Summary: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.

Top Publications

  1. Courbiere B, Auffan M, Rollais R, Tassistro V, Bonnefoy A, Botta A, et al. Ultrastructural interactions and genotoxicity assay of cerium dioxide nanoparticles on mouse oocytes. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:21613-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (C(e)O? ENPs) are on the priority list of nanomaterials requiring evaluation...
  2. Lee S, Song W, Cho M, Puppala H, Nguyen P, Zhu H, et al. Antioxidant properties of cerium oxide nanocrystals as a function of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating. ACS Nano. 2013;7:9693-703 pubmed publisher
    This work examines the effect of nanocrystal diameter and surface coating on the reactivity of cerium oxide nanocrystals with H2O2 both in chemical solutions and in cells...
  3. Tang J, Chen X, Zhou J, Li Q, Chen G, Tang D. Cerium oxide-triggered 'one-to-many' catalytic cycling strategy for in situ amplified electronic signal of low-abundance protein. Analyst. 2013;138:4327-33 pubmed publisher
    Multifunctionalized thionine-modified cerium oxide (Thi-CeO2) nanostructures with redox ability and catalytic activity were designed as the bionanolabels for in situ amplified electronic signal of low-abundance protein (carcinoembryonic ..
  4. Yokel R, Tseng M, Dan M, Unrine J, Graham U, Wu P, et al. Biodistribution and biopersistence of ceria engineered nanomaterials: size dependence. Nanomedicine. 2013;9:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..Five, 15, 30, or 55 nm ceria was iv infused into rats which were terminated 1, 20, or 720 h later. Cerium was determined in blood, brain, liver, and spleen...
  5. Cai X, Sezate S, Seal S, McGinnis J. Sustained protection against photoreceptor degeneration in tubby mice by intravitreal injection of nanoceria. Biomaterials. 2012;33:8771-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that nanoceria can function as catalytic antioxidants in vivo and may be broad spectrum therapeutic agents for multiple types of ocular diseases...
  6. Yokel R, Au T, MacPhail R, Hardas S, Butterfield D, Sultana R, et al. Distribution, elimination, and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically introduced 30 nm ceria-engineered nanomaterial in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:256-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective is to extend previous findings showing that there were no reductions of cerium in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system up to 30 days after a single nanoscale ceria ..
  7. Das S, Singh S, Dowding J, Oommen S, Kumar A, Sayle T, et al. The induction of angiogenesis by cerium oxide nanoparticles through the modulation of oxygen in intracellular environments. Biomaterials. 2012;33:7746-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we have shown the unique property of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) to induce angiogenesis, observed using both in vitro and in vivo model systems...
  8. Aalapati S, Ganapathy S, Manapuram S, Anumolu G, Prakya B. Toxicity and bio-accumulation of inhaled cerium oxide nanoparticles in CD1 mice. Nanotoxicology. 2014;8:786-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that inhalation exposure of CeO2 NPs can induce pulmonary and extrapulmonary toxicity...
  9. Hosseini A, Baeeri M, Rahimifard M, Navaei Nigjeh M, Mohammadirad A, Pourkhalili N, et al. Antiapoptotic effects of cerium oxide and yttrium oxide nanoparticles in isolated rat pancreatic islets. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013;32:544-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently hypothesized that the combination of cerium oxide (CeO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3) nanoparticles with a potential free radical scavenger behavior should be ..

More Information


  1. Cheng G, Guo W, Han L, Chen E, Kong L, Wang L, et al. Cerium oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells via oxidative stress and the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. Toxicol In Vitro. 2013;27:1082-8 pubmed publisher
    Lanthanide cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have extensive applications in industrial fields, and concerns regarding their potential toxicity in humans and their environmental impact have increased...
  2. Liu D, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Wang S, Yang M. TGF-?/BMP signaling pathway is involved in cerium-promoted osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:1105-14 pubmed publisher
    The extensive applications of cerium (Ce) increased the chance of human exposure to Ce and its compounds. It was reported that Ce was mainly deposited in the bone after administration...
  3. Shah V, Shah S, Shah H, Rispoli F, McDonnell K, Workeneh S, et al. Antibacterial activity of polymer coated cerium oxide nanoparticles. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47827 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium oxide nanoparticles have found numerous applications in the biomedical industry due to their strong antioxidant properties...
  4. Cobrado L, Silva Dias A, Azevedo M, Pina Vaz C, Rodrigues A. In vivo antibiofilm effect of cerium, chitosan and hamamelitannin against usual agents of catheter-related bloodstream infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:126-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo antibiofilm activity of biocompatible and inexpensive compounds, such as cerium nitrate, chitosan and hamamelitannin, against usual agents of CRBSIs.
  5. Culcasi M, Benameur L, Mercier A, Lucchesi C, Rahmouni H, Asteian A, et al. EPR spin trapping evaluation of ROS production in human fibroblasts exposed to cerium oxide nanoparticles: evidence for NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial stimulation. Chem Biol Interact. 2012;199:161-76 pubmed publisher
    ..enzyme mimetic, free radical scavenger) versus oxidant and cytotoxic properties of the industrially used cerium oxide nanoparticles (nano-CeO(2)), we investigated their effects on reactive oxygen species formation and changes ..
  6. Rosenkranz P, Fernandez Cruz M, Conde E, Ramírez Fernández M, Flores J, Fernandez M, et al. Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles to fish and mammalian cell lines: An assessment of cytotoxicity and methodology. Toxicol In Vitro. 2012;26:888-96 pubmed publisher
    Two cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO(2) NPs) and one micro-sized CeO(2) particle were thoroughly characterized in their pristine form, in water and in cell culture medium...
  7. Cassee F, Campbell A, Boere A, McLean S, Duffin R, Krystek P, et al. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice. Environ Res. 2012;115:1-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles.
  8. Cimini A, D Angelo B, Das S, Gentile R, Benedetti E, Singh V, et al. Antibody-conjugated PEGylated cerium oxide nanoparticles for specific targeting of A? aggregates modulate neuronal survival pathways. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:2056-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In the recent years, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been studied as potent antioxidant agents able to exert neuroprotective effects...
  9. Zhou X, Wang B, Chen Y, Mao Z, Gao C. Uptake of cerium oxide nanoparticles and their influences on functions of A549 cells. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2013;13:204-15 pubmed
    The cerium oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in the fields of fuel additives, cosmetics, commodities, pharmaceuticals and other industries. Exposure of the CeO2 NPs causes a public concern on their potential health risk...
  10. Chigurupati S, Mughal M, Okun E, Das S, Kumar A, McCaffery M, et al. Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on the growth of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells in cutaneous wound healing. Biomaterials. 2013;34:2194-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We now report that topical application of water soluble cerium oxide nanoparticles (Nanoceria) accelerates the healing of full-thickness dermal wounds in mice by a mechanism ..
  11. Geraets L, Oomen A, Schroeter J, Coleman V, Cassee F. Tissue distribution of inhaled micro- and nano-sized cerium oxide particles in rats: results from a 28-day exposure study. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:463-73 pubmed publisher
    In order to obtain more insight into the tissue distribution, accumulation, and elimination of cerium oxide nanoparticles after inhalation exposure, blood and tissue kinetics were investigated during and after a 28-day inhalation study in ..
  12. Cobrado L, Azevedo M, Silva Dias A, Ramos J, Pina Vaz C, Rodrigues A. Cerium, chitosan and hamamelitannin as novel biofilm inhibitors?. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:1159-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of cerium, chitosan and hamamelitannin against usual microbial colonizers and to assess their efficacy regarding biofilm ..
  13. Pagliari F, Mandoli C, Forte G, Magnani E, Pagliari S, Nardone G, et al. Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect cardiac progenitor cells from oxidative stress. ACS Nano. 2012;6:3767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are redox-active and could represent a potent tool to control the oxidative stress ..
  14. Jia W, Andaya A, Leary J. Novel mass spectrometric method for phosphorylation quantification using cerium oxide nanoparticles and tandem mass tags. Anal Chem. 2012;84:2466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports an integrated methodology using cerium oxide nanoparticles and isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling to assess absolute stoichiometries of protein ..
  15. Nalabotu S, Kolli M, Triest W, Ma J, Manne N, Katta A, et al. Intratracheal instillation of cerium oxide nanoparticles induces hepatic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:2327-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems...
  16. Zhao H, Zhou Q, Zhou M, Li C, Gong X, Liu C, et al. Magnesium deficiency results in damage of nitrogen and carbon cross-talk of maize and improvement by cerium addition. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;148:102-9 pubmed publisher
    Magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been reported to affect plant photosynthesis and growth, and cerium (Ce) was considered to be able to improve plant growth...
  17. Schmidlin P, Tchouboukov A, Wegehaupt F, Weber F. Effect of cerium chloride application on fibroblast and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:892-7 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated effects of cerium-chloride on fibroblast and osteoblast differentiation and proliferation.
  18. Gaiser B, Fernandes T, Jepson M, Lead J, Tyler C, Baalousha M, et al. Interspecies comparisons on the uptake and toxicity of silver and cerium dioxide nanoparticles. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the potential biological effects of silver (Ag; nominally 35 and 600-1,600?nm) and cerium dioxide (CeO(2;) nominally <25?nm and 1-5?µm) particles in a range of cell (human hepatocyte and intestinal ..
  19. Hussain S, Garantziotis S. Interplay between apoptotic and autophagy pathways after exposure to cerium dioxide nanoparticles in human monocytes. Autophagy. 2013;9:101-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We have described that an environmentally and medically relevant nano metal (cerium dioxide) can affect primary human monocyte viability and interact with programmed cell death pathways leading to ..
  20. Böhlandt A, Schierl R, Diemer J, Koch C, Bolte G, Kiranoglu M, et al. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke. Sci Total Environ. 2012;414:738-41 pubmed publisher
    ..indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce...
  21. Priester J, Ge Y, Mielke R, Horst A, Moritz S, Espinosa K, et al. Soybean susceptibility to manufactured nanomaterials with evidence for food quality and soil fertility interruption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E2451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Juxtaposed against widespread land application of wastewater treatment biosolids to food crops, these findings forewarn of agriculturally associated human and environmental risks from the accelerating use of MNMs...
  22. Hussain S, Al Nsour F, Rice A, Marshburn J, Yingling B, Ji Z, et al. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles induce apoptosis and autophagy in human peripheral blood monocytes. ACS Nano. 2012;6:5820-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO(2) NPs) have diversified industrial uses, and novel therapeutic applications are actively being pursued. There is a lack of mechanistic data concerning the effects of CeO(2) NPs on primary human cells...
  23. Khotimchenko Y, Khozhaenko E, Kovalev V, Khotimchenko M. Cerium binding activity of pectins isolated from the seagrasses Zostera marina and Phyllospadix iwatensis. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:834-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium binding activity of three different water soluble pectin compounds of different origin was studied in a batch sorption system...
  24. Lord M, Jung M, Teoh W, Gunawan C, Vassie J, Amal R, et al. Cellular uptake and reactive oxygen species modulation of cerium oxide nanoparticles in human monocyte cell line U937. Biomaterials. 2012;33:7915-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are promising materials for intracellular oxygen free radical scavenging providing a potential therapy for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inflammatory processes...
  25. Ting S, Whitelock J, Tomic R, Gunawan C, Teoh W, Amal R, et al. Cellular uptake and activity of heparin functionalised cerium oxide nanoparticles in monocytes. Biomaterials. 2013;34:4377-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are effective in scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  26. Baalousha M, Ju Nam Y, Cole P, Gaiser B, Fernandes T, Hriljac J, et al. Characterization of cerium oxide nanoparticles-part 1: size measurements. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012;31:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller surface area measurements as applied to commercially available cerium oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs)...
  27. Dowding J, Dosani T, Kumar A, Seal S, Self W. Cerium oxide nanoparticles scavenge nitric oxide radical (?NO). Chem Commun (Camb). 2012;48:4896-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study we have obtained evidence that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO(2) NPs) are able to scavenge nitric oxide radical...
  28. Chaudhury K, Babu K N, Singh A, Das S, Kumar A, Seal S. Mitigation of endometriosis using regenerative cerium oxide nanoparticles. Nanomedicine. 2013;9:439-48 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have recently received attention from the scientific community due to their unique free radicals (specially superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) scavenging property in biological system, both in ..
  29. Ma J, Mercer R, Barger M, Schwegler Berry D, Scabilloni J, MA J, et al. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis by cerium oxide nanoparticles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;262:255-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium compounds have been used as a diesel engine catalyst to lower the mass of diesel exhaust particles, but are emitted as cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles in the diesel exhaust...
  30. Chen S, Hou Y, Cheng G, Zhang C, Wang S, Zhang J. Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect endothelial cells from apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;154:156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) had antioxidant property, but the protective effect of nanoceria on ROS injury to ..
  31. Dan M, Wu P, Grulke E, Graham U, Unrine J, Yokel R. Ceria-engineered nanomaterial distribution in, and clearance from, blood: size matters. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2012;7:95-110 pubmed publisher
    Characterize different sized ceria-engineered nanomaterial (ENM) distribution in, and clearance from, blood (compared to the cerium ion) following intravenous infusion.
  32. Ciofani G, Genchi G, Mazzolai B, Mattoli V. Transcriptional profile of genes involved in oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in PC12 cells following treatment with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:495-506 pubmed publisher
    Thanks to their impressive catalytic properties, cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are able to mimic the activity of superoxide dismutase and of catalase, therefore acting as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers in many ..
  33. Kuang Y, He X, Zhang Z, Li Y, Zhang H, Ma Y, et al. Comparison study on the antibacterial activity of nano- or bulk-cerium oxide. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2011;11:4103-8 pubmed
    Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, nanosized cerium oxide (n-CeO2) has attracted considerable interest in many fields of research...
  34. Minarchick V, Stapleton P, Porter D, Wolfarth M, Ciftyürek E, Barger M, et al. Pulmonary cerium dioxide nanoparticle exposure differentially impairs coronary and mesenteric arteriolar reactivity. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2013;13:323-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are an engineered nanomaterial (ENM) that possesses unique catalytic, oxidative, and reductive properties...
  35. Arnold M, Badireddy A, Wiesner M, Di Giulio R, Meyer J. Cerium oxide nanoparticles are more toxic than equimolar bulk cerium oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;65:224-33 pubmed publisher
    Engineered cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are widely used in biomedical and engineering manufacturing industries...
  36. Rico C, Hong J, Morales M, Zhao L, Barrios A, Zhang J, et al. Effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on rice: a study involving the antioxidant defense system and in vivo fluorescence imaging. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:5635-42 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have reported the uptake of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) by plants, but their physiological impacts are not yet well understood...
  37. Ciofani G, Genchi G, Liakos I, Cappello V, Gemmi M, Athanassiou A, et al. Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles on PC12 neuronal-like cells: proliferation, differentiation, and dopamine secretion. Pharm Res. 2013;30:2133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides traditional anti-oxidant agents, in recent years much attention has been focused on nanotechnological solutions, including cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria).
  38. Das S, Dowding J, Klump K, McGinnis J, Self W, Seal S. Cerium oxide nanoparticles: applications and prospects in nanomedicine. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013;8:1483-508 pubmed publisher
    Promising results have been obtained using cerium (Ce) oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) as antioxidants in biological systems...
  39. Lord M, Tsoi B, Gunawan C, Teoh W, Amal R, Whitelock J. Anti-angiogenic activity of heparin functionalised cerium oxide nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 2013;34:8808-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are widely reported to be non-cytotoxic and modulate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
  40. Pourkhalili N, Hosseini A, Nili Ahmadabadi A, Rahimifard M, Navaei Nigjeh M, Hassani S, et al. Improvement of isolated rat pancreatic islets function by combination of cerium oxide nanoparticles/sodium selenite through reduction of oxidative stress. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2012;22:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..ratio were examined in the isolated islets exposed to sodium selenite (Na?SeO?; 0 30 nmol/L), metal form of cerium oxide (100 nm), cerium oxide nanoparticles (100 nm) and combination of Na?SeO? (30 nmol/L)/cerium oxide ..
  41. Casadei M, Ren X, Rinke P, Rubio A, Scheffler M. Density-functional theory for f-electron systems: the ?-? phase transition in cerium. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;109:146402 pubmed
    The isostructural ?-? phase transition in cerium is analyzed using density-functional theory with different exchange-correlation functionals, in particular the PBE0 hybrid functional and the exact-exchange plus correlation in the random-..
  42. Durrani S, Al Kuhaili M, Bakhtiari I, Haider M. Investigation of the carbon monoxide gas sensing characteristics of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide thin films. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:2598-609 pubmed publisher
    Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition...
  43. Aiba Y, Lönnberg T, Komiyama M. Manipulation of single-stranded DNA by using an artificial site-selective DNA cutter composed of cerium(IV)/EDTA and phosphonate-oligonucleotide conjugates. Chem Asian J. 2011;6:2407-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant gene was successfully expressed in E. coli and the chimeric chromophore emitted green fluorescence as expected...
  44. Giri S, Karakoti A, Graham R, Maguire J, Reilly C, Seal S, et al. Nanoceria: a rare-earth nanoparticle as a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic agent in ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54578 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, we have developed and engineered Nanoceria (NCe), nanoparticles of cerium oxide, possessing anti-oxidant properties, to be used as a therapeutic agent in OvCa...
  45. Hussain S, Al Nsour F, Rice A, Marshburn J, Ji Z, Zink J, et al. Cerium dioxide nanoparticles do not modulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:1387-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerium dioxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles have potential therapeutic applications and are widely used for industrial purposes. However, the effects of these nanoparticles on primary human cells are largely unknown...
  46. Shruti S, Salinas A, Lusvardi G, Malavasi G, Menabue L, Vallet Regi M. Mesoporous bioactive scaffolds prepared with cerium-, gallium- and zinc-containing glasses. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:4836-44 pubmed publisher
    ..0%), were synthesized by combination of evaporation-induced self-assembly and rapid prototyping techniques. Cerium, gallium and zinc trace elements were selected because of their inherent beneficial biological properties...
  47. Gosens I, Mathijssen L, Bokkers B, Muijser H, Cassee F. Comparative hazard identification of nano- and micro-sized cerium oxide particles based on 28-day inhalation studies in rats. Nanotoxicology. 2014;8:643-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors assess the comparative hazard of two nanoscale (NM-211 and NM-212) and one microscale (NM-213) cerium oxide materials in 28-day inhalation toxicity studies in rats (according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation ..
  48. Li N, Wang S, Liu J, Ma L, Duan Y, Hong F. The oxidative damage in lung of mice caused by lanthanoide. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010;134:68-78 pubmed publisher
    ..It implied that the antioxidative responses of lung may be involved in 4f shell and alternable valence properties of Ln-induced lung toxicity...
  49. Zhang T, Chen W, Ma J, Qiang Z. Minimizing bromate formation with cerium dioxide during ozonation of bromide-containing water. Water Res. 2008;42:3651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Another possible reason for the BFP minimization is that the CeO(2) could possibly reduce BrO() to HOBr/OBr(-) during the decomposition of H(2)O(2)...
  50. Tsai Y, Oca Cossio J, Agering K, Simpson N, Atkinson M, Wasserfall C, et al. Novel synthesis of cerium oxide nanoparticles for free radical scavenging. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2007;2:325-32 pubmed
    ..The aim of this article is to present a novel synthetic route to form CeO(2) nanoparticles that protects against the detrimental influence of oxidative stress in mammalian cells...
  51. Toya T, Takata A, Otaki N, Takaya M, Serita F, Yoshida K, et al. Pulmonary toxicity induced by intratracheal instillation of coarse and fine particles of cerium dioxide in male rats. Ind Health. 2010;48:3-11 pubmed
    In order to examine the short-, medium- and long-term effects of cerium dioxide particles of different sizes on the lung, 10-wk-old male Wistar rats were administered a physiological saline solution with a suspension of coarse or fine ..
  52. He X, Zhang H, Ma Y, Bai W, Zhang Z, Lu K, et al. Lung deposition and extrapulmonary translocation of nano-ceria after intratracheal instillation. Nanotechnology. 2010;21:285103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggested that the effect of nanomaterial exposure, even at low concentration, should be assessed because of the potential lung and systemic cumulative toxicity of the nanomaterials...
  53. Sun S, Ma H, Han G, Wu R, Zou H, Liu Y. Efficient enrichment and identification of phosphopeptides by cerium oxide using on-plate matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2011;25:1862-8 pubmed publisher
    ..by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using cerium oxide is presented...