Summary: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.

Top Publications

  1. Opsommer E, Weiss T, Miltner W, Plaghki L. Scalp topography of ultralate (C-fibres) evoked potentials following thulium YAG laser stimuli to tiny skin surface areas in humans. Clin Neurophysiol. 2001;112:1868-74 pubmed
    ..of ultralate laser evoked potentials (LEPs) related to C-fibre activation, which can directly be obtained by thulium YAG (Tm YAG) laser stimulation of tiny skin surface areas (about 0...
  2. Zhang F, Shao Q, Herrmann T, Tian Y, Zhang Y. Thulium laser versus holmium laser transurethral enucleation of the prostate: 18-month follow-up data of a single center. Urology. 2012;79:869-74 pubmed publisher
    To compare the clinical outcomes between thulium laser transurethral enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP) (70 W) and holmium laser transurethral enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) (90 W) in a prospective randomized trial with 18 months ..
  3. Xia S, Zhuo J, Sun X, Han B, Shao Y, Zhang Y. Thulium laser versus standard transurethral resection of the prostate: a randomized prospective trial. Eur Urol. 2008;53:382-89 pubmed
    b>Thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT) is a transurethral procedure that uses thulium laser fiber to dissect whole prostatic lobes off the surgical capsule, similar to peeling a tangerine...
  4. Krishnamurthy D, Weinberg V, Cunha J, Hsu I, Pouliot J. Comparison of high-dose rate prostate brachytherapy dose distributions with iridium-192, ytterbium-169, and thulium-170 sources. Brachytherapy. 2011;10:461-5 pubmed publisher
    ..available radionuclides, the dose characteristics and shielding properties of ytterbium-169 ((169)Yb) and thulium-170 ((170)Tm) may suit high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy needs...
  5. Bach T, Huck N, Wezel F, Häcker A, Gross A, Michel M. 70 vs 120 W thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet 2 microm continuous-wave laser for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic ex-vivo evaluation. BJU Int. 2010;106:368-72 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the ablative and haemostatic properties of the recently introduced 120-W thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Tm-YAG) laser and to assess these results against those of the previously introduced 70-W Tm-YAG laser.
  6. Bach T, Herrmann T, Haecker A, Michel M, Gross A. Thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser prostatectomy in men with refractory urinary retention. BJU Int. 2009;104:361-4 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser prostatectomy in patients with an indwelling transurethral catheter due to recurrent urinary retention secondary to benign prostatic obstruction.
  7. Wang F, Liu X. Upconversion multicolor fine-tuning: visible to near-infrared emission from lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:5642-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach allows access to a wide range of luminescence emission from visible to near-infrared by single-wavelength excitation...
  8. Liebi M, Kohlbrecher J, Ishikawa T, Fischer P, Walde P, Windhab E. Cholesterol increases the magnetic aligning of bicellar disks from an aqueous mixture of DMPC and DMPE-DTPA with complexed thulium ions. Langmuir. 2012;28:10905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA) with complexed thulium ions (Tm(3+)), and cholesterol with varying molar ratio were studied at different temperatures in the presence ..
  9. Yang Y, Sun Y, Cao T, Peng J, Liu Y, Wu Y, et al. Hydrothermal synthesis of NaLuF4:153Sm,Yb,Tm nanoparticles and their application in dual-modality upconversion luminescence and SPECT bioimaging. Biomaterials. 2013;34:774-83 pubmed publisher
    ..It also introduces an easy methodology to quantify in vivo biodistribution of nanomaterials which still needs further understanding as a community...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Van Abel K, Moore E, Carlson M, Davidson J, Garcia J, Olsen S, et al. Transoral robotic surgery using the thulium:YAG laser: a prospective study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;138:158-66 pubmed publisher
    To compare thulium:YAG laser-assisted transoral robotic surgery (TY:TORS) and conventional electrocautery-equipped TORS (EC:TORS) in patients undergoing transoral resection of upper aerodigestive tract malignant neoplasms.
  2. Bach T, Wendt Nordahl G, Michel M, Herrmann T, Gross A. Feasibility and efficacy of Thulium:YAG laser enucleation (VapoEnucleation) of the prostate. World J Urol. 2009;27:541-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Thulium:YAG (Tm:YAG) vaporesection has been introduced and efficiency was shown on smaller prostates. Criticism mainly referred to prolonged operation time in larger prostates, which appears to be a potential limitation compared to HoLEP...
  3. Bach T, Herrmann T, Ganzer R, Blana A, Burchardt M, Gross A. [Thulium:YAG vaporesection of the prostate. First results]. Urologe A. 2009;48:529-34 pubmed publisher
    Laser treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia has been introduced. The thulium:YAG (Tm:YAG) laser combines the advantages of established laser systems...
  4. Nyk M, Kumar R, Ohulchanskyy T, Bergey E, Prasad P. High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors. Nano Lett. 2008;8:3834-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No apparent cytotoxicity was observed. Subsequent animal imaging studies were performed using Balb-c mice injected intravenously with up-converting nanophosphors, demonstrating the high contrast PL imaging in vivo...
  5. Wendt Nordahl G, Huckele S, Honeck P, Alken P, Knoll T, Michel M, et al. Systematic evaluation of a recently introduced 2-microm continuous-wave thulium laser for vaporesection of the prostate. J Endourol. 2008;22:1041-5 pubmed publisher
    A novel 2-microm continuous wave (CW) thulium laser device for interventional treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia was recently introduced into clinical practice and is postulated to have several advantages over more established ..
  6. Fried N, Lagoda G, Scott N, Su L, Burnett A. Noncontact stimulation of the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using a tunable-wavelength thulium fiber laser. J Endourol. 2008;22:409-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This study explored laser stimulation of the rat cavernous nerves as a potential alternative to electrical nerve mapping during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy...
  7. Bui M, Breda A, Gui D, Said J, Schulam P. Less smoke and minimal tissue carbonization using a thulium laser for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping in a porcine model. J Endourol. 2007;21:1107-11 pubmed
    We evaluated the utility of a thulium laser and a novel implementation of its use for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy to achieve precise, smokeless, and hemostatic dissection without hilar clamping and with minimal charring in a porcine ..
  8. Vanhaudenhuyse A, Boly M, Balteau E, Schnakers C, Moonen G, Luxen A, et al. Pain and non-pain processing during hypnosis: a thulium-YAG event-related fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2009;47:1047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a parametric single-trial thulium-YAG laser fMRI paradigm, we assessed changes in brain activation and connectivity related to the hypnotic state ..
  9. Bach T, Netsch C, Haecker A, Michel M, Herrmann T, Gross A. Thulium:YAG laser enucleation (VapoEnucleation) of the prostate: safety and durability during intermediate-term follow-up. World J Urol. 2010;28:39-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Thulium:YAG (Tm:YAG) VapoEnucleation has been introduced and relief of obstruction was demonstrated. The aim of this study was to proof durability of the outcomes in patients with an postoperative follow-up >12 month.
  10. Herrmann T, Bach T, Imkamp F, Georgiou A, Burchardt M, Oelke M, et al. Thulium laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP): transurethral anatomical prostatectomy with laser support. Introduction of a novel technique for the treatment of benign prostatic obstruction. World J Urol. 2010;28:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..present a novel technique of complete transurethral removal of the transition zone (enucleation) with the support of the Thulium laser to combine complete anatomical enucleation and maximum urodynamic efficacy with minimal side-effects.
  11. Tsai T, Fang Y, Hung S. Passively Q-switched erbium all-fiber lasers by use of thulium-doped saturable-absorber fibers. Opt Express. 2010;18:10049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..44 x 10(-20) cm(2). With a thulium-doped fiber, sequential pulses with a pulse energy of 9 microJ and a pulse duration of about 420 ns were stably ..
  12. Daniel J, Chan J, Kim J, Sahu J, Ibsen M, Clarkson W. Novel technique for mode selection in a multimode fiber laser. Opt Express. 2011;19:12434-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach has been applied to a cladding-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser with a multimode core to achieve a single-spatial-mode output beam with a beam propagation ..
  13. Netsch C, Pohlmann L, Herrmann T, Gross A, Bach T. 120-W 2-µm thulium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet vapoenucleation of the prostate: 12-month follow-up. BJU Int. 2012;110:96-101 pubmed publisher
    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Thulium VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) has been introduced as a minimally invasive treatment modality of benign ..
  14. Hermanne A, Rebeles R, Tarkanyi F, Takacs S, Spahn I, Ignatyuk A. High yield production of the medical radioisotope 167Tm by the 167Er(d,2n) reaction. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:475-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thick target yields and contamination levels are discussed. A comparison with other charged particle production routes for (167)Tm shows that deuteron induced reactions are not competitive...
  15. Blokker R, Lock T, de Boorder T. Comparing thulium laser and Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of genital and urethral condylomata acuminata in male patients. Lasers Surg Med. 2013;45:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To date therapies for condylomata acuminata of the male genital are known for high recurrence rates and bothersome side effects, while urethral warts are not always reachable by most traditional therapies...
  16. Tarkanyi F, Hermanne A, Takacs S, Ditroi F, Spahn I, Ignatyuk A. Activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on thulium in the 20-45 MeV energy range. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of the new cross-sections to the production of the (167)Tm medical radioisotope is discussed...
  17. Guo F, Lu H, Wang G, Tan S, He X, Wang J. [Efficacy of transurethral 2 microm laser urethrotomy in the treatment of urethral stricture and atresia]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;88:1270-2 pubmed
    To evaluate the curative efficacy of transurethral 2 microm thulium laser urethrotomy in the treatment of urethral stricture and atresia.
  18. Dray X, Donatelli G, Krishnamurty D, Dubcenco E, Wroblewski R, Assumpcao L, et al. A 2-microm continuous-wave laser system for safe and high-precision dissection during NOTES procedures. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:2463-70 pubmed
    ..Lasers 2-microm in wavelength offer efficient tissue cutting with limited thermal damage in biological tissue...
  19. Jetschke S, Unger S, Schwuchow A, Leich M, Fiebrandt J, Jäger M, et al. Evidence of Tm impact in low-photodarkening Yb-doped fibers. Opt Express. 2013;21:7590-8 pubmed publisher
  20. Tang K, Xu Z, Xia D, Ma X, Guo X, Guan W, et al. Early outcomes of thulium laser versus transurethral resection of the prostate for managing benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies. J Endourol. 2014;28:65-72 pubmed publisher
    To assess the efficacy and safety of thulium laser resection of the prostate (TmLRP) vs transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for treating patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
  21. Weiss E, Brauer J, Anolik R, Reddy K, Karen J, Hale E, et al. 1927-nm fractional resurfacing of facial actinic keratoses: a promising new therapeutic option. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013;68:98-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Actinic keratoses (AK) are precancerous epidermal proliferations commonly present on chronically sun-damaged skin. These lesions are among the most often treated dermatologic conditions...
  22. Bilici T, Tabakoglu H, Topaloglu N, Kalaycioglu H, Kurt A, Sennaroglu A, et al. Modulated and continuous-wave operations of low-power thulium (Tm:YAP) laser in tissue welding. J Biomed Opt. 2010;15:038001 pubmed publisher
    Our aim is to explore the welding capabilities of a thulium (Tm:YAP) laser in modulated and continuous-wave (CW) modes of operation...
  23. Ozen G, Demirata B, Oveçoğlu M, Genc A. Thermal and optical properties of Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2001;57:273-80 pubmed
    ..Judd-Ofelt theory was used to determine the Judd-Ofelt parameters as well as the radiative transition probabilities for the metastable levels of Tm3+ ions in (0.3)LiCl + (0.7) TeO2: 0.01 Tm2O3 glass which is moisture-resistant...
  24. Vasalatiy O, Gerard R, Zhao P, Sun X, Sherry A. Labeling of adenovirus particles with PARACEST agents. Bioconjug Chem. 2008;19:598-606 pubmed publisher
    ..A 12% decrease in bulk water signal intensity was observed relative to controls. This demonstrates that viral particles labeled with PARACEST-type imaging agents can potentially serve as targeted agents for molecular imaging...
  25. Jeong S, Won N, Lee J, Bang J, Yoo J, Kim S, et al. Multiplexed near-infrared in vivo imaging complementarily using quantum dots and upconverting NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ nanoparticles. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011;47:8022-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The 'temporal' multiplexing is demonstrated by alternating the excitation wavelengths and unmixing the emissions of different probes. Multiplexed cellular imaging and the cellular trafficking in animal models are shown...
  26. Zhou J, Yang Z, Dong W, Tang R, Sun L, Yan C. Bioimaging and toxicity assessments of near-infrared upconversion luminescent NaYF4:Yb,Tm nanocrystals. Biomaterials. 2011;32:9059-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro and in vivo studies confirm that NaYF(4):Yb,Tm NCs could be served as an excellent NIR emission bioprobe with low toxicity...
  27. Netsch C, Bach T, Herrmann T, Gross A. Thulium:YAG VapoEnucleation of the prostate in large glands: a prospective comparison using 70- and 120-W 2-µm lasers. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:325-9 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the efficacy of 70- and 120-w 2-µm thulium:YAG VapoEnucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) for patients with benign prostatic obstruction (BPO)...
  28. Chen G, Zhang Q, Yang G, Jiang Z. Mid-infrared emission characteristic and energy transfer of Ho3+-doped tellurite glass sensitized by Tm 3+. J Fluoresc. 2007;17:301-7 pubmed
    ..12 x 10(-27) m(2)s) of the Ho3+/Tm3+-codoped tellurite glasses might find potential applications in efficient 2.0-microm laser...
  29. Sun Y, Peng J, Feng W, Li F. Upconversion nanophosphors Naluf?:Yb,Tm for lymphatic imaging in vivo by real-time upconversion luminescence imaging under ambient light and high-resolution X-ray CT. Theranostics. 2013;3:346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, due to the existance of heavy element lutetium (Lu) in the host lattice, the NaLuF?:Yb,Tm nanoparticles can also be used as an X-ray CT imaging agent to enhance the imaging depth and in vivo imaging resolution...
  30. Ayari Khalfallah S, Fuchsmann C, Froehlich P. Thulium laser in airway diseases in children. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;16:55-9 pubmed publisher
    To specify the characteristics of the thulium laser and to evaluate the advantages and possibilities of treatment with this laser in laryngotracheal diseases in children.
  31. Aydin F, Soylak M. Thulium hydroxide: a new coprecipitant for speciation of chromium in natural water samples. J Hazard Mater. 2009;162:1228-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure is based on the coprecipitation of Cr(III) on thulium hydroxide precipitate...
  32. Droghetti A, Vannucci J, Bufalari A, Bellezza G, De Monte V, Marulli G, et al. Pleurodesis with Thulium Cyber Laser versus talc poudrage: a comparative experimental study. Lasers Med Sci. 2016;31:1407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Thulium Cyber Laser was experimented for this purpose and compared to talc poudrage...
  33. Qu X, Li Y, Yu S, Yang L. Controlled growth, intense upconversion emissions and concentration induced luminescence switching of bifunctional Tm(3+) doped hexagonal NaYb0.55Gd0.45F4 nanorods. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2013;115:511-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that bifunctional hexagonal NaYb1-xGdxF4 nanocrystals have potential applications in miniaturized solid-state light sources, optical processing sensors and fluorescent biolabels. ..
  34. Lee H, Haw S, Kim J, Chang S, Lee M. Split-face study using a 1,927-nm thulium fiber fractional laser to treat photoaging and melasma in Asian skin. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39:879-88 pubmed publisher
    Although the 1,927-nm thulium fiber fractional laser is effective and safe for treating photoaging, clinical data regarding this modality remain limited.
  35. Rasier R, Ozeren M, Artunay O, Bahcecioglu H, Seckin I, Kalaycoğlu H, et al. Corneal tissue welding with infrared laser irradiation after clear corneal incision. Cornea. 2010;29:985-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of infrared lasers for corneal welding to seal corneal cuts done in an experimental animal model...
  36. Zhang Q, Song K, Zhao J, Kong X, Sun Y, Liu X, et al. Hexanedioic acid mediated surface-ligand-exchange process for transferring NaYF4:Yb/Er (or Yb/Tm) up-converting nanoparticles from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;336:171-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific molecular recognition capacity of avidin-modified hydrophilic UCNPs confirms that hydrophilic UCNPs are suitable for potential biological labeling...
  37. Coman D, Trubel H, Rycyna R, Hyder F. Brain temperature and pH measured by (1)H chemical shift imaging of a thulium agent. NMR Biomed. 2009;22:229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..At 11.7 T, we demonstrate that a thulium-based macrocyclic complex infused through the bloodstream can be used to obtain temperature and pH maps of rat ..
  38. Sciarra A, Von Heland M, Minisola F, Salciccia S, Cattarino S, Gentile V. Thulium laser supported nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2013;190:698-701 pubmed publisher
    We analyze the feasibility, advantages and results of the use of a thulium laser in nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma.
  39. Li A, Suchy M, Li C, Gati J, Meakin S, Hudson R, et al. In vivo detection of MRI-PARACEST agents in mouse brain tumors at 9.4 T. Magn Reson Med. 2011;66:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This result is the first in vivo observation of OPARACHEE contrast in brain tumors with correction of T(1) and T(2) relaxation effects...
  40. Scanagatta P, Pelosi G, Leo F, Furia S, Duranti L, Fabbri A, et al. Pulmonary resections: cytostructural effects of different-wavelength lasers versus electrocautery. Tumori. 2012;98:90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the parenchymal damage caused by different surgical instruments: a new generation electrosurgical scalpel and two different-wavelength lasers...
  41. Luo G, Sun Z, Xia S. [Influences of erectile functions in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients by two micro (thulium) laser resection of prostate-tangerine technique]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;91:2243-6 pubmed
    To observe the influences of erectile dysfunction (ED) by age, prostate size and lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) undergoing two micro (thulium) laser resection of prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT).
  42. Modsching N, Kadwani P, Sims R, Leick L, Broeng J, Shah L, et al. Lasing in thulium-doped polarizing photonic crystal fiber. Opt Lett. 2011;36:3873-5 pubmed publisher
    We describe lasing of a thulium-doped polarizing photonic crystal fiber. A 4 m long fiber with 50 ?m diameter core, 250 ?m diameter cladding, and d/? ratio of 0...
  43. Bilici T, Tabakoglu O, Kalaycioglu H, Kurt A, Sennaroglu A, Gulsoy M. Fluence of thulium laser system in skin ablation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:3218-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous-wave mode of operation provided higher thermal effects on the skin samples. Lower fluence levels were found for efficient ablation effect...
  44. Wang G, Dai S, Zhang J, Wen L, Yang J, Jiang Z. Intense upconversion luminescence and effect of local environment for Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped novel TeO2-BiCl3 glass system. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2006;64:349-54 pubmed
  45. Ma J, Xie G, Gao W, Yuan P, Qian L, Yu H, et al. Diode-pumped mode-locked femtosecond Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser. Opt Lett. 2012;37:1376-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The disordered crystal laser generated mode-locked pulses as short as 479 fs, with an average output power of 288 mW, and repetition rate of 99 MHz in 2 ?m spectral region...
  46. Shah L, Sims R, Kadwani P, Willis C, Bradford J, Pung A, et al. Integrated Tm:fiber MOPA with polarized output and narrow linewidth with 100 W average power. Opt Express. 2012;20:20558-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The laser components ultimately determine the system architecture and the limits of laser performance, particularly considering the immature and rapidly developing state of fiber components in the 2 ?m wavelength regime...
  47. Defidio L, De Dominicis M, Di Gianfrancesco L, Fuchs G, Patel A. First collaborative experience with thulium laser ablation of localized upper urinary tract urothelial tumors using retrograde intra-renal surgery. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2011;83:147-53 pubmed
    b>Thulium laser ablation (TLA) outcomes with blinded performance evaluation after retrograde intra-renal surgical (RIRS) treatment of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas (UUT-TCC).
  48. Enger S, D Amours M, Beaulieu L. Modeling a hypothetical 170Tm source for brachytherapy applications. Med Phys. 2011;38:5307-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To perform absorbed dose calculations based on Monte Carlo simulations for a hypothetical (170)Tm source and to investigate the influence of encapsulating material on the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons and photons...
  49. Devaraju M, Yin S, Sato T. A rapid hydrothermal synthesis of rare earth oxide activated Y (OH)3 and Y2O3 nanotubes. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:305302 pubmed publisher
    ..The luminescent property of rare earth doped Y(2)O(3) nanotubes was also explored and compared with reference samples prepared via a conventional co-precipitation method...
  50. Trübel H, Maciejewski P, Farber J, Hyder F. Brain temperature measured by 1H-NMR in conjunction with a lanthanide complex. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003;94:1641-9 pubmed
    ..Here we report the use of a thulium-based thermometric sensor, infused through the blood, for monitoring absolute temperature in rat brain in vivo by ..
  51. Zanatta A, Scoca D, Alvarez F. A suitable (wide-range + linear) temperature sensor based on Tm3+ ions. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14113 pubmed publisher
    ..form the basis of the present work, in which we propose a new T-sensor involving the light emission of trivalent thulium ions (Tm3+) embedded into crystalline TiO2...
  52. Blackmon R, Irby P, Fried N. Enhanced thulium fiber laser lithotripsy using micro-pulse train modulation. J Biomed Opt. 2012;17:028002 pubmed publisher
    The thulium fiber laser (TFL) is currently being studied as an alternative to the conventional holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser for lithotripsy. The diode-pumped TFL may be electronically modulated to operate with variable parameters (e.g...
  53. Ho S, Yeung C, Chan N, Shek S, Chan H. A retrospective study of the management of Chinese melasma patients using a 1927 nm fractional thulium fiber laser. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2013;15:200-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A new fractional photothermolysis device is used in our retrospective study to treat melasma in Chinese patients...