Summary: The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.

Top Publications

  1. Jung K, Jung J, Im W, Yoon S, Shin K, Lee J. Doped lanthanum nickelates with a layered perovskite structure as bifunctional cathode catalysts for rechargeable metal-air batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013;5:9902-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report doped lanthanum nickelates (La2NiO4) with a layered perovskite structure that serve as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts ..
  2. Guo F, Guo X, Xie A, Lou Y, Wang Y. The suppressive effects of lanthanum on the production of inflammatory mediators in mice challenged by LPS. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;142:693-703 pubmed publisher
    Lanthanide ions have been proven to have various biologic effects. Lanthanum with extremely active physical and chemical property was evidenced to possess antibacterial and immune adjustment effects...
  3. Pierce D, Hossack S, Poole L, Robinson A, Van Heusen H, Martin P, et al. The effect of sevelamer carbonate and lanthanum carbonate on the pharmacokinetics of oral calcitriol. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:1615-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate and sevelamer carbonate are non-calcium-based phosphate binders used to manage hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with CKD may require intravenous or oral active vitamin D...
  4. Wang L, Zhou Q, Lu T, Ding X, Huang X. Molecular and cellular mechanism of the effect of La(III) on horseradish peroxidase. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2010;15:1063-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It contains horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lots of nutrients, and has specific pungency. Lanthanum is one of the heavy metals in the environment. It can transfer through the food chain to humans...
  5. Hussain A, Lahiri D, Ameerunisha Begum M, Saha S, Majumdar R, Dighe R, et al. Photocytotoxic lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) complexes of phenanthroline bases showing light-induced DNA cleavage activity. Inorg Chem. 2010;49:4036-45 pubmed publisher
    ..6 microM in dark with 24 h incubation). A significant decrease in the dark toxicity of the dppz base is observed on binding to the lanthanide ions while retaining similar phototoxicity...
  6. Filiopoulos V, Koutis I, Trompouki S, Hadjiyannakos D, Lazarou D, Vlassopoulos D. Lanthanum carbonate versus sevelamer hydrochloride: improvement of metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients. Ther Apher Dial. 2011;15:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to evaluate acid-base status and serum potassium changes after replacing SH with lanthanum carbonate (LC) in hemodialysis patients...
  7. Zhang H, He X, Bai W, Guo X, Zhang Z, Chai Z, et al. Ecotoxicological assessment of lanthanum with Caenorhabditis elegans in liquid medium. Metallomics. 2010;2:806-10 pubmed
    ..organism and life-cycle endpoints were chosen along with elemental assay to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of lanthanum (La), a representative of REEs...
  8. Nikolov I, Joki N, Nguyen Khoa T, Guerrera I, Maizel J, Benchitrit J, et al. Lanthanum carbonate, like sevelamer-HCl, retards the progression of vascular calcification and atherosclerosis in uremic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the effect of phosphate binder lanthanum (La) carbonate with sevelamer-HCl on atherosclerosis, VC and bone structure and function in mice with chronic ..
  9. Shigematsu T, Negi S. Combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate and calcium carbonate for hyperphosphatemia decreases serum FGF-23 level independently of calcium and PTH (COLC Study). Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:1050-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of combined therapy with lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a new phosphate binder and calcium carbonate (CaC) on serum levels of phosphate and FGF-23.

More Information


  1. Brunner Ziegler S, Fröschl B, Hiebinger C, Zsifkovits J. Effectiveness and cost-efficacy of phosphate binders in hemodialysis. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011;58:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the traditional therapies with calcium and aluminium salts, sevelamer and lanthanum represent recent developments on the market...
  2. Pierce D, Hossack S, Robinson A, Zhang P, Martin P. Assessment of pharmacodynamic equivalence and tolerability of lanthanum carbonate oral powder and tablet formulations: a single-center, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study in healthy subjects. Clin Ther. 2012;34:1290-1300.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is a phosphate binder currently available as a chewable tablet...
  3. Yajima A, Inaba M, Tominaga Y, Tanaka M, Otsubo S, Nitta K, et al. Impact of lanthanum carbonate on cortical bone in dialysis patients with adynamic bone disease. Ther Apher Dial. 2013;17 Suppl 1:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We treated hyperphosphatemia in two hemodialysis patients with adynamic bone disease with 750-1500?mg/day of lanthanum carbonate, which is a non-calcium containing phosphate binder; the treatment resulted in a decrease of the serum ..
  4. Ciceri P, Elli F, Brenna I, Volpi E, Romagnoli S, Tosi D, et al. Lanthanum prevents high phosphate-induced vascular calcification by preserving vascular smooth muscle lineage markers. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;92:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this work was to study the mechanism of action of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on the progression of Pi-induced VC through its direct effect on vascular smooth muscle cells (..
  5. Cozzolino M, Bruschetta E, Cusi D, Montanari E, Giovenzana M, Galassi A. Phosphate handling in CKD-MBD from stage 3 to dialysis and the three strengths of lanthanum carbonate. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012;13:2337-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphate load is thereafter involved in the progression of vascular calcification (VC) and bone disorder typical of CKD-MBD...
  6. Damment S. Pharmacology of the phosphate binder, lanthanum carbonate. Ren Fail. 2011;33:217-24 pubmed publisher
    Studies were conducted to compare the phosphate-binding efficacy of lanthanum carbonate directly with other clinically used phosphate binders and to evaluate any potential adverse pharmacology...
  7. Fürstenberg A, Buscombe J, Davenport A. Overestimation of lumbar spine calcium with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning due to the prescription of lanthanum carbonate in patients with chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32:425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lanthanum carbonate is prescribed to chronic kidney disease patients as a non-calcium-containing phosphate binder, and as ..
  8. Damment S, Secker R, Shen V, Lorenzo V, Rodriguez M. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduces mineral and bone abnormalities in rats with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:1803-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate (FOSRENOL(®), Shire Pharmaceuticals) is an effective non-calcium, non-resin phosphate binder for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
  9. Spears B, Lürling M, Yasseri S, Castro Castellon A, Gibbs M, Meis S, et al. Lake responses following lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock®) application: an analysis of water column lanthanum data from 16 case study lakes. Water Res. 2013;47:5930-42 pubmed publisher
    Phoslock(®) is a lanthanum (La) modified bentonite clay that is being increasingly used as a geo-engineering tool for the control of legacy phosphorus (P) release from lake bed sediments to overlying waters...
  10. Liu S, Lu D, Miao L, Xiong Q, Chen X, Wang Y, et al. [Effects of lanthanum chloride on proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2010;45:609-13 pubmed
    To investigate the effects of lanthanum chloride on proliferation and migration activity of human cervical cancer cells in vitro which may be a new anti-cervical cancer drug and provide experimental data for cervical cancer treatment.
  11. Hibi Y, Asai K, Arafuka H, Hamajima M, Iwama T, Kawai K. Molecular structure of La3+-induced methanol dehydrogenase-like protein in Methylobacterium radiotolerans. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111:547-9 pubmed publisher
    ..N-terminal amino acid sequences of these proteins revealed that La(3+)- and Ca(2+)-MDH-like proteins were encoded by xoxF and mxaFI, respectively...
  12. Hao S, Yu F, Yan A, Zhang Y, Han J, Jiang X. In utero and lactational lanthanum exposure induces olfactory dysfunction associated with downregulation of ?III-tubulin and olfactory marker protein in young rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;148:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) and olfactory dysfunction in offspring caused by prenatal and postnatal lanthanum exposure. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0...
  13. Martin P, Wang P, Robinson A, Poole L, Dragone J, Smyth M, et al. Comparison of dietary phosphate absorption after single doses of lanthanum carbonate and sevelamer carbonate in healthy volunteers: a balance study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;57:700-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate and sevelamer carbonate are noncalcium phosphate binders used to treat hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease...
  14. Shigematsu T, Tokumoto A, Nakaoka A, Arisaka H. Effect of lanthanum carbonate treatment on bone in Japanese dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia. Ther Apher Dial. 2011;15:176-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate (LC), a newly developed non-calcium-containing phosphate binder, has been shown to possess high phosphate-binding capacity and safety when used for hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing ..
  15. Yamada S, Yoshida H, Taniguchi M, Tanaka S, Eriguchi M, Nakano T, et al. Effectiveness of lanthanum carbonate treatment used in combination with other phosphate binders in peritoneal dialysis patients. Intern Med. 2012;51:2097-104 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the long-term efficacy and side effects of lanthanum carbonate (LaC) used in combination with other phosphate binders in PD patients.
  16. Toida T, Fukudome K, Fujimoto S, Yamada K, Sato Y, Chiyotanda S, et al. Effect of lanthanum carbonate vs. calcium carbonate on serum calcium in hemodialysis patients: a crossover study. Clin Nephrol. 2012;78:216-23 pubmed
    b>Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is a non-calcium-containing phosphate binder and shows a comparable effect with other phosphate binders on hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients...
  17. Kasai S, Sato K, Murata Y, Kinoshita Y. Randomized crossover study of the efficacy and safety of sevelamer hydrochloride and lanthanum carbonate in Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis. Ther Apher Dial. 2012;16:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..arterial calcification, newly developed calcium-free phosphate binders, such as sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) and lanthanum carbonate (LC), have received much attention...
  18. González Morán C, Flores Cuautle J, Suaste Gómez E. A piezoelectric plethysmograph sensor based on a Pt wire implanted lead lanthanum zirconate titanate bulk ceramic. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:7146-56 pubmed publisher
    This work reports on the development of a Lead Lanthanum Zirconate Titanate (PLZT) bulk ferroelectric poled ceramic structure as a Piezoelectric Plethysmograph (PZPG) sensor...
  19. Chan W, Rounsley K, Chapman E, Collings K, Dale C, De Waal S, et al. Lanthanum carbonate is an effective hypophosphatemic agent for hemodialysis patients intolerant of other phosphate binders. J Ren Nutr. 2010;20:270-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is a noncalcium-containing phosphate binder of proven utility in treating hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients, and displays a good tolerability profile.
  20. Noto L. Lanthanum carbonate provides control of phosphorus levels in patients new to phosphate binder therapy and patients changed from other phosphate binders. J Ren Nutr. 2011;21:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..clinical setting with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5, and who were either new to phosphate binder treatment or were previously treated with other phosphate binders, received benefit from treatment with lanthanum carbonate (LC).
  21. Robijn S, Vervaet B, Hoppe B, D Haese P, Verhulst A. Lanthanum carbonate inhibits intestinal oxalate absorption and prevents nephrocalcinosis after oxalate loading in rats. J Urol. 2013;189:1960-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lanthanum carbonate is an intestinal phosphate binder that is orally administered to patients on dialysis to treat ..
  22. Lee Y, Choi H, Shin S, Lee H. Effect of lanthanum carbonate on phosphate control in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients in Korea: a randomized prospective study. Clin Nephrol. 2013;79:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperphosphatemia is a common complication in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Reducing the serum phosphate level is crucial in management of ESRD...
  23. Vemuri N, Michelis M, Matalon A. Conversion to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy effectively controls serum phosphorus with a reduced tablet burden: a multicenter open-label study. BMC Nephrol. 2011;12:49 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate (FOSRENOL®) is an effective, well-tolerated phosphate binder. The ability of lanthanum to reduce serum phosphorus levels to ?5...
  24. Cai Z, Kuru Y, Han J, Chen Y, Yildiz B. Surface electronic structure transitions at high temperature on perovskite oxides: the case of strained La0.8Sr0.2CoO3 thin films. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:17696-704 pubmed publisher
  25. Toussaint N, Lau K, Polkinghorne K, Kerr P. Attenuation of aortic calcification with lanthanum carbonate versus calcium-based phosphate binders in haemodialysis: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011;16:290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Few controlled studies have addressed interventions to reduce VC but non-calcium-based phosphate binders may be beneficial. No published randomized study to date has assessed the effect of lanthanum carbonate (LC) on VC progression.
  26. Guo F, Lou Y, Feng N, Li G, Xie A, Huang X, et al. Exposure to lanthanum compound diminishes LPS-induced inflammation-associated gene expression: involvements of PKC and NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Biometals. 2010;23:669-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum chloride, a rare earth compound, possesses antibacterial and cellular immunity regulating properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown...
  27. Arenas M, Rebollo P, Malek T, Moledous A, Gil M, Alvarez Ude F, et al. A comparative study of 2 new phosphate binders (sevelamer and lanthanum carbonate) in routine clinical practice. J Nephrol. 2010;23:683-92 pubmed
    Lack of adherence may influence the efficiency of phosphate binders. Our clinical hypothesis was that if lanthanum carbonate (LC) might offer some advantage over sevelamer (S), that that would be in those patients in whom serum phosphate ..
  28. Hu Y, Zhan N, Dou C, Huang H, Han Y, Yu D, et al. Selective dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene catalyzed by lanthanum-phosphorous-modified HZSM-5: influence of the fusel. Biotechnol J. 2010;5:1186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could weaken the negative influence of fusel on the formation of ethylene...
  29. Hayashi H, Machida M, Sekine T, Yamaguchi H, Kiriyama T, Kumita S. Beam-hardening artifacts on computed tomography images caused by lanthanum carbonate hydrate in a patient on dialysis. Jpn J Radiol. 2010;28:322-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate hydrate is a nonaluminum, noncalcium phosphate binder containing lanthanum (La). It is effective in decreasing the serum phosphate level in patients on dialysis...
  30. Xu J, Zhang Y, Yu X, Liu Z, Wang L, Chen J, et al. Lanthanum carbonate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in CKD 5D: multicenter, double blind, randomized, controlled trial in mainland China. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum phosphorus control is critical for chronic kidney disease (CKD) 5D patients. Currently, clinical profile for an oral phosphorus binder in the mainland Chinese population is not available...
  31. Shigematsu T. Three-year extension study of lanthanum carbonate therapy in Japanese hemodialysis patients. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2010;14:589-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate is a non-aluminum, non-calcium phosphate binder. Its efficacy and its safety profile up to 1 year have been reported in Japanese hemodialysis patients.
  32. Pennick M, Poole L, Dennis K, Smyth M. Lanthanum carbonate reduces urine phosphorus excretion: evidence of high-capacity phosphate binding. Ren Fail. 2012;34:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Following a screening period of ?28 days, participants received differing tablets containing lanthanum carbonate [LC, 3000 mg/day of elemental lanthanum (in one study other doses were also used)]...
  33. Böhlandt A, Schierl R, Diemer J, Koch C, Bolte G, Kiranoglu M, et al. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke. Sci Total Environ. 2012;414:738-41 pubmed publisher
    ..and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce...
  34. Goto S, Komaba H, Moriwaki K, Fujimori A, Shibuya K, Nishioka M, et al. Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of lanthanum carbonate as second-line therapy in hemodialysis patients in Japan. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:1375-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is a nonaluminum, noncalcium phosphate binder that is effective for hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients. However, its efficacy and cost-effectiveness as second-line therapy have not been fully examined.
  35. González Parra E, González Casaus M, Galan A, Martinez Calero A, Navas V, Rodriguez M, et al. Lanthanum carbonate reduces FGF23 in chronic kidney disease Stage 3 patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:2567-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we have evaluated the changes in plasma FGF23 after treatment with the phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate in patients with CKD-3 and a normal serum phosphate concentration.
  36. Heffeter P, Jakupec M, Korner W, Chiba P, Pirker C, Dornetshuber R, et al. Multidrug-resistant cancer cells are preferential targets of the new antineoplastic lanthanum compound KP772 (FFC24). Biochem Pharmacol. 2007;73:1873-86 pubmed
    Recently, we have introduced [tris(1,10-phenanthroline)lanthanum(III)] trithiocyanate (KP772, FFC24) as a new lanthanum compound which has promising anticancer properties in vivo and in vitro...
  37. Liu P, Liu Y, Lu Z, Zhu J, Dong J, Pang D, et al. Study on biological effect of La3+ on Escherichia coli by atomic force microscopy. J Inorg Biochem. 2004;98:68-72 pubmed
    ..Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which forms the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, could not serve as the cellular envelope steadily after Ca2+ and Mg2+ released from their binding sites on the LPS patches...
  38. Campbell A, Naseem R, Holland I, Matthews S, Wann K. Methylglyoxal and other carbohydrate metabolites induce lanthanum-sensitive Ca2+ transients and inhibit growth in E. coli. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;468:107-13 pubmed
    ..They have important implications in bacterial-host cell signalling, and where numbers of different bacteria compete for the same substrates, e.g., the gut in lactose and food intolerance...
  39. Bervoets A, Oste L, Behets G, Dams G, Blust R, Marynissen R, et al. Development and reversibility of impaired mineralization associated with lanthanum carbonate treatment in chronic renal failure rats. Bone. 2006;38:803-10 pubmed
    We have previously shown that administration of the new phosphate binder lanthanum (La) carbonate at high doses during 12 weeks induces a mineralization defect (MD) in chronic renal failure (CRF) rats most likely due to the powerful ..
  40. Southwick F, Li W, Zhang F, Zeile W, Purich D. Actin-based endosome and phagosome rocketing in macrophages: activation by the secretagogue antagonists lanthanum and zinc. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2003;54:41-55 pubmed
    ..We now demonstrate that bone marrow macrophages treated with lanthanum and zinc ions, well-known secretagogue antagonists, reliably exhibit vesicle motility...
  41. Hutchison A, Maes B, Vanwalleghem J, Asmus G, Mohamed E, Schmieder R, et al. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of lanthanum carbonate in hyperphosphatemia: a 6-month, randomized, comparative trial versus calcium carbonate. Nephron Clin Pract. 2005;100:c8-19 pubmed
    ..Existing oral phosphate binders have not permitted control of serum phosphate within currently accepted guidelines. This study compares lanthanum carbonate with calcium carbonate for control of serum phosphate in hemodialysis patients.
  42. Chiang S, Chen J, Yang W. Lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol) efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of hyperphosphatemic patients with end-stage renal disease. Clin Nephrol. 2005;63:461-70 pubmed
    High serum phosphorus levels are a common problem in patients receiving long-term dialysis treatment. Lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol) is a new non-aluminum, non-calcium phosphate binder developed for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in ..
  43. Finn W, Joy M. A long-term, open-label extension study on the safety of treatment with lanthanum carbonate, a new phosphate binder, in patients receiving hemodialysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2005;21:657-64 pubmed
    b>Lanthanum carbonate, a new phosphate binder, is effective in reducing serum phosphorus levels in patients with end-stage renal disease...
  44. Lacour B, Nikolov I, Joki N, Drueke T. Lanthanum carbonate, body lanthanum accumulation and potential liver toxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:1788-9; author reply 1789-90 pubmed
  45. Joy M, Kshirsagar A, Candiani C, Brooks T, Hudson J. Lanthanum carbonate. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:234-40 pubmed
    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of lanthanum carbonate, a phosphate binder for chronic kidney disease (CKD).
  46. Finn W. Lanthanum carbonate versus standard therapy for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia: safety and efficacy in chronic maintenance hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol. 2006;65:191-202 pubmed
    ..Consequently, there is a need for new agents. One such agent is lanthanum carbonate (La)...
  47. Persy V, Behets G, Bervoets A, De Broe M, D Haese P. Lanthanum: a safe phosphate binder. Semin Dial. 2006;19:195-9 pubmed
    ..The new generation of calcium-free phosphate binders, sevelamer and lanthanum, can control hyperphosphatemia without adding to the patients calcium load...
  48. Diniz V, Weber M, Volesky B, Naja G. Column biosorption of lanthanum and europium by Sargassum. Water Res. 2008;42:363-71 pubmed
    Batch and column biosorption of La(3+) (lanthanum) and Eu(3+) (europium) was studied using protonated Sargassum polycystum biomass...
  49. Nilsson H, Dragomir A, Ahlander A, Ljungkvist M, Roomans G. A modified technique for the impregnation of lanthanum tracer to study the integrity of tight junctions on cells grown on a permeable substrate. Microsc Res Tech. 2006;69:776-83 pubmed
    Ionic lanthanum is commonly used to trace permeability pathways across epithelia and endothelia in biological electron microscopy. A method for obtaining a uniformly dense precipitate of lanthanum is described...
  50. Ben Dov I, Pappo O, Sklair Levy M, Galitzer H, Ilan Y, Naveh Many T, et al. Lanthanum carbonate decreases PTH gene expression with no hepatotoxicity in uraemic rats. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:362-8 pubmed
    b>Lanthanum (La) carbonate is an effective phosphate-binder, used to reverse hyperphosphataemia due to chronic kidney disease. Some recent studies in rodents have cast safety uncertainties...
  51. Freichel M, Suh S, Pfeifer A, Schweig U, Trost C, Weissgerber P, et al. Lack of an endothelial store-operated Ca2+ current impairs agonist-dependent vasorelaxation in TRP4-/- mice. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:121-7 pubmed
  52. Erdmann F, Jung M, Eyrisch S, Lang S, Helms V, Wagner R, et al. Lanthanum ions inhibit the mammalian Sec61 complex in its channel dynamics and protein transport activity. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Millimolar concentrations of lanthanum ions simultaneously restricted the dynamics of the Sec61 channel and inhibited translocation of polypeptides...
  53. Damment S, Shen V. Assessment of effects of lanthanum carbonate with and without phosphate supplementation on bone mineralization in uremic rats. Clin Nephrol. 2005;63:127-37 pubmed
    ..studies have indicated that impaired bone mineralization in 5/6 th nephrectomized rats given high doses of lanthanum carbonate is due to phosphorus depletion caused by excessive binding to, and reduced absorption of, dietary ..