obtained in all of the examinations. ..
  8. Hagen P, Hartmann I, Hoekstra O, Stokkel M, Teule G, Prins M. How to use a gestalt interpretation for ventilation-perfusion lung scintigraphy. J Nucl Med. 2002;43:1317-23 pubmed
    ..However, the interpretation and the consequences of this result are dependent on the observer. Unexpectedly, the addition of information on ventilation scintigraphy and clinical information did not affect the overall assessment. ..
  9. Itti E, Nguyen S, Robin F, Desarnaud S, Rosso J, Harf A, et al. Distribution of ventilation/perfusion ratios in pulmonary embolism: an adjunct to the interpretation of ventilation/perfusion lung scans. J Nucl Med. 2002;43:1596-602 pubmed
    ..A quantitative approach to lung scan interpretation, based on the distribution histogram of V/Q ratios, may be helpful for categorizing patients with suspected PE. ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chow P, Yu W, Soo K, Chan S. The measurement of liver blood flow: a review of experimental and clinical methods. J Surg Res. 2003;112:1-11 pubmed
    ..The techniques are divided into invasive, minimally invasive, and noninvasive categories and the relevance of each technique to both routine clinical application or research is discussed. ..
  2. Oriol J, Leclerc J, Berne P, Gousseau G, Jallut C, Tochon P, et al. Characterization of two-phase flow regimes in horizontal tubes using 81mKr tracer experiments. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:1363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Chem. Eng. Sci. 63(1), 24-34, as well as to those given by correlations from literature. ..
  3. Schroth H, Bialy J, Hans F, Oberhausen E, Peters J, Schmitt M, et al. [Determination of cerebral blood flow using an 81Rb/81mKr generator system]. Nuklearmedizin. 1990;29:7-12 pubmed
    ..Over the range from undisturbed to completely interrupted cerebral blood flow this quotient varied up to 25% of its initial value. ..
  4. Sando Y, Inoue T, Nagai R, Endo K. Ventilation/perfusion ratios and simultaneous dual-radionuclide single-photon emission tomography with krypton-81m and technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin. Eur J Nucl Med. 1997;24:1237-44 pubmed
    ..A/Q. ratios. The unevenness of V.A/Q. distribution can be assessed through the SD of the V.A/Q. histogram. ..
  5. Homma T, Ohtsu I, Takeda T, Inoue T, Fukuda K, Hasegawa S. [Diagnosis of respiratory system diseases using radio isotopes]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1992;30 Suppl:264-71 pubmed
    ..The advantages of these procedures are expected to lead to further developments in respiratory examinations using radio isotopes...
  6. Sundaraiya S, Kayani I, Biassoni L, Gordon I. Unique role of radionuclide krypton-81m lung ventilation scan in critically ill children on long-term mechanical ventilation. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007;34:1516-7 pubmed
  7. Buizert C, Baggenstos D, Jiang W, Purtschert R, Petrenko V, Lu Z, et al. Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6876-81 pubmed publisher
    ..At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. ..
  8. Goto E, Kawakami K, Takahashi T, Moriya E, Sekine H, Ohwaki K, et al. [Dual nuclides SPECT for ventilation and perfusion study]. Kaku Igaku. 1992;29:1177-84 pubmed
    ..Area of high V/Q became larger in SPECT with crosstalk than in SPECT without crosstalk, but in the low V/Q area no significant difference was noted between SPECT with crosstalk and without crosstalk. ..
  9. Oliver R, Fleming J, Dawkins K, Waller D. Normal right ventricular systolic and diastolic function assessed by krypton-81m equilibrium ventriculography. Int J Card Imaging. 1993;9:257-64 pubmed
    ..Using the imaging technique, movement artifact during exercise reduces image quality and limits accurate measurement of these indices to resting studies. ..
  10. White P, Hayward M, Cooper T. Ventilation agents--what agents are currently used?. Nucl Med Commun. 1991;12:349-52 pubmed
    ..Nine (4.5%) hospitals performed perfusion scintigraphy without providing ventilation imaging. Thirty-two (16%) hospitals used more than one agent for ventilation imaging...
  11. Jaffe A, Hamutcu R, Dhawan R, Adler B, Rosenthal M, Bush A. Routine ventilation scans in children with cystic fibrosis: diagnostic usefulness and prognostic value. Eur J Nucl Med. 2001;28:1313-8 pubmed
    ..VS at presentation gives prognostic information, which may be of use in early intervention studies. Whether using VS to guide treatment improves long-term prognosis requires a larger prospective trial. ..
  12. Yang G, Cheng C, Jiang W, Lu Z, Purtschert R, Sun Y, et al. Analysis of 85Kr: a comparison at the 10 -14 level using micro-liter samples. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1596 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are in agreement at the precision level of 5%. ..
  13. Corr L, McCarthy P, Lavender J, Hallidie Smith K. Bronchial compression by an enlarged left atrium in infants; a cause of hypovascularity of the left lung. Pediatr Radiol. 1988;18:459-63 pubmed
  14. Ham H, Urbain D. Esophageal transit of liquid in chronic alcoholism in patients with cirrhosis. Influence of esophageal varices. Clin Nucl Med. 1994;19:809-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the severity of cirrhosis, rather than the presence of esophageal varices, constitutes the major factor in inducing esophageal transit alteration in patients with cirrhosis. ..
  15. Roland J, Dhaenen H, Ham H, Peters O, Piepsz A. Oesophageal motility disorders in patients with psychiatric disease. Eur J Nucl Med. 1996;23:1583-7 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities were detected by scintigraphy as well as by manometry. Owing to the normal endoscopic findings, these contraction abnormalities are likely to reflect a functional motor impairment. ..
  16. Votion D, Coghe J, Lekeux P. Comparison of deposition images obtained by use of an ultrafine 99m-technetium-labeled carbon dry aerosol with ventilation images obtained by use of 81m-krypton gas for evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction in calves. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:1881-6 pubmed
    ..However, airway impaction of ultrafine aerosol particles impedes the quantification of regional ventilation in cattle with abnormal lung function. ..
  17. Kinoshita S, Yamashita S, Suzuki T, Muramatsu T, Ide M, Suzuki S, et al. [Right ventricular volume determination by continuous 81mKr infusion and 99mTc blood pool imaging]. Kaku Igaku. 1992;29:1185-92 pubmed
    ..The RV maximum width was measured as L on the end-diastolic cardiac pool image with 99mTc-D-HSA collected in the 40 degree left anterior oblique position.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  18. Hoshi H, Dadparvar S, Promisloff R, Slizofski W, Brown S, Glab L, et al. Mismatch between 99mTc-DTPA aerosol and 81mKr lung ventilation scintigraphy: a pitfall of radionuclide imaging. Eur J Nucl Med. 1990;16:121-3 pubmed
    ..Lung perfusion scintigraphy and 99mTc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy showed multiple matching defects, however, 81mKr ventilation scintigraphy showed mismatch with lung perfusion scintigraphy. A pitfall of this examination was discussed. ..
  19. Csongor E, Wilhelmová L, Dvorak Z, Povinec P, Grgula M. Inter-laboratory comparison of atmospheric 85Kr concentration measurements. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1988;39:401-5 pubmed
    ..Atmospheric 85Kr was intercompared at three institutes and by three different methods. The results showed good agreement and proved the reliability of the methods used. ..
  20. Magnant J, Vecellio L, de Monte M, Grimbert D, Valat C, Boissinot E, et al. Comparative analysis of different scintigraphic approaches to assess pulmonary ventilation. J Aerosol Med. 2006;19:148-59 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, 81mKr and 99mTc aerosols' lung scintigraphies do not reflect exactly the pulmonary ventilation as measured by 133Xe scintigraphy. ..
  21. Yamauchi K, Suzuki Y, Ichikawa Y, Takaya M, Arimori S. Abnormalities of pulmonary blood flow during cold exposure in systemic lupus erythematosus. Nucl Med Commun. 1988;9:423-30 pubmed
    ..We conclude that these abnormalities in pulmonary blood flow during cold exposure were revealed in SLE patients with scarcely any clinical symptoms. ..
  22. Verbanck S, Koneru S, Cohen M, Clarke S, Agnew J. Controlled delivery of krypton-81m boli in normal subjects: results and implications. J Nucl Med. 1993;34:1859-65 pubmed
    ..Controlled delivery techniques could also modify effectiveness and targeting of other inhaled agents including therapeutic aerosols. ..
  23. Janssen A, van Weeren F, de Goeij J, Wijnhoven G, Witsenboer T. Evaluation method for krypton-81m reservoir administration systems. J Nucl Med. 1989;30:650-8 pubmed
    ..The measured results were confirmed by a mathematic model. The suggested simulator is suitable for use in hospitals and also enables an indirect check on the 81Rb/81mKr generator performance. ..
  24. Stavngaard T, Mortensen J. Assessment of ventilation inhomogenity with Krypton SPECT and planar imaging. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2005;25:106-12 pubmed
    ..Ventilation defects were better demonstrated with SPECT than planar imaging. The correlation to pulmonary function was better with SPECT than planar imaging. ..
  25. Kemp R, Schlosser C. A performance estimate for the detection of undeclared nuclear-fuel reprocessing by atmospheric 85Kr. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The smallest detected concentration was for the continuous separation of 45 g/day, with a probability of detection of about 0.6%. It was found that the detection rate is determined predominantly by the weather. ..
  26. Sumi Y, Ozaki Y, Amemiya K, Kyogoku S, Shirakata A, Tamamoto F, et al. [81mKr scintigraphic evaluation of hemodynamics in gynecologic malignancies under condition of angiotensin II-induced hypertension]. Kaku Igaku. 1992;29:1005-11 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  27. Valdes Olmos R, Van Zandwijk N, Boersma L, Hoefnagel C, Baas P, Baars J, et al. Radiation pneumonitis imaged with indium-111-pentetreotide. J Nucl Med. 1996;37:584-8 pubmed
  28. Johansson L, Stroak A. Kr-81m calibration factor for the npl ionisation chamber. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006;64:1360-4 pubmed
    ..The analytical calculations of the activity determination, uncertainties and measurement criteria are discussed. ..
  29. Möller W, Celik G, Feng S, Bartenstein P, Meyer G, Oliver E, et al. Nasal high flow clears anatomical dead space in upper airway models. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015;118:1525-32 pubmed
    ..8 ml/s for every 1.0 l/min increase in the rate of NHF. The study has demonstrated the fast-occurring clearance of nasal cavities by NHF therapy, which is capable of reducing of dead space rebreathing. ..
  30. Zwijnenburg A, Klumper A, Roos C, Jansen H, van der Schoot J, Van Zandwijk N, et al. Lung volume calculations from 81Krm SPECT for the quantification of regional ventilation. Clin Phys Physiol Meas. 1988;9:147-54 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the relative volume distribution, calculated from SPECT, can be used for the quantification of ventilation from 81Krm SPECT steady-state count distributions. ..
  31. Short M, Dowsett D, Heaf P, Pavia D, Thomson M. A comparison between monodisperse Tc-99m-labeled aerosol particles and Kr-81m for the assessment of lung function. J Nucl Med. 1979;20:194-200 pubmed
    ..The aerosol technique, if carefully controlled, can be a more sensitive index for early lung abnormality than Kr-81m ventilation imaging. ..
  32. Course N, Newton J, Short M. Stomach outline visualization in gastrointestinal transit studies using scintigraphy. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1992;44:127-9 pubmed
  33. Cook G, Clarke S. An evaluation of Technegas as a ventilation agent compared with krypton-81 m in the scintigraphic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Eur J Nucl Med. 1992;19:770-4 pubmed
    ..This effect was also noted in a further 8 patients (32%) without a change in the diagnostic probability. We offer possible explanations for this phenomenon...
  34. James J, Lloyd J, Leahy B, Church S, Hardy C, Shields R, et al. 99Tcm-Technegas and krypton-81m ventilation scintigraphy: a comparison in known respiratory disease. Br J Radiol. 1992;65:1075-82 pubmed
    ..Both features were significantly associated with parameters of pulmonary function indicating obstructive lung disease in the former case and restrictive lung disease in the latter...
  35. Hicks I, Barter S, Carr D, Joyce H, Pride N, Lavender J. Abnormal regional distribution of ventilation in middle-aged smokers: comparison of changes in 81Krm ventilation scans and computed tomography of the lung. Clin Radiol. 1990;41:347-52 pubmed
  36. Morrell N, Nijran K, Biggs T, Seed W. Magnitude and time course of acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in man. Respir Physiol. 1995;100:271-81 pubmed
    ..We conclude that this technique has allowed us to monitor both the dynamic and steady state responses of the pulmonary circulation to lobar hypoxia in man...
  37. Stoll H, Huwer H, Vollmar B, Bialy J, Schmitt M, Peters J, et al. Experimental validation of a new coronary guide wire labeled with rubidium 81/krypton 81m for continuous assessment of myocardial blood flow. J Nucl Cardiol. 2000;7:255-62 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of wire production is tested, and application of the method is investigated in the canine model...
  38. Lassen N, Munck O. The cerebral blood flow in man determined by the use of radioactive krypton. Acta Physiol Scand. 1955;33:30-49 pubmed
  39. Cleveland Z, Pavlovskaya G, Elkins N, Stupic K, Repine J, Meersmann T. Hyperpolarized 83Kr MRI of lungs. J Magn Reson. 2008;195:232-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The currently obtained 1200-fold signal enhancement for hp (83)Kr at 9.4T field strength is found to be 180 times below the theoretical upper limit...
  40. Davies H, Helms P, Gordon I. Effect of posture on regional ventilation in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1992;12:227-32 pubmed
    ..9% (uppermost). Postural redistribution of ventilation, as assessed by Kr81m ventilation imaging, changes late in the second decade of life. This will have clinical consequences in the management of children with unilateral lung disease...
  41. Kurosawa H, Matsubayashi S, Ishii Y, Ishida H, Hirasawa Y, Mori Y, et al. [Clinical evaluation of Kr-81m inhalation study through a dead space]. Kaku Igaku. 1990;27:125-31 pubmed
    ..In ventilation study with 81mKr gas, a combined study of inhalation technique through a dead space and by direct infusion may be useful to evaluate a pathophysiological change of various pulmonary diseases...
  42. Cinotti L, Edery S, Kahn E, Susskind H, Brill A, Di Paola R. Lung scintigraphy clustering by texture analysis. Eur J Nucl Med. 1990;16:353-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that heterogeneity of lung scans may be quantified by texture analysis. The texture index is the easiest to compute and provides the most efficient results for clinical purpose...
  43. Slosman D, Susskind H, Cinotti L, van Giessen J, Brill A. Regional distribution of ventilation assessed by Kr-81m scintigraphy employing temporal Fourier transform. Am J Physiol Imaging. 1986;1:5-11 pubmed
    ..Dynamic ventilation imaging, therefore, appears to be a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung impairment on a localized level...
  44. Hastings D, Jeans S, Wall W, Hall B, Miller D. The effect on diagnostic quality of using dual isotope imaging for 81Krm ventilation and 99Tcm-MAA perfusion lung scanning. Nucl Med Commun. 1995;16:281-9 pubmed
  45. Sando Y. [Assessment of pulmonary ventilation/perfusion ratio by dual radionuclides SPECT using 81mKr gas and 99mTc-MAA]. Kaku Igaku. 1994;31:1209-18 pubmed
    ..Further, SD determined by this examination is thought to be a good parameter of uneven distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion...
  46. Damen E, Muller S, Boersma L, de Boer R, Lebesque J. Quantifying local lung perfusion and ventilation using correlated SPECT and CT data. J Nucl Med. 1994;35:784-92 pubmed
  47. Suenaga N, Nakamura H, Shiratsuki N, Nishioka Y, Kitada O, Sugita M. [Sulpyrine inhalation challenge test monitored continuously by respiratory impedance and 81mKr ventilation image]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1993;31:296-302 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that 81mKr ventilation image on sulpyrine inhalation challenge test is a useful method for evaluating regional ventilatory distribution, but should be further investigated for application to aspirin-induced asthma...
  48. Fruergaard P, Launbjerg J, Hesse B. Frequency of pulmonary embolism in patients admitted with chest pain and suspicion of acute myocardial infarction but in whom this diagnosis is ruled out. Cardiology. 1996;87:331-4 pubmed
  49. Fukumitsu N, Uchiyama M, Mori Y, Kikuchi I, Shimada T, Kawakami K. [The possibility of evaluation on inflammatory change at respiratory tract in chronic bronchial asthma using 67Ga scintigraphy]. Kaku Igaku. 1997;34:337-41 pubmed
    ..67Ga scintigraphy was expected to be one of index to grasp the inflammatory change of respiratory tract in patients with chronic bronchial asthma...
  50. Howett D, O Colmáin M. Measurement of krypton-85 in air at Clonskeagh, Dublin 1993-1997. J Radiol Prot. 1998;18:15-21 pubmed
    ..A mean annual concentration of 1.34 Bq m(-3) was calculated for 1997 which would result in a skin dose of 0.55 microSv for the year to the exposed skin of an individual...
  51. Ishiguro M, Hirano T, Watanabe S, Matsuo H, Goto A, Arakawa M. Assessment of right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) function by gated blood pool scan with krypton-81m: RA and RV pressure-volume loops with simultaneous pressure data. Adv Ther. 1991;8:235-42 pubmed
    ..P-V loops of RA and RV were shifted after sublingual nitroglycerin administration. This new method is potentially useful in the study of right heart hemodynamics...
  52. Mukherjee B, Ronningen R, Cross P. Relative thermoluminescence efficiency of TLD-600 and TLD-700 dosemeters irradiated with 59.8 MeV per nucleon krypton-86 ions. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;100:537-9 pubmed
    ..s(-1) to 400 degrees C using a hot-finger type TLD reader. The thermoluminescence efficiency of the TLD-600 and TLD-700 dosemeters, relative to 60Co gamma rays was calculated to be 0.0025 and 0.0027 respectively..
  53. Gurriaran R, Maro D, Bouisset P, Hebert D, Leclerc G, Mekhlouche D, et al. In situ metrology of 85Kr plumes released by the COGEMA La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. J Environ Radioact. 2004;72:137-44 pubmed
    ..Preliminary results showing the interest of the techniques were presented. Variations of the dose rates created by the photon flux of a plume were directly measured and correlated to other quantities...
  54. Hirota M, Nemoto K, Wada A, Igarashi Y, Aoyama M, Matsueda H, et al. Spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric 85Kr observed during 1995-2001 in Japan: estimation of atmospheric 85Kr inventory in the Northern Hemisphere. J Radiat Res. 2004;45:405-13 pubmed
    ..The global atmospheric inventory of 85Kr in December 2001 was also estimated to be approximately 5 EBq by using observed data in Tsukuba...
  55. Sidle W. Apparent 85Kr ages of groundwater within the Royal watershed, Maine, USA. J Environ Radioact. 2006;91:113-27 pubmed
    ..Mass-age transport modeling suggests that post mid-1950s recharge penetrates to part of the basin's floor and that older groundwater seeps from the underlying fractured bedrock may occur...
  56. Benavente J, Meira Belo L, Reynaldo S, da Silva T. Feasibility of EBT Gafchromic films for comparison exercises among standard beta radiation fields. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;71 Suppl:52-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that the radiochromic film was useful for field mapping aiming uniformity and alignment verification and it was not reliable for absorbed dose measurements only for (147)Pm beta field...
  57. Camps J, Blokland J, Blok D, Pauwels E. Comparison of four commercially available 81Rb-81mKr generators: quality testing using a breathing lung phantom. Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1990;17:269-72 pubmed
    ..Differences in the tubing and inaccuracy of the flow meters were found to be the major causes of the original differences. The user should be aware of a loss of output that may occur when the generator is eluted with dry air...
  58. Bhuyan U, Peters A, Gordon I, Davies H, Helms P. Effects of posture on the distribution of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in children and adults. Thorax. 1989;44:480-4 pubmed
    ..In children and adults with various respiratory problems the effect of posture on the distribution of perfusion is similar...
  59. Janssen A, Witsenboer A, de Goeij J. An extension set for 81Rb-81mKr solution generators for lung ventilation studies. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1988;39:87-92 pubmed
    ..Measurements and calculations have been performed to get more insight into the parameters of interest for an optimum design of the extension set and its operation conditions...
  60. Chanoine J, Viart P, Perlmutter N, Spehl M, Malfroot A, Piepsz A. Unusual ventilation-perfusion mismatch in partial anomalous venous return. Pediatr Radiol. 1988;18:497-8 pubmed
    ..A 3-year-old girl with a complicated partial anomalous pulmonary venous return presented a scintigraphic pattern characterized by an absence of perfusion of the right lung, contrasting with normal ventilation...
  61. Hashimoto K, Kikuchi H, Yamagata S, Naruo Y, Koizumi T, Nishimura T, et al. [Regional cerebral blood flow images of single photon emission computed tomography by N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine in patients with brain tumor]. No To Shinkei. 1987;39:687-93 pubmed
    ..On the IMP-SPECT images scanned 2 hours after injection, hot area, which was identified in two cases with meningioma on the images 20 minutes after injection, was changed into cold area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  62. Watanabe N, Inoue T, Tomioka S, Yamaji T, Endo K. Discordant findings between krypton-81m gas and Tc-99m labeled ultrafine aerosol lung ventilation SPECT in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Clin Nucl Med. 1995;20:315-7 pubmed
    ..Conversely, Kr-81m gas lung ventilation SPECT images reflected not only lung ventilation, but also lung volumes. These two radioactive agents for lung ventilation SPECT show different findings...
  63. Jolliet P, Slosman D, Ricou B, Suter P, Chevrolet J. Pulmonary scintigraphy at the bedside in intensive care patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21:723-8 pubmed
    ..This retrospective study addresses the feasibility of performing PS as the bedside...
  64. Cherng S, Yang S, Wang Y, Jen T, Huang W, Lo A. Krypton-81m ventilation and technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion scintigraphy for detection of pulmonary embolism: the first experience in Taiwan. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 2000;63:876-84 pubmed
    ..In addition, xenon (Xe)-133 ventilation scintigraphy was also performed for comparison...
  65. Takahashi N, Ishibashi Y, Murakami Y, Shimizu H, Ohta Y, Asanuma T, et al. Beneficial effect of combination therapy with ozagrel and pranlukast in exercise-induced asthma demonstrated by krypton-81 m ventilation scintigraphy--a case report. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000;29:766-9 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the effect of combination therapy with thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor and leukotriene receptor antagonist in a patient with exercise-induced asthma using krypton-81 m ventilation scintigraphy...
  66. Momoshima N, Inoue F, Sugihara S, Shimada J, Taniguchi M. An improved method for 85Kr analysis by liquid scintillation counting and its application to atmospheric 85Kr determination. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3 l of the present air under the analytical conditions of 72.1% counting efficiency, 0.1597 cps background count rate, and 76.4% Kr recovery...
  67. Kawakami K, Shimada T, Tominaga S, Mori Y, Goto E, Hirasawa Y. [Pulmonary distribution of 99mTc-technegas--a comparative study of radioactive inert gases]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1992;30:1781-7 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that 99mTc-gas can be used to evaluate ventilatory function even in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases...
  68. Yamauchi K, Arimori S. Alteration in pulmonary blood flow induced by cold exposure to the hand in progressive systemic sclerosis. Jpn J Med. 1989;28:506-9 pubmed
    ..Physiological abnormalities of pulmonary blood flow in PSS have been shown as a quantitative change and a image...
  69. Oliver R, Fleming J, Dawkins K, Waller D. Right ventricular function at rest and during submaximal exercise assessed by 81Krm equilibrium ventriculography in normal subjects. Nucl Med Commun. 1993;14:36-40 pubmed
    ..Right heart 81Krm equilibrium ventriculography is well suited to the evaluation of right ventricular function at rest and during exercise. The absolute value of RVEF will however be dependent upon the method of image analysis...
  70. Morrell N, Nijran K, Jones B, Biggs T, Seed W. The underestimation of segmental defect size in radionuclide lung scanning. J Nucl Med. 1993;34:370-4 pubmed
  71. Tominaga S, Fukuchi Y, Mori Y. Evaluation by ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy in patients who developed postural hypoxemia in the supine position. Ann Nucl Med. 1998;12:249-54 pubmed
    ..The distribution of 81mKr bolus gas inhalation suggested closure of the airway in the dorsal area at functional residual capacity (FRC), which means the resting expiratory level, in the supine position...
  72. Igarashi Y, Aoyama M, Nemoto K, Hirose K, Miyao T, Fushimi K, et al. 85Kr measurement system for continuous monitoring at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan. J Environ Monit. 2001;3:688-96 pubmed
    ..The record distinctively shows the Northern Hemispheric background 85Kr concentrations at the mid-latitude and the elevated concentrations affected by the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Ibaraki. Japan...
  73. Jasiulionis R, Adlys G, Adliene D, Vycinas L. Noble gas radionuclides in RBMK-1500-type reactor. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:836-42 pubmed
    ..The estimated flow time of noble gas provides an excellent possibility to obtain modelling-based information about the qualitative and quantitative content of atmospheric releases from NPP...
  74. Wang S, Bai T, Li Q, Chen Z, Shi Q, Li X, et al. Half-life determination of 88Kr and 138Xe. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:1927-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes in detail the principle and process of the position relay method with two HPGe detectors. The determined half-lives of (88)Kr and (138)Xe are 2.804±0.015 h and 14.18±0.10 min, respectively...
  75. Connan O, Smith K, Organo C, Solier L, Maro D, Hébert D. Comparison of RIMPUFF, HYSPLIT, ADMS atmospheric dispersion model outputs, using emergency response procedures, with (85)Kr measurements made in the vicinity of nuclear reprocessing plant. J Environ Radioact. 2013;124:266-77 pubmed publisher
    ..At distances where we made the comparisons (18-50 km), in all cases, the models underestimated the air concentration activities. ..
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