rare earth metals

Summary

Summary: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.

Top Publications

  1. Drynda A, Deinet N, Braun N, Peuster M. Rare earth metals used in biodegradable magnesium-based stents do not interfere with proliferation of smooth muscle cells but do induce the upregulation of inflammatory genes. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;91:360-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Rare earth metals are added to corrodible magnesium-based alloys in low amounts (up to 10%) to improve their mechanical properties and to decrease the degradation rate...
  2. Harris W, Yang B, Abdollahi S, Hamada Y. Steric restrictions on the binding of large metal ions to serum transferrin. J Inorg Biochem. 1999;76:231-42 pubmed
    ..The steric effect is not as strong for metal binding at the N-terminal site. As a result, the selectivity for binding to the C-terminal site, which is quite high for the smaller lanthanides, drops sharply on going from Tb3+ to Nd3+...
  3. Weissleder R, Bogdanov A, Tung C, Weinmann H. Size optimization of synthetic graft copolymers for in vivo angiogenesis imaging. Bioconjug Chem. 2001;12:213-9 pubmed
  4. Mi C, Zhang J, Gao H, Wu X, Wang M, Wu Y, et al. Multifunctional nanocomposites of superparamagnetic (Fe3O4) and NIR-responsive rare earth-doped up-conversion fluorescent (NaYF4 : Yb,Er) nanoparticles and their applications in biolabeling and fluorescent imaging of cancer cells. Nanoscale. 2010;2:1141-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Siedlecka M, Goch G, Ejchart A, Sticht H, Bierzynski A. Alpha-helix nucleation by a calcium-binding peptide loop. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:903-8 pubmed
    ..In light of our findings, thermodynamics of the nascent alpha-helices is discussed. The problem of CD spectra of very short alpha-helices is also addressed...
  6. Lawrence M. Detection of anthropogenic gadolinium in the Brisbane River plume in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Mar Pollut Bull. 2010;60:1113-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Wastewater contributions were measured at concentrations as low as 0.2%, demonstrating the applicability of this technique for wastewater effluent plume mapping...
  7. Feyerabend F, Fischer J, Holtz J, Witte F, Willumeit R, Drücker H, et al. Evaluation of short-term effects of rare earth and other elements used in magnesium alloys on primary cells and cell lines. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:1834-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The focus of magnesium alloy development for biomedical applications should include most defined alloy compositions with well-known tissue-specific and systemic effects...
  8. El Sonbati A, Al Sarawy A, Moqbel M. Polymer complexes: XLIX-Supramolecular modeling of bonding in novel rare earth polymeric rhodanine drug complexes. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2009;74:463-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The spectra of Nd(3+) and Ho(3+) show characteristic f-f transitions and the metal-ligand covalency in % has been evaluated. The spectral properties of the above polymeric complexes are also discussed...
  9. Voss J, Wu J, Hubbell W, Jacques V, Meares C, Kaback H. Helix packing in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli: distances between site-directed nitroxides and a lanthanide. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3184-8 pubmed
    ..contention that helix V lies close to both helices VII and VIII in the tertiary structure of lactose permease, other methods for binding rare earth metals are discussed which do not involve the use of bulky chelators with long linkers.

More Information

Publications61

  1. Mudiam M, Kumar S, Mahadevan S, Ghosh P, Sarin R, Beedu S. Quantitative evaluation of 28 mineral elements by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry and its application in source identification of Indian opium. J AOAC Int. 2005;88:1469-84 pubmed
  2. Xu X, Wang Z, Liu Y. [Interaction between rare earths and nitrogen and phosphorus in soil-plant system]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2002;13:750-2 pubmed
  3. Chin J. Artificial dinuclear phosphoesterases. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1997;1:514-21 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, such bridging structures have recently been implicated in several metalloenzyme catalyzed phosphate hydrolyses...
  4. Aström M, Corin N. Distribution of rare earth elements in anionic, cationic and particulate fractions in boreal humus-rich streams affected by acid sulphate soils. Water Res. 2003;37:273-80 pubmed
    ..The identification and quantification of such species is a prerequisite for the precise and accurate characterisation of the REE hydrochemistry of the streams...
  5. Gao B, Yang Y, Cheng Y, Shi D. [Study on synthesis and photoluminescence of the complexes of rare earth Eu(III) with 4-vinyl pyridine copolymer]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2002;22:371-4 pubmed
    ..When small ligand reacts with coordination, the fluorescence intensity of the complexes increases greatly because of stronger intermolecular energy transfer...
  6. Tomizuka R, Kanetaka H, Shimizu Y, Suzuki A, Igarashi K, Mitani H. Effects of gradually increasing force generated by permanent rare earth magnets for orthodontic tooth movement. Angle Orthod. 2006;76:1004-9 pubmed
    ..To examine the effects of gradually increasing force generated by permanent rare earth magnets for orthodontic tooth movement by using a novel experimental rat model and computer simulation...
  7. Xiong L, Chen Z, Yu M, Li F, Liu C, Huang C. Synthesis, characterization, and in vivo targeted imaging of amine-functionalized rare-earth up-converting nanophosphors. Biomaterials. 2009;30:5592-600 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that our UCNPs could be used as whole-body targeted UCL imaging agents...
  8. Zhang Y, Deng L, Ye W. Does the long-term application of calcium superphosphate lead to an increase of the soil rare earth element contents?. J Environ Sci (China). 2006;18:130-4 pubmed
    ..A statistically significant increase of the content of the rare earths in some cultivated soils should not be neglected...
  9. Hirano S, Suzuki K. Exposure, metabolism, and toxicity of rare earths and related compounds. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104 Suppl 1:85-95 pubmed
    ..In this report, we present an overview of the metabolism and health hazards of RE and related compounds, including our recent studies...
  10. Cizdziel J, Guo C, Steinberg S, Yu Z, Johannesson K. Chemical and colloidal analyses of natural seep water collected from the exploratory studies facility inside Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. Environ Geochem Health. 2008;30:31-44 pubmed
    ..Geochemical calculations indicate, however, these may be an artifact (not present in the groundwater) which arose because of loss of CO2 during sample collection and storage...
  11. Iwata T, Koshoubu J, Kurosu Y, Araki T. Time-resolved high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detector using a nanosecond pulsed light source for detecting lanthanide-chelated compounds. J Chromatogr A. 1999;859:13-21 pubmed
    ..In order to demonstrate the usefulness of TRFD, fundamental performance tests were carried out. Details of the system are also described...
  12. Yang J, Yue Q, Li G, Cao J, Li G, Chen J. Structures, photoluminescence, up-conversion, and magnetism of 2D and 3D rare-earth coordination polymers with multicarboxylate linkages. Inorg Chem. 2006;45:2857-65 pubmed
    ..The magnetic properties of compounds 1, 2, and 4 have been studied through measurement of their magnetic susceptibilities over the temperature range of 4-300 K...
  13. Sun Z, Li B, Sun D, Zhang Z, Ying H, Gu S, et al. [Spectral interferences of rare earth elements observed with a high resolution inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. VI. Spectral interferences of lanthanum, terbium, holmium and erbium as matrices]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2001;21:57-61 pubmed
    ..2 nm for each analytical line). Some new spectral lines of La, Tb, Ho and Er were observed. The "best" analytical lines of 14 REEs were recommended based on the Q-values and the true detection limits...
  14. Chen L, Fu Y, Zhang G, Bao J, Gao C. Optimization of Pr3+, Tb3+, and Sm3+ co-doped (Y0.65Gd0.35)BO3:Eu0.05(3+) VUV phosphors through combinatorial approach. J Comb Chem. 2008;10:401-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The optimized composition was identified to be between 7 x 10(-6) and 3 x 10(-4), and the corresponding efficiency improvement is about 15%. Scale-up experiments confirmed the results in the combinatorial materials libraries...
  15. Cao X, Wang X, Zhao G. Assessment of the bioavailability of rare earth elements in soils by chemical fractionation and multiple regression analysis. Chemosphere. 2000;40:23-8 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicated that the sequential extraction procedure, in conjunction with multiple regression analysis, may be useful for the prediction of plant uptake of REEs from soils...
  16. Kuntz R, Lehrich K, Ahyai S. Does perioperative outcome of transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate depend on prostate size?. J Endourol. 2004;18:183-8 pubmed
    ..The present study aimed to find out whether perioperative parameters of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) other than operation time and weight of resected tissue were dependent on prostate size...
  17. Selvin P. The renaissance of fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:730-4 pubmed
    ..These advances, due largely to new fluorescent dyes, but also to new optical methods and instrumentation, have opened up new biological applications...
  18. Adu Frimpong J, Sorrell J. Magnetic toys: the emerging problem in pediatric ingestions. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:42-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the case of acute abdominal pain due to ingestion...
  19. Eun H, Yang H, Cho Y, Lee H, Kim I. Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides. J Hazard Mater. 2008;160:634-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will be utilized to design a concept for a process for recycling the waste salt from an electrorefining process...
  20. Liang P, Chen X. Preconcentration of rare earth elements on silica gel loaded with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazol-5-one prior to their determination by ICP-AES. Anal Sci. 2005;21:1185-8 pubmed
    ..208, 0.249, 0.239 and 0.224 mmol g(-1), respectively. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of La, Eu, Yb and Y in geological and environmental samples with satisfactory results...
  21. Sone T, Lu G, Matsunaga S, Shibasaki M. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of 2,2-disubstituted oxetanes from ketones by using a one-pot sequential addition of sulfur ylide. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009;48:1677-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Chiral amplification in the second step was the key to obtaining oxetanes in high enantiomeric excess (see scheme)...
  22. Liu Q, Bi H, Hung L, Peng S, Sheng C. Relationships among multiple trace elements in coastal Casuarina equisetifolia ecosystems on Hainan Island, South China. Environ Geochem Health. 2006;28:3-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, they behaved as a coherent group of elements both geochemically and biogeochemically. The transition elements were more coherent in plants than in soils...
  23. Li T, Yang Z, Wang B, Qin D. Synthesis, characterization, antioxidant activity and DNA-binding studies of two rare earth(III) complexes with naringenin-2-hydroxy benzoyl hydrazone ligand. Eur J Med Chem. 2008;43:1688-95 pubmed
    ..1 x 10(4), 8.5 x 10(4) and 1.6 x 10(4) M(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the metal complexes was determined by hydroxyl radical scavenging method in vitro...
  24. Wen B, Liu Y, Hu X, Shan X. Effect of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the fractionation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in nine Chinese soils. Chemosphere. 2006;63:1179-86 pubmed
    ..The biomass and the concentrations of REEs in wheat shoots and roots increased after the treatment with earthworms. The results demonstrated that earthworm activity increased the mobility and bioavailability of REEs in soils...
  25. Mink J, Skripkin M, Hajba L, Nemeth C, Abbasi A, Sandström M. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic and theoretical studies of nonaaqua complexes of trivalent rare earth metal ions. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2005;61:1639-45 pubmed
  26. Lu F, Bao M, Ma C, Zhang X, Arnold D, Jiang J. Infrared spectra of phthalocyanine and naphthalocyanine in sandwich-type (na)phthalocyaninato and porphyrinato rare earth complexes. Part 3. The effects of substituents and molecular symmetry on the infrared characteristics of phthalocyanine in bis(p. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2003;59:3273-86 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, all the metal size-dependent IR absorptions are composed primarily of the vibrations of pyrrole or isoindole stretching, breathing or deformation or aza stretching of the Pc ring...
  27. Gao P, Gu R. [Determination of RE2O3-Mo-Co in hydrogenation catalyst by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2003;23:579-82 pubmed
    ..The relative standard deviations for MoO3, CoO and RE2O3 are less than 2% for the above analytical ranges. The method has been used in routine analyses. The results agree well with other methods...
  28. Liu D, Ma L. [Target transformation factor analysis for simultaneous determination of Fe3+ and Al3+ in rare earth samples]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2001;21:353-5 pubmed
    ..The normal projection matrix of column vectors is used to predict the concentration in unknown samples. The results indicate that the recoveries and accuracy are satisfactory...
  29. Meng C, Meng G, Song Z. [An effect enhancement mechanism of up-conversion luminescence--up-conversion sensitization]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2001;21:142-6 pubmed
    ..The achievement of up-conversion sensitization field especial the originate fruit in indirect up-conversion sensitization obtained by China are introduce emphatically...
  30. Xiong L, Yang T, Yang Y, Xu C, Li F. Long-term in vivo biodistribution imaging and toxicity of polyacrylic acid-coated upconversion nanophosphors. Biomaterials. 2010;31:7078-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The study suggests that PAA-UNCPs can potentially be used for long-term targeted imaging and therapy studies in vivo...
  31. Ding S, Liang T, Zhang C, Huang Z, Xie Y, Chen T. Fractionation mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic wheat: an application for metal accumulation by plants. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:2686-91 pubmed
  32. Zhou X, Xia S, Tanner P. Effective spin Hamiltonian model for superexchange interaction between rare earth ions in rare earth elpasolite crystals. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:8677-9 pubmed
    ..The splittings of several cm-1 observed for lanthanide ions with interionic separations near 1 nm in elpasolite lattices are attributed to superexchange interactions...
  33. Wang Z, He M, Gong L. Thermodynamics of aqueous complex solutions containing 3/1 rare earth electrolyte pairs and salting-out agents to very high concentrations. J Phys Chem B. 2007;111:3704-15 pubmed
    ..The ILS model is completely verified by the isopiestic osmotic coefficient measurements and by the Pitzer model calculations for the NH4NO3-saturated quaternary systems...
  34. Wang W, Huang Y, Tang N. Synthesis and infrared and fluorescence spectra of rare earth complexes with a novel amide-based ligand. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2007;66:1058-62 pubmed
    ..The results show that the ligand favor energy transfers to the emitting energy level of Tb(III). Some factors that influence the fluorescent intensity were also discussed...
  35. Kuntz R, Lehrich K, Ahyai S. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate compared with transvesical open prostatectomy: 18-month follow-up of a randomized trial. J Endourol. 2004;18:189-91 pubmed
    ..This ongoing randomized study aims to find out whether transurethral holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) could be an alternative to open transvesical prostatectomy in patients with prostates >100 g...
  36. Silver J, Withnall R. Probes of structural and electronic environments of phosphor activators: Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy. Chem Rev. 2004;104:2833-55 pubmed
  37. Park S, Ha C. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas: functionalization, pore size, and morphology control. Chem Rec. 2006;6:32-42 pubmed
    ..Such hybrid mesoporous silica materials are expected to be applied as excellent catalysts for organic reactions, photocatalysis, optical devices, etc...
  38. Cao X, Ding Z, Hu X, Wang X. [Effects of soil pH value on the bioavailability and fractionation of rare earth elements in wheat seedling (Triticum aestivum L.)]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2002;23:97-102 pubmed
    ..B1 fraction was most available to wheat. Meanwhile, it was found that the fractionation factors of REEs in wheat were negatively correlated with the soil pH value...
  39. Whetstone P, Butlin N, Corneillie T, Meares C. Element-coded affinity tags for peptides and proteins. Bioconjug Chem. 2004;15:3-6 pubmed
    ..Further, the rare earths are heavy elements, whose mass defects give the masses of tagged peptides exact values not normally shared by molecules that contain only light elements...
  40. Sakoda A, Ishimori Y, Hanamoto K, Kawabe A, Kataoka T, Nagamatsu T, et al. Applicability and performance of an imaging plate at subzero temperatures. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:2013-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests that the apparent sensitivity of the IP is lower at -80 degrees C although it is similar to sensitivities between -30 and 30 degrees C. This low sensitivity should be corrected to perform quantitative measurements...
  41. Matisoff G, Ketterer M, Wilson C, Layman R, Whiting P. Transport of rare earth element-tagged soil particles in response to thunderstorm runoff. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:3356-62 pubmed
    ..This study successfully demonstrates a new tool for studying soil erosion...
  42. He M, Ranz D, Rambeck W. Study on the performance enhancing effect of rare earth elements in growing and fattening pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2001;85:263-70 pubmed
    ..The study indicates the possibility of using rare earth elements as safe and inexpensive alternative performance enhancers for pig production...
  43. Zhimang G, Xiaorong W, Xueyuan G, Jing C, Liansheng W, Lemei D, et al. Effects of fulvic acid on the bioavailability of rare earth elements and GOT enzyme activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Chemosphere. 2001;44:545-51 pubmed
    ..A good correlation existed between the bioaccumulation values of REEs and GOT enzyme activities, and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.922. GOT is an important parameter influencing the bioavailability of REEs...
  44. Olias M, Cerón J, Fernandez I, De la Rosa J. Distribution of rare earth elements in an alluvial aquifer affected by acid mine drainage: the Guadiamar aquifer (SW Spain). Environ Pollut. 2005;135:53-64 pubmed
    ..The Ce-anomaly becomes more negative as pH increases, due to the preferential fractionation of Ce in oxyhydroxides of Fe...
  45. Ham B. Investigation of quantum coherence excitation and coherence transfer in an inhomogeneously broadened rare-earth doped solid. Opt Express. 2008;16:5350-61 pubmed
    ..Dynamic quantum coherent control of the spin excitations and coherence conversion are also discussed at a strong coupling field limit for practical applications of optical information processing...
  46. Reinhardt C, Dalhberg S, Tries M, Marcel R, Leppo J. Stable labeled microspheres to measure perfusion: validation of a neutron activation assay technique. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H108-16 pubmed
  47. Zhang A, Liu X, Zhang W. Determination of rare earth impurities in high purity europium oxide by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and evaluation of concentration values for europium oxide standard material. Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester). 2004;10:589-98 pubmed
    ..By comparison of the results of ICP-MS with the results of other techniques, we have validated that ICP-MS is an accurate and reliable technique for analysis of ultratrace impurities in high purity rare earth matrix...
  48. Okajima M, Nakamura M, Mitsumata T, Kaneko T. Cyanobacterial polysaccharide gels with efficient rare-earth-metal sorption. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:1773-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculated that the strong Nd condensation effect of the sulfate groups in sacran under the acidic conditions may enhance the Nd sorption to the carboxylate groups...
  49. Rodríguez Ubis J, Alonso M, Juanes O, Brunet E. Luminescent cryptands. 3-aroylcoumarin macrobicyclic complexes of europium(III) and terbium(III): the effect of coumarin substitution. Luminescence. 2000;15:331-40 pubmed
    ..Some spectral properties and luminescence intensities of the complexes were measured in acetonitrile and MeOH. The mechanism of metal sensitization depended on lanthanide and will be discussed in detail...
  50. Greenbaum N, Mundoma C, Peterman D. Probing of metal-binding domains of RNA hairpin loops by laser-induced lanthanide(III) luminescence. Biochemistry. 2001;40:1124-34 pubmed
  51. Gröbner G, Glaubitz C, Watts A. Probing membrane surfaces and the location of membrane-embedded peptides by (13)C MAS NMR using lanthanide ions. J Magn Reson. 1999;141:335-9 pubmed
  52. Hirokawa T, Okamoto H, Ikuta N. Operational modes for transient isotachophoretic preconcentration-capillary zone electrophoresis and detectable concentration of rare earth ions. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:3483-9 pubmed
    ..0.1 microM which was 2.5 times lower compared to normal stacking. For the 0.5 microM sample, a concentration factor of 20 000 could be achieved after only tr-ITP...