chromium radioisotopes

Summary

Summary: Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.

Top Publications

  1. Wright J, Boddy A, Highley M, Fenwick J, McGill A, Calvert A. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 2001;84:452-9 pubmed
    ..The formulae developed here can be used to provide reliable estimates of GFR, particularly in regard to targeted dosing of carboplatin...
  2. Cholujova D, Jakubikova J, Kubes M, Arendacká B, Sapák M, Ihnatko R, et al. Comparative study of four fluorescent probes for evaluation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity assays. Immunobiology. 2008;213:629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..9393 value for CAM-(51)Cr pair, we found the CAM assay to be the most closely related to the (51)Cr assay...
  3. Willis R, Bowers W, Turner M, Fisher T, Abdul Alim C, Howard D, et al. Dendritic cells transduced with HSV-1 amplicons expressing prostate-specific antigen generate antitumor immunity in mice. Hum Gene Ther. 2001;12:1867-79 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that DCs transduced with HSV-1 amplicon vectors may provide a tool for investigation of the biology of CTL activation by DCs and a new modality for immunotherapy of cancer...
  4. Rimmelzwaan G, Boon A, Geelhoed Mieras M, Voeten J, Fouchier R, Osterhaus A. Human airway epithelial cells present antigen to influenza virus-specific CD8+ CTL inefficiently after incubation with viral protein together with ISCOMATRIX. Vaccine. 2004;22:2769-75 pubmed
  5. Jahangir A, McClung W, Cornelius R, McCloskey C, Brash J, Santerre J. Fluorinated surface-modifying macromolecules: modulating adhesive protein and platelet interactions on a polyether-urethane. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002;60:135-47 pubmed
    ..Based on the current evidence, it is believed that the fluorinated SMMs demonstrate good potential for the development of surfaces with minimal thrombogenic character in in vivo applications...
  6. Patrick C, Juneja H, Lee S, Schmalstieg F, McIntire L. Heterotypic adherence between human B-lymphoblastic and pre-B-lymphoblastic cells and marrow stromal cells is a biphasic event: integrin very late antigen-4 alpha mediates only the early phase of the heterotypic adhesion. Blood. 1995;85:168-78 pubmed
    ..The early phase of adherence may be important in homing of the malignant lymphoblastic cells to the MSC and the late phase in retention of malignant lymphoblastic cells in the bone marrow...
  7. Leger F, Bouissou F, Coulais Y, Tafani M, Chatelut E. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17:903-7 pubmed
    ..142 x Length(2)(cm)]/PCr ( microM)) very similar to that obtained from the development data set. This equation would be useful for estimating GFR in children when isotopic determination of the (51)Cr-EDTA clearance cannot be performed...
  8. Bohonek M, Petrás M, Turek I, Urbanová J, Hrádek T, Chmatal P, et al. Quality evaluation of frozen apheresis red blood cell storage with 21-day postthaw storage in additive solution 3 and saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol: biochemical and chromium-51 recovery measures. Transfusion. 2010;50:1007-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The Czech Republic decided to build the frozen red blood cell (RBC) bank for military contingency and civil emergency preparedness. Storage methods were validated with (51)Cr recovery measures out to 21 days postthaw...
  9. Whalen M, Green S, Loganathan B. Brief butyltin exposure induces irreversible inhibition of the cytotoxic function on human natural killer cells, in vitro. Environ Res. 2002;88:19-29 pubmed
    ..The results indicated that short-term exposure to BTs causes persistent negative effects on NK cell ability to kill cancer cells...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Choi G, Oha S, Han J, Bae H, Cho Y, Yun Y, et al. Modulation of natural killer cell activity affected by electroacupuncture through lateral hypothalamic area in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2002;329:1-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, lesions abolished effects of EA on NK cell activity. These results strongly suggest that LHA is closely related to increase of NK cell activity induced by EA...
  2. Watson C, Firth J, Williams P, Bradley J, Pritchard N, Chaudhry A, et al. A randomized controlled trial of late conversion from CNI-based to sirolimus-based immunosuppression following renal transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2005;5:2496-503 pubmed
    ..No patient in either group experienced an acute rejection episode. In renal transplant recipients, a change in maintenance therapy from CNIs to sirolimus is associated with significant improvement in GFR at 12 months...
  3. Ruefli A, Bernhard D, Tainton K, Kofler R, Smyth M, Johnstone R. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) overcomes multidrug resistance and induces cell death in P-glycoprotein-expressing cells. Int J Cancer. 2002;99:292-8 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that P-gp inhibits caspase activation after chemotherapeutic drug treatment and demonstrates that SAHA may be of value for the treatment of P-gp-expressing MDR cancers...
  4. Frias R, Sankari S, Westermarck E. 51Cr-EDTA absorption blood test: an easy method for assessing small intestinal permeability in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18:156-9 pubmed
    ..94). We conclude that a serum 51Cr-EDTA test determined by summing successive blood samples provides an easier means of estimating small intestinal permeability in dogs and gives results comparable to those of the 6-hour urine test...
  5. Sato N, Kikuchi S, Sato K. Quantifying the stress induced by distress in patients with lumbar disc herniation in terms of natural killer cell activity measurements: chromium release assay versus multiparameter flow cytometric assay. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002;27:2095-100 pubmed
    ..A comparative study was conducted...
  6. Jerome K, Sloan D, Aubert M. Measuring T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity using antibody to activated caspase 3. Nat Med. 2003;9:4-5 pubmed
  7. Bihl G, Bird N, Peters C, Bradley J, Peters A. Radionuclide method for evaluating the performance of hemodialysis in vivo. Kidney Int. 2005;67:721-31 pubmed
  8. Onon T, Kitchener H, Duggan Keen M, Stern P. No alteration in NK function or zeta chain expression in NK and T cells of cervical cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol. 2003;89:120-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate in vitro natural killer (NK) cell activity and expression of signal-transducing zeta chains in patients with cervical cancer...
  9. van Harmelen J, Shephard E, Thomas R, Hanke T, Williamson A, Williamson C. Construction and characterisation of a candidate HIV-1 subtype C DNA vaccine for South Africa. Vaccine. 2003;21:4380-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first candidate HIV-1 DNA vaccine employing the South African subtype C sequences, and constitutes a part of a vaccine scheduled to enter a clinical evaluation in South Africa in 2004...
  10. Moralidis E, Papanastassiou E, Arsos G, Chilidis I, Gerasimou G, Gotzamani Psarrakou A. A single measurement with (51)Cr-tagged red cells or (125)I-labeled human serum albumin in the prediction of fractional and whole blood volumes: an assessment of the limitations. Physiol Meas. 2009;30:559-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The f ratio was inconstant and correlated with PV and the body hematocrit. We conclude that blood volumes can be determined reliabily only with direct measurements of RCV and PV. Estimated blood volumes may lead to misconceptions...
  11. Johnston K, Ballèvre O, Batt R. Use of an orally administered combined sugar solution to evaluate intestinal absorption and permeability in cats. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:111-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate intestinal permeability and absorption in healthy cats in association with diet and normal intestinal microflora...
  12. Pengelly C, McKenzie V. The red cell volume in a hospital population. Bristol Med Chir J. 1972;87:33-5 pubmed
  13. Cao L, Krymskaya L, Tran V, Mi S, Jensen M, Blanchard S, et al. Development and application of a multiplexable flow cytometry-based assay to quantify cell-mediated cytolysis. Cytometry A. 2010;77:534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate use of this assay will enhance the ability to derive quantitative and integrated correlative datasets from basic, translational, and clinical studies...
  14. Mehta S, Kaur I, Grimm E, Smid C, Feeback D, Pierson D. Decreased non-MHC-restricted (CD56+) killer cell cytotoxicity after spaceflight. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:1814-8 pubmed
    ..After landing, expression of the major lymphocyte surface markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD16, CD56), as determined by flow cytometric analysis, did not show any consistent changes from measurements made before flight...
  15. Lamb E, Wood J, Stowe H, O Riordan S, Webb M, Dalton R. Susceptibility of glomerular filtration rate estimations to variations in creatinine methodology: a study in older patients. Ann Clin Biochem. 2005;42:11-8 pubmed
    ..The influence of creatinine methodology on these estimates is not always appreciated. We have studied differences in creatinine methods and their influence on GFR estimation specifically in older people...
  16. Liakopoulou A, Buttar H, Nera E, Fernando L. Effects of in utero exposure to cyclophosphamide in mice. II. Assessment of immunocompetence of offspring from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1989;11:193-209 pubmed
    ..IgG antibody production in response to specific antigenic stimulation and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to oxazolone did not appear to be affected by Cy treatment...
  17. Aberg A, Hultin M, Abrahamsson P, Larsson J. Circulatory effects and kinetics following acute administration of carbon monoxide in a porcine model. Life Sci. 2004;75:1029-39 pubmed
    ..The half-life of carbon monoxide was determined to be 60.5 minutes (SEM 4.7)...
  18. Boijsen M, Jacobsson L, Tylen U. Glomerular filtration rate estimated from a single plasma sample after contrast-enhanced radiological examinations. Clin Physiol. 1988;8:309-16 pubmed
    ..A good correlation, ranging from 0.91 and 0.94, was found. We therefore conclude that kidney function can be estimated from a single plasma sample after contrast-enhanced radiological examinations...
  19. Berding G, Geisler S, Melter M, Marquardt P, Lühr A, Scheller F, et al. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in liver-transplanted children: comparison of simplified procedures using 51Cr-EDTA and endogenous markers with Sapirstein's method as a reference standard. Pediatr Transplant. 2010;14:786-95 pubmed publisher
    ..If radiotracer methods are not available at all or for screening GFR, cystatin C appears to be the procedure of choice...
  20. Gronski M, Boulter J, Moskophidis D, Nguyen L, Holmberg K, Elford A, et al. TCR affinity and negative regulation limit autoimmunity. Nat Med. 2004;10:1234-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, autoimmune disease is sensitive both to the affinity of the activating ligand and to normal mechanisms that negatively regulate the immune response...
  21. Yamada K, Takane Gyotoku N, Yuan X, Ichikawa F, Inada C, Nonaka K. Mouse islet cell lysis mediated by interleukin-1-induced Fas. Diabetologia. 1996;39:1306-12 pubmed
    ..beta-TC1 cells also expressed Fas mRNA when exposed to IL-1 alpha or IL-1 alpha plus interferon-gamma. These observations suggest that Fas-mediated apoptosis may be a mechanism of islet cell death in autoimmune insulitis...
  22. Jamali F, Lovlin R, Corrigan B, Davies N, Aberg G. Stereospecific pharmacokinetics and toxicodynamics of ketorolac after oral administration of the racemate and optically pure enantiomers to the rat. Chirality. 1999;11:201-5 pubmed
    ..Since 2.5 mg/kg S-KT is somewhat less toxic on the gastroduodenum than 5 mg/kg racemate, it may be a safer alternative to the latter, at least in the rat model...
  23. Aubry J, Blaecke A, Lecoanet Henchoz S, Jeannin P, Herbault N, Caron G, et al. Annexin V used for measuring apoptosis in the early events of cellular cytotoxicity. Cytometry. 1999;37:197-204 pubmed
    ..The other effectors, Fas L and TNF-alpha act by an apoptosis mechanism, leading to DNA fragmentation. A three color flow cytometric method to measure cell-mediated cytotoxicity induced by CTLs or NK cells is described...
  24. De Sadeleer C, Van Laere K, Georges B, Piepsz A, Ham H. Influence of time interval and number of blood samples on the error in renal clearance determination using a mono-exponential model: a Monte Carlo simulation. Nucl Med Commun. 2000;21:741-5 pubmed
    ..It is probably better, in most cases, to keep using the 2-4-h method and to take extreme care when indicating the time of sampling and when measuring the activity, instead of increasing the number of samples or lengthening the procedure...
  25. Wiig H, Tenstad O. Interstitial exclusion of positively and negatively charged IgG in rat skin and muscle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H1505-12 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest that fixed negative charges, most likely glycosaminoglycans, influence distribution of macromolecules in the interstitium and therefore affect interstitial fluid balance...
  26. Willett A, Grantham V. Determination of hemolytic anemia through the study of (51)Cr red cell survival and splenic sequestration. J Nucl Med Technol. 2008;36:95-8 pubmed publisher
    ..51)Cr red cell survival and splenic sequestration studies may be considered when clinical history and laboratory studies cannot establish a definitive diagnosis...
  27. Gutte H, Møller M, Pfeifer A, Thorup J, Borgwardt L, Borgwardt L, et al. Estimating GFR in children with 99mTc-DTPA renography: a comparison with single-sample 51Cr-EDTA clearance. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2010;30:169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Because our method is non-invasive and only takes 21 min, it may be preferable in many cases where an assessment of renal function is needed in children especially when renography is performed anyhow...
  28. He L, Hakimi J, Salha D, Miron I, Dunn P, Radvanyi L. A sensitive flow cytometry-based cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay through detection of cleaved caspase 3 in target cells. J Immunol Methods. 2005;304:43-59 pubmed
  29. Mant M, Bain V, Maguire C, Murland K, Yacyshyn B. Prevalence of occult gastrointestinal bleeding in celiac disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;4:451-4 pubmed
    ..We therefore hypothesized that an accurate, quantitative, and specific method for blood loss, rather than a guaiac test, might give different findings. We report the results of stool blood loss measurement by using such a method...
  30. Korell J, Coulter C, Duffull S. Evaluation of red blood cell labelling methods based on a statistical model for red blood cell survival. J Theor Biol. 2011;291:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..A model based analysis of RBC survival studies is recommended in future to account for limitations in methodology as well as likely causes of RBC destruction...
  31. Methenitou G, Maravelias C, Athanaselis S, Dona A, Koutselinis A. Immunomodulative effects of aflatoxins and selenium on human natural killer cells. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2001;43:232-4 pubmed
    ..When they were studied in combination, they caused a statistically significant increase of the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in the presence of the lowest concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (0.005ppb) and of sodium selenite (10(-8)M)...
  32. Rowlinson Busza G, Maraveyas A, Epenetos A. Effect of tumour necrosis factor on the uptake of specific and control monoclonal antibodies in a human tumour xenograft model. Br J Cancer. 1995;71:660-5 pubmed
    ..No evidence of tumour necrosis was observed at the TNF doses given, nor was there any toxicity to the mice...
  33. Hoskin D, Butler J, Drapeau D, Haeryfar S, Blay J. Adenosine acts through an A3 receptor to prevent the induction of murine anti-CD3-activated killer T cells. Int J Cancer. 2002;99:386-95 pubmed
    ..Adenosine, therefore, acts through an A(3) receptor to prevent AK-T cell induction. Tumor-associated adenosine may act through the same mechanism to impair the development of tumor-reactive T cells in cancer patients...
  34. Stockmeyer B, Beyer T, Neuhuber W, Repp R, Kalden J, Valerius T, et al. Polymorphonuclear granulocytes induce antibody-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. J Immunol. 2003;171:5124-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, PMN induce Ab-dependent apoptosis against human breast cancer cells targeted with HER-2/neu-directed mAbs or FcR directed bispecific Abs...
  35. Delanaye P, Chapelle J, Ferir A, Gielen J, Krzesinski J, Rorive G. [Evaluation of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice]. Rev Med Liege. 2003;58:95-100 pubmed
    ..All these methods have bias. Other approaches have thus been proposed. The limitations and advantages of isotopic methods and recent mathematical approaches (MDRD formula) are reviewed...
  36. Hansen H, Hovind P, Jensen B, Parving H. Diurnal variations of glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2002;61:163-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to evaluate the diurnal variation in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the potential mechanisms responsible for such variations in GFR and albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy...
  37. Vennström L, Bysell C, Björkelund H, Lundqvist H, Andersson K. Real-time viability assay based on 51Cr retention in adherent cells. Biotechniques. 2008;44:237-40 pubmed
    ..Here we explain the principle behind this novel real-time viability assay and show viability curves for known toxic compounds on A431 and U343MGaCl2:6 cell lines...
  38. Nattermann J, Nischalke H, Hofmeister V, Ahlenstiel G, Zimmermann H, Leifeld L, et al. The HLA-A2 restricted T cell epitope HCV core 35-44 stabilizes HLA-E expression and inhibits cytolysis mediated by natural killer cells. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:443-53 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate the existence of T cell epitopes that can be recognized by HLA-A2 and HLA-E. This dual recognition may contribute to viral persistence in hepatitis C...
  39. Lundgren T, Parhar R, Renvert S, Tatakis D. Impaired cytotoxicity in Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. J Dent Res. 2005;84:414-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the impaired NK cell cytotoxicity might contribute to the pathogenesis of PLS-associated periodontitis...
  40. Höppner M, Luhm J, Schlenke P, Koritke P, Frohn C. A flow-cytometry based cytotoxicity assay using stained effector cells in combination with native target cells. J Immunol Methods. 2002;267:157-63 pubmed
    ..All in all, we present here an easy to handle protocol, which enables the precise determination of cellular cytotoxicity in various experimental settings...
  41. Schreiber K, Wu T, Kast W, Schreiber H. Tracking the common ancestry of antigenically distinct cancer variants. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:871s-875s pubmed
    ..Because p53 mutations occur very early during UV carcinogenesis and vary from tumor to tumor, they provide convenient reliable markers for tracking the origin of cancers arising after immune selection or immunotherapy...
  42. Liu L, Chahroudi A, Silvestri G, Wernett M, Kaiser W, Safrit J, et al. Visualization and quantification of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity using cell-permeable fluorogenic caspase substrates. Nat Med. 2002;8:185-9 pubmed
    ..As such, the FCC assay can provide a valuable tool for studies of infectious disease pathogenesis and development of new vaccines and immunotherapies...
  43. Gehl J, Skovsgaard T, Mir L. Vascular reactions to in vivo electroporation: characterization and consequences for drug and gene delivery. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1569:51-8 pubmed
  44. Nylander O, Pihl L, Perry M. Hypotonicity-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability facilitates adjustment of luminal osmolality. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G360-70 pubmed
    ..The hypotonicity-induced increase in permeability modulated by prostaglandins and nicotinic receptors fulfills the function of increasing blood-to-lumen transport of Na+ facilitating adjustment of luminal osmolality...
  45. McMillan D, Sarvate S, Oatis J, Jollow D. Role of oxidant stress in lawsone-induced hemolytic anemia. Toxicol Sci. 2004;82:647-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, the hemolytic response to henna may be restricted to individuals with compromised antioxidant defenses...
  46. Estorch M, Tembl A, Antonijoan R, Hernandez A, Mari C, Flotats A, et al. Evaluation of renal graft haemodynamia by 51Cr-EDTA and o-[131I]iodohippurate: its use in the early diagnosis of glomerular hyperfiltration. Nucl Med Commun. 2003;24:679-82 pubmed
    ..min-1 (P=0.002) respectively. It is concluded that determinations of GFR, ERPF, GFF and GCP allow non-invasive evaluation of renal graft haemodynamia and can be useful in the early detection of glomerular hyperfiltration...
  47. Jerome K, Sloan D, Aubert M. Measurement of CTL-induced cytotoxicity: the caspase 3 assay. Apoptosis. 2003;8:563-71 pubmed
    ..Our assay is convenient and more sensitive than the (51)Cr release assay. The use of this assay should allow mechanistic studies of the intracellular events resulting from CTL attack...
  48. Macphail S, Munro A. The demonstration of the involvement of antibody in the in vitro lysis of chicken erythrocytes by allergized spleen cells. Immunology. 1974;27:1053-62 pubmed
  49. Vatnitsky S, Schulte R, Galindo R, Meinass H, Miller D. Radiochromic film dosimetry for verification of dose distributions delivered with proton-beam radiosurgery. Phys Med Biol. 1997;42:1887-98 pubmed
    ..We assume that the dosimetric agreement between planned and measured dose distributions for the reported simulations will apply to patient treatments...
  50. van Iperen C, van de Wiel A, de Bruin M, Marx J. Total hip replacement surgery does not influence RBC survival. Transfusion. 2000;40:1235-8 pubmed
    ..RBC survival may be affected by mechanical or oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory effect of surgery, and thus may contribute to postoperative anemia...
  51. Paczesny S, Shi H, Saito H, Mannoni P, Fay J, Banchereau J, et al. Measuring melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes elicited by dendritic cell vaccines with a tumor inhibition assay in vitro. J Immunother. 2005;28:148-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, TIA might prove valuable for measuring spontaneous and induced antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells...
  52. Yang H, Finaly R, Teitelbaum D. Alteration in epithelial permeability and ion transport in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:1118-25 pubmed
    ..Additionally, to assess the role of interferon-gamma on the total parenteral nutrition-induced loss of epithelial barrier function...
  53. Heaton W, Keegan T, Hanbury C, Holme S, Pleban P. Studies with nonradioisotopic sodium chromate. II. Single- and double-label 52Cr/51Cr posttransfusion recovery estimations. Transfusion. 1989;29:703-7 pubmed
    ..Using the single-label method of calculation, recoveries averaged 76 +/- 7 and 75 +/- 10 percent for the 51Cr and 52Cr methods, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..