dry ice


Summary: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.

Top Publications

  1. Theophilus E, Poindexter D, Meckley D, Bombick B, Borgerding M, Higuchi M, et al. Toxicological evaluation of dry ice expanded tobacco. Toxicol Lett. 2003;145:107-19 pubmed
    ..The strategy is based on comparative chemical and biological testing. Dry ice expanded tobacco (DIET) is an example of a common tobacco expansion process currently used in the manufacture of ..
  2. Murphy B, Swarts S, Mueller B, van der Geer P, Manning M, Fitchmun M. Protein instability following transport or storage on dry ice. Nat Methods. 2013;10:278-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Oli K, Jeffery J, Vythilingam I. A comparative study of adult mosquito trapping using dry ice and yeast generated carbon dioxide. Trop Biomed. 2005;22:249-51 pubmed
    ..The CDC light traps were compared using dry ice and yeast as sources of carbon dioxide attractants for mosquitoes...
  4. Sukumaran D, Ponmariappan S, Sharma A, Jha H, Wasu Y, Sharma A. Application of biogenic carbon dioxide produced by yeast with different carbon sources for attraction of mosquitoes towards adult mosquito traps. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, CO2 is used as an attractant during surveillance of mosquitoes either from commercial cylinders or dry ice for mosquito traps...
  5. Hansen C, Bourke M, Bridges N, Byrne S, Colon C, Diniega S, et al. Seasonal erosion and restoration of Mars' northern polar dunes. Science. 2011;331:575-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The widespread nature of these rapid changes, and the pristine appearance of most dunes in the area, implicates active sand transport in the vast polar erg in Mars' current climate. ..
  6. Barrett A, Noden B, Gruntmeir J, Holland T, Mitcham J, Martin J, et al. County Scale Distribution of Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae) in Oklahoma: Addressing Local Deficits in Tick Maps Based on Passive Reporting. J Med Entomol. 2015;52:269-73 pubmed publisher
    ..C. Emerson Entomology Museum, Oklahoma State University, were reviewed. In addition, dry ice traps and tick drags were used to collect adult and nymphal A. americanum from throughout the state...
  7. Luna P, Hasegawa K, Ajami N, Espinola J, Henke D, Petrosino J, et al. The association between anterior nares and nasopharyngeal microbiota in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. Microbiome. 2018;6:2 pubmed publisher
    ..temperature to emulate processing of future parent collected swabs while nasopharyngeal aspirates were mailed on dry ice), a previously reported association between Haemophilus-dominant nasopharyngeal microbiota and the increased ..
  8. Thiemann T, Nelms B, Reisen W. Bloodmeal host congregation and landscape structure impact the estimation of female mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance using dry ice-baited traps. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:513-7 pubmed
    ..significantly altered the number of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae) collected at dry ice-baited traps...
  9. Kensinger B, Allan B. Efficacy of dry ice-baited traps for sampling Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) varies with life stage but not habitat. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:708-11 pubmed
    ..Tick abundance is an important parameter in the estimation of human risk of exposure to tick-borne disease and the influence of life stage on capture rates should be considered when calculating entomological risk. ..

More Information


  1. Voges H, Mills R, Elliott D, Parton R, Porrello E, Hudson J. Development of a human cardiac organoid injury model reveals innate regenerative potential. Development. 2017;144:1118-1127 pubmed publisher
    ..Following cryoinjury with a dry ice probe, hCOs exhibited an endogenous regenerative response with full functional recovery 2 weeks after acute ..
  2. Feldman W, Boynton W, Tokar R, Prettyman T, Gasnault O, Squyres S, et al. Global distribution of neutrons from Mars: results from Mars odyssey. Science. 2002;297:75-8 pubmed
    ..The central portion of the north polar cap is covered by a thick CO2 layer, as is the residual south polar cap. Portions of the low to middle latitudes indicate subsurface deposits of chemically and/or physically bound H2O and/or OH. ..
  3. Johnson B, Kerlin T, Hall Mendelin S, van den Hurk A, Cortis G, Doggett S, et al. Development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK). Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:509 pubmed publisher
    ..28: 1) when CO2 was supplied by either a gas cylinder (500 ml/min) or dry ice (1 kg). During the 2014 arbovirus survey, the SMACK captured significantly (t 6 = 2...
  4. Yilmaz E, Soylak M. Switchable polarity solvent for liquid phase microextraction of Cd(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelates from environmental samples. Anal Chim Acta. 2015;886:75-82 pubmed publisher
    A switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO2 (Dry ice) via proton transfer reaction has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) chelate...
  5. Azad S, Allison K, Khwaja N, Moiemen N. Frostbite of the gluteal region. Burns. 2003;29:739-44 pubmed
  6. Thomas P. Planetary science. Cold-trapping Mars' atmosphere. Science. 2011;332:797-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Dreyer C, Pierce A, Lindskog S. Hypothermic insult to the periodontium: a model for the study of aseptic tooth resorption. Endod Dent Traumatol. 2000;16:9-15 pubmed
    ..A group of 12 male rats weighing 200-250 g were anesthetized, and pellets of dry ice (CO2) were applied once to the crowns of the right first maxillary molars for continuous periods of 10 or 20 min...
  8. Linsuwanont P, Palamara J, Messer H. Thermal transfer in extracted incisors during thermal pulp sensitivity testing. Int Endod J. 2008;41:204-10 pubmed
    ..of six different thermal stimuli: hot water (80 degrees C), heated gutta-percha (140 degrees C), carbon dioxide dry ice (-72 degrees C), refrigerant spray (-50 degrees C), ice stick (0 degrees C) and cold water (2 degrees C)...
  9. Domingo P, Olaciregui M, Gonzalez N, de Blas I, Gil L. Long-term preservation of freeze-dried rabbit sperm by adding rosmarinic acid and different chelating agents. Cryobiology. 2018;81:174-177 pubmed publisher
    ..among 4 °C to 25 °C during 8 months and transportation without the need for liquid nitrogen or dry ice. EDTA chelating agent is the most suitable media for freeze-dried rabbit sperm and the addition of RA protects ..
  10. Singh N, Wang C, Cooper R. Effectiveness of a Sugar-Yeast Monitor and a Chemical Lure for Detecting Bed Bugs. J Econ Entomol. 2015;108:1298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The sugar-yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation...
  11. Sontising W, Heit Y, McKinley J, Beran G. Theoretical predictions suggest carbon dioxide phases III and VII are identical. Chem Sci. 2017;8:7374-7382 pubmed publisher
    ..Solid carbon dioxide exhibits a rich phase diagram at high pressures. Metastable phase III is formed by compressing dry ice above ?10-12 GPa...
  12. Matheny R, Carrigan C, Abdalla M, Geddis A, Leandry L, Aguilar C, et al. RNA transcript expression of IGF-I/PI3K pathway components in regenerating skeletal muscle is sensitive to initial injury intensity. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2017;32:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Traumatic injury was imposed by applying a 6-mm diameter cylindrical steel probe, cooled to the temperature of dry ice (-79°C), to the belly of the left tibialis anterior muscle of 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice for either 5s (5s) or ..
  13. Uyarcan M, Kayaardi S. Effects of a dry ice process on surface and carcase decontamination in the poultry industry. Br Poult Sci. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry ice decontamination on equipment and carcase surfaces in a poultry slaughterhouse and to present an effective alternative method to the conventional decontamination ..
  14. Yang C, Wu T, Cheng F, Wang J, Wu J. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality. Reprod Biol. 2016;16:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N)...
  15. Springer Y, Taylor J, Travers P. Variation in Baiting Intensity Among CO2-Baited Traps Used to Collect Hematophagous Arthropods. J Insect Sci. 2015;15: pubmed publisher
    ..Among the three dry ice-baited trap types evaluated, traps utilizing insulated beverage coolers as dry ice containers sampled for the ..
  16. Poe A, Duong N, Bedi K, Kodani M. Stability of hepatitis C virus RNA and anti-HCV antibody in air-dried and freeze-dried human plasma samples. J Virol Methods. 2018;253:53-55 pubmed publisher
    ..panels are provided by reference laboratories and various international organizations, requiring costly dry ice shipments to maintain specimen integrity...
  17. Byrne S, Ingersoll A. A sublimation model for martian south polar ice features. Science. 2003;299:1051-3 pubmed
    ..We argue that a carbon dioxide ice layer about 8 meters thick is being etched away to reveal water ice underneath. This is consistent with thermal infrared data from the Mars Odyssey mission. ..
  18. Petrozziello M, Guaita M, Motta S, Panero L, Bosso A. Analytical and sensory characterization of the aroma of "Langhe D.O.C. Nebbiolo" wines: influence of the prefermentative cold maceration with dry ice. J Food Sci. 2011;76:C525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of "Langhe DOC Nebbiolo" wines produced through the prefermentative cold maceration with dry ice, on full scale (30 quintals) in private cellars...
  19. Pessi J, Lassila I, Meriläinen A, Räikkönen H, Hæggström E, Yliruusi J. Controlled Expansion of Supercritical Solution: A Robust Method to Produce Pure Drug Nanoparticles With Narrow Size-Distribution. J Pharm Sci. 2016;105:2293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..solution (CESS), uses controlled mass transfer, flow, pressure reduction, and particle collection in dry ice. CESS offers control over the crystallization process as the pressure in the system is reduced according to a ..
  20. Chen E, Abbott P. Evaluation of accuracy, reliability, and repeatability of five dental pulp tests. J Endod. 2011;37:1619-23 pubmed publisher
    ..EF was reliable but not as accurate as EPT and CO(2) and less repeatable than Ice and LDF. Ice was the most repeatable but the least accurate and least reliable test. ..
  21. Trondsetås L, Mikkelsen G, Lian I. The effects of dry ice exposure on plasma pH and coagulation analyses. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2017;56:59-64 pubmed publisher
    We recently observed that exposure to dry ice lowered sample pH and increased clotting times in lupus anticoagulant analyses, and that such changes could be prevented by placing samples at -80°C after dry ice exposure...
  22. Smith D, Zuber M, Neumann G. Seasonal variations of snow depth on Mars. Science. 2001;294:2141-6 pubmed
    ..The combined changes in gravity and elevation constrain the average density of seasonally deposited carbon dioxide to be 910 +/- 230 kilograms per cubic meter, which is considerably denser than terrestrial snow. ..
  23. Jo C, Ahn D, Liu X, Kim K, Nam K. Effects of chitosan coating and storage with dry ice on the freshness and quality of eggs. Poult Sci. 2011;90:467-72 pubmed publisher
    ..egg freshness during practical storage conditions, eggs were coated with chitosan and stored with or without dry ice. The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of eggs were evaluated during 14 d of storage at 4 and 23°C ..
  24. Jeyasekaran G, Jeya Shakila R, Sukumar D. Microbiological quality of cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) fillets stored in dry and wet ice. Food Sci Technol Int. 2012;18:455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..stored in wet ice at a ratio of 1:1 (package III) were sensorially acceptable for only 18 h, while that stored in dry ice at 1:1 (package I) and combination of dry ice and wet ice at 1:0.2:0...
  25. Malin M, Caplinger M, Davis S. Observational evidence for an active surface reservoir of solid carbon dioxide on Mars. Science. 2001;294:2146-8 pubmed
    ..The erosion implies that this reservoir is not in equilibrium with the present environment and that global climate change is occurring on Mars. ..
  26. Szydłowski A, Jerzykowski J, Miekoś L, Kodura A, Markowska A. [Preservation of the blood of slaughter animals by the non-diaphragmatic use of solidified carbon dioxide. II. Blood preservation-related changes in plasma proteins]. Pol Arch Weter. 1987;25:189-200 pubmed
    ..The changes observed in the plasma proteins analysed were highly correlated with increasing parallel decomposition of morphological elements and the resulting increase of the level of hemocyte proteins in plasma. ..
  27. Heled Y, Epstein Y, Moran D. Heat strain attenuation while wearing NBC clothing: dry-ice vest compared to water spray. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004;75:391-6 pubmed
    ..They were cooled by one of two different cooling methods: an active cooling vest (CV) based on the sublimation of dry ice, or tap water spraying (TP)...
  28. Vanzo A, Janes L, Pozgan F, Velikonja Bolta S, Sivilotti P, Lisjak K. UHPLC-MS/MS determination of varietal thiol precursors in Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13122 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, berries were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after harvesting, transported in dry ice, stored briefly at -80?°C, cryo-milled and extracted without being thawed in cold methanol in a ratio of 1:4 (w/..
  29. Jerzykowski J, Szydłowski A. [Preservation of the blood of slaughter animals by the non-diaphragmatic use of solidified carbon dioxide. III. Effect of blood preservation. Practical blood stability]. Pol Arch Weter. 1987;25:201-12 pubmed
  30. Fulton J, Rahimi A. Dermabrasion using CO2 dry ice. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:544-8 pubmed
    ..The recent withdrawal of Freon from the market has made dermabrasion more difficult...
  31. Cosman B, Apfelberg D, Druker D. An effective cosmetic treatment for Ota's nevus. Ann Plast Surg. 1989;22:36-42 pubmed
    The congenital facial melanocytic lesion Ota's nevus is reviewed, and an effective cosmetic treatment--sequential dry ice application and epidermal peeling combined with argon laser--is discussed...
  32. Fischler W, Kong P, Marella S, Scott K. The detection of carbonation by the Drosophila gustatory system. Nature. 2007;448:1054-7 pubmed
    ..This work opens up the possibility that the taste of carbonation may also exist in other organisms...
  33. Jones R, Barker Hudson P, Kay B. Comparison of dry ice baited light traps with human bait collections for surveillance of mosquitoes in northern Queensland, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1991;7:387-94 pubmed
    ..The numbers attracted to dry ice baited encephalitis virus surveillance (EVS) light traps and to human bait were similar...
  34. Li W, Ko S, Tsai C, Su C, Huang C, Tiao M. Gastric hypothermic injury caused by accidental ingestion of dry ice: endoscopic features. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;59:737-8 pubmed
  35. Inkelis S, Smith M, Lubitz D, Korber T, Curran M. Blast injuries from glass bottles containing dry ice. Ann Emerg Med. 1988;17:1087-90 pubmed
    ..present three cases (two incidents) of severe blast injury from the explosion of covered glass bottles containing dry ice. The first patient sustained lacerations of the face, left eye, right wrist and forearm, and abdomen with ..
  36. Roth T, Bush L, Wildt D, Weiss R. Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) spermatozoa are functionally competent in a heterologous bovine in vitro fertilization system after cryopreservation on dry ice, in a dry shipper, or over liquid nitrogen vapor. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:493-8 pubmed
    ..sperm-freezing methods were compared after dilution of ejaculates from six oryx with an equine semen extender: 1) dry ice, 2) dry shipper one-step, 3) dry shipper two-step, and 4) liquid nitrogen vapor...
  37. Phillips R, Davis B, Tanaka K, Byrne S, Mellon M, Putzig N, et al. Massive CO? ice deposits sequestered in the south polar layered deposits of Mars. Science. 2011;332:838-41 pubmed publisher
  38. Yasui G, Arias Rodriguez L, Fujimoto T, Arai K. Simple and inexpensive method for cryopreservation of fish sperm combining straw and powdered dry ice. Cryo Letters. 2008;29:383-90 pubmed
    ..of self-made tubes which diameter was changed by commercially available materials and then immersed into powdered dry ice for 2 min and plunged into liquid nitrogen. This procedure resulted in a cooling rate at -421.4 +/- 119...
  39. Dunn J, Berger S, Mondino B, Goodwin L. Ocular trauma caused by exploding glass bottles containing dry ice and water. Ophthalmic Surg. 1990;21:628-31 pubmed
    We treated three patients with severe ocular injuries caused by exploding glass bottles containing a mixture of dry ice chips and water...
  40. Costard F, Forget F, Mangold N, Peulvast J. Formation of recent martian debris flows by melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity. Science. 2002;295:110-3 pubmed
  41. Sever C, Kulahci Y, Uygur F, Sahin C. Frostbite injury of the foot from portable fire extinguisher. Dermatol Online J. 2009;15:10 pubmed
    ..Frostbite burns are uncommon and their etiologies are varied. We present a case of sudden frostbite burn of the left foot caused by carbon dioxide. The circumstances of this injury and preventive measures are discussed...
  42. Mochida K, Hasegawa A, Li M, Fray M, Kito S, Vallelunga J, et al. High osmolality vitrification: a new method for the simple and temperature-permissive cryopreservation of mouse embryos. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e49316 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our HOV method provides an efficient and reliable strategy for the routine cryopreservation of mouse embryos in animal facilities and biomedical laboratories, and for easy and cheap transportation...
  43. Dennett J, Stark P, Vessey N, Parsons R, Bueno R. Estimation of aerosol droplet sizes by using a modified DC-III portable droplet measurement system under laboratory and field conditions. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006;22:707-17 pubmed
    ..Under laboratory conditions, the system effectively sampled water droplets from aerosols produced by a dry ice/water generator and high-pressure syringe...
  44. Mackenzie D. Planetary science. And an icy patch at Mars's south pole. Science. 2002;298:1866-7 pubmed
  45. Szydłowski A, Jerzykowski J. [Preservation of the blood of slaughter animals by the non-diaphragmatic use of solidified carbon dioxide. I. Metabolism of the erythrocytes]. Pol Arch Weter. 1987;25:177-87 pubmed
    ..3-DPG exhaustion and by increasing affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. On the basis of the results of the studies the preservation method used appeared to be suitable for preservation of full technological value of the stored blood...
  46. Fratamico P, Juneja V, Annous B, Rasanayagam V, Sundar M, Braithwaite D, et al. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry. J Food Sci. 2012;77:M285-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation...
  47. Amalaseelan J, Lukin L, McKay M. Multifocal skin basal cell carcinomata 57 years after topical dry ice treatment. Australas J Dermatol. 2013;54:e56-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a rare case of simultaneous multiple basal cell carcinomata occurring on the back of a patient who had received dry ice treatment to this area almost 6 decades previously...
  48. Al Qubati Y, Janniger E, Schwartz R. Pyogenic granuloma of the lip - treatment with carbon dioxide slush cryosurgery as an approach in a resource-poor country. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2014;23:5-7 pubmed
    ..We describe a 14-year-old adolescent with a PG of the lower lip that responded to carbon dioxide slush cryosurgery, an option that may be of considerable value in a resource-poor country. ..
  49. Keskin M, Tosun Z, Duymaz A, Savaci N. Frostbite injury due to improper usage of an ice pack. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;55:437-8 pubmed
  50. Curl L, Barker C, Dreyer C, Sampson W. A pharmacodynamic investigation into the efficacy of osteoprotegerin during aseptic inflammation. Aust Orthod J. 2012;28:219-24 pubmed
    ..Previous work investigating OPG in a rat periodontal ligament (PDL) ankylosis model found no inhibitory effect on osteoclasts when OPG was administered at a dosage of 2.5mg/kg...
  51. Jacobs D, Smith M. Exposures to carbon dioxide in the poultry processing industry. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1988;49:624-9 pubmed
    The use of dry ice has increased dramatically in poultry processing plants because of changes in the fast food industry...
  52. Takagi M, Tsuda Y, Wada Y, Sugiyama A, Shimomura H, Suwonkerd W, et al. Mark-release-recapture experiments to estimate the efficiency of the light trap in collecting Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1995;48:123-9 pubmed
    ..Females collected with dry ice in the field were marked and released in a pigsty...
  53. Hata Y, Matsuka K, Ito O, Matsuda H, Furuichi H, Ishizu N, et al. Treatment of nevus Ota: combined skin abrasion and carbon dioxide snow method. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996;97:544-54 pubmed
    ..Those with melanocytes throughout the whole dermis generally had a poorer outcome. The results confirm that the benefits of this procedure are limited by the associated pain and the need for great skill and a long treatment duration...
  54. Rupp W, Thierauf A, Nadjem H, Vogt S. Suicide by carbon dioxide. Forensic Sci Int. 2013;231:e30-2 pubmed publisher
    ..In one case, a 53-year-old man tightly sealed a small bathroom and locked himself in it likely with dry ice. Warning notices were tagged to the door...
  55. Escribano R, Muñoz Caro G, Cruz Diaz G, Rodríguez Lazcano Y, Maté B. Crystallization of CO2 ice and the absence of amorphous CO2 ice in space. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12899-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results allow us to rule out the presence of pure and amorphous CO2 ice in space based on the observations available so far, supporting our current view of the evolution of CO2 ice. ..
  56. Linsuwanont P, Versluis A, Palamara J, Messer H. Thermal stimulation causes tooth deformation: a possible alternative to the hydrodynamic theory?. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:261-72 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relationship between temperature distribution and tooth structure deformation during and after localised application of thermal stimuli used during pulp vitality testing...
  57. Norimine E, Ishizawa F, Honda K, Uemura S. [Suicide case of carbon dioxide poisoning using dry ice]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2009;22:121-4 pubmed
    We had a suicide case suspected to result in death from carbon dioxide poisoning by dry ice in the car. A clay cooking stove with charcoal was in the car, but the charcoal had no burning sign...
  58. Muramatsu T, Ito N, Tamaoki N, Oda H, Park H. In vivo gene electroporation confers nutritionally-regulated foreign gene expression in the liver. Int J Mol Med. 2001;7:61-6 pubmed
    ..These results implicate that nutritionally-regulated foreign gene expression in vivo is attainable at least locally in the liver by a simple and convenient non-viral gene EP method...
  59. Dunford J, Lucas J, Vent N, Clark R, Cantrell F. Asphyxiation due to dry ice in a walk-in freezer. J Emerg Med. 2009;36:353-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Dry ice undergoes sublimation to a gaseous state at -78.5 degrees C (-109...
  60. Soumis N, Canuel R, Lucotte M. Evaluation of two current approaches for the measurement of carbon dioxide diffusive fluxes from lentic ecosystems. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:2964-9 pubmed
    The dry ice sowing experiment (DISE) consisted in adding dry ice to a lake and monitoring the subsequent evasion of carbon dioxide (CO2)...
  61. Maruyama Y, Kimura B, Fujii T, Tokunaga Y, Matsubayashi M, Aikawa Y. [Growth inhibition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood by tabletop dry ice cooler]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2005;46:213-7 pubmed
    Tabletop dry ice coolers (three types; dome model, cap model and tripod model), which are used in kitchens and hotel banquet halls to refrigerate fresh seafood, were investigated to determine whether growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was ..
  62. Cornu O, Boquet J, Nonclercq O, Docquier P, Van Tomme J, Delloye C, et al. Synergetic effect of freeze-drying and gamma irradiation on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone. Cell Tissue Bank. 2011;12:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike irradiation at room temperature, irradiation under dry ice of solvent-detergent treated bone seemed to have no detrimental effect on mechanical properties of cancellous ..
  63. Gorrin N, Moore T, Asch M. Glass shrapnel injuries to children resulting from "dry ice bomb" explosions: a report of three cases. J Pediatr Surg. 1990;25:296 pubmed
    Glass shrapnel from explosions of "dry ice bombs," created by thrusting dry ice into glass soft-drink bottles and occluding the opening of the bottles, has produced serious and multiple lacerating injuries in three children, ..
  64. Nielsen V, Hafner D. Freezing does not decrease carbon monoxide-mediated hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis in human plasma. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012;23:784-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemostatic changes in plasma exposed to CO are not affected by a freeze-thaw cycle, which will permit local batch processing of samples and transport of samples on dry ice from collaborating centers.
  65. Mourot L, Cluzeau C, Regnard J. Hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy: effects on skin temperature and systemic vasoconstriction. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88:1339-43 pubmed
  66. Fussell R, Jackson Addie K, Reynolds S, Wilson M. Assessment of the stability of pesticides during cryogenic sample processing. 1. Apples. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:441-8 pubmed
    ..Small apparent losses for a few of the compounds were attributable to analytical and sample handling difficulties, rather than to losses during processing, and need further investigation...
  67. Yoder C, Konopliv A, Yuan D, Standish E, Folkner W. Fluid core size of Mars from detection of the solar tide. Science. 2003;300:299-303 pubmed
    ..The south cap seasonal mass change is about 30 to 40% larger than that of the north cap...
  68. Sugimoto S, Niwa T, Nakanishi Y, Danjo K. Development of a novel ultra cryo-milling technique for a poorly water-soluble drug using dry ice beads and liquid nitrogen. Int J Pharm. 2012;426:162-169 pubmed publisher
    A novel ultra cryo-milling micronization technique has been established using dry ice beads and liquid nitrogen (LN2). Drug particles were co-suspended with dry ice beads in LN2 and ground by stirring...
  69. Wichmann M. [Temperature profile in the enamel during cold tests]. Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1991;46:25-7 pubmed
    ..The lowest temperature (-52 degrees C) was measured with CO2-snow (with a pressure of 9.81 N against the tooth surface). To obtain higher temperatures at lower rates of change, the use of a thin latex fingerstall proved to be effective...
  70. Sakugawa H, Kaplan I. Atmospheric H2O2 measurement: comparison of cold trap method with impinger bubbling method. Atmos Environ. 1987;21:1791-8 pubmed
    Collection of atmospheric H2O2 was performed by a cold trap method using dry ice-acetone as the refrigerant. The air was drawn by a pump into a glass gas trap immersed in the dry ice-acetone slush in a dewar flask at a flow rate of 2...
  71. Hmel P, Kennedy A, Quiles J, Gorogias M, Seelbaugh J, Morrissette C, et al. Physical and thermal properties of blood storage bags: implications for shipping frozen components on dry ice. Transfusion. 2002;42:836-46 pubmed
    Frozen blood components are shipped on dry ice. The lower temperature (-70 degrees C in contrast to usual storage at -30 degrees C) and shipping conditions may cause a rent in the storage bag, breaking sterility and rendering the unit ..
  72. Zuber M. Planetary science. Learning to think like Martians. Science. 2003;302:1694-5 pubmed
  73. Sprague A, Boynton W, Kerry K, Janes D, Hunten D, Kim K, et al. Mars' south polar Ar enhancement: a tracer for south polar seasonal meridional mixing. Science. 2004;306:1364-7 pubmed
    ..Calculations of seasonal transport of argon into and out of southern high latitudes point to meridional (north-south) mixing throughout southern winter and spring...
  74. Barnes J, Brown R, Turtle E, McEwen A, Lorenz R, Janssen M, et al. A 5-micron-bright spot on Titan: evidence for surface diversity. Science. 2005;310:92-5 pubmed
    ..We discuss various hypotheses about the source of the spot, reaching the conclusion that the spot is probably due to variation in surface composition, perhaps associated with recent geophysical phenomena...
  75. Maranga R, Hassanali A, Kaaya G, Mueke J. Performance of a prototype baited-trap in attracting and infecting the tick Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in field experiments. Exp Appl Acarol. 2006;38:211-8 pubmed
    ..These results were significantly different at the 5% level, an indication that the pheromone/fungi mixtures had significant effect in reducing the tick population in the field...
  76. Tsukamoto Y, Hijiya N, Yano S, Yokoyama S, Nakada C, Uchida T, et al. Arpp/Ankrd2, a member of the muscle ankyrin repeat proteins (MARPs), translocates from the I-band to the nucleus after muscle injury. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;129:55-64 pubmed
    ..investigation of gastrocnemius muscles that had been injured by injection of cardiotoxin or contact with dry ice. We found that Arpp/Ankrd2 accumulated in the nuclei of myofibers located adjacent to severely damaged myofibers ..
  77. Taghiyari H, Layeghi M, Aminzadeh Liyafooee F. Effects of dry ice on gas permeability of nano-silver-impregnated Populus nigra and Fagus orientalis. IET Nanobiotechnol. 2012;6:40-4 pubmed publisher
  78. Sugimoto M, Hyodoh H, Rokukawa M, Kanazawa A, Murakami R, Shimizu J, et al. Freezing effect on brain density in postmortem CT. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016;18:62-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To prevent worm invasion and minimize deterioration, dry ice was used prior to the autopsy investigation...
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    ..The lower ice-rich layer contains between 50 and 75 weight % water, indicating that the shallow subsurface at northern polar latitudes on Mars is even more water rich than that in the south...
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    ..O(3) was detected only after ion irradiation of CO(2)-rich mixtures. The experimental results are discussed with regard to the relevance they may have in the production of an energy source for a europan or a martian biosphere...
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    BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature...
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    ..b>Dry ice was used to achieve a deep frozen internal parcel environment and was tested in a laboratory setting using ultra ..
  84. Ohwada K. Permanent marking of colored mice using dry ice. Jikken Dobutsu. 1991;40:395-9 pubmed
    Freeze marking, using dry ice, was successfully applied to colored mice for permanent, individual, identification. By this method, a 5-8 mm piece of dry ice is pressed against the skin of mice for 10 seconds...
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    ..of the pigeon louse fly, Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), was collected by a mosquito trap baited with dry ice in Ishigaki-jima, Yaeyama Islands, Japan. This is the 1st record of P. canariensis from Yaeyama Islands.
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    ..Three different attractants, dry ice (5 kg/site/night), human, and cow bait were used to collect a large number and a wide variety of adult mosquitoes...