radium

Summary

Summary: A radioactive element of the alkaline earth series of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ra and atomic number 88. Radium is the product of the disintegration of URANIUM and is present in pitchblende and all ores containing uranium. It is used clinically as a source of beta and gamma-rays in radiotherapy, particularly BRACHYTHERAPY.

Top Publications

  1. Rentetzi M. Packaging radium, selling science: boxes, bottles and other mundane things in the world of science. Ann Sci. 2011;68:375-99 pubmed
    This article discusses the intersection of science and culture in the marketplace and explores the ways in which radium quack and medicinal products were packaged and labelled in the early twentieth century US...
  2. Lassmann M, Nosske D. Dosimetry of 223Ra-chloride: dose to normal organs and tissues. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;40:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of this work was to provide a comprehensive dosimetric calculation of organ doses after intravenous administration of (223)Ra-chloride according to the present International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model for radium.
  3. Abo Elmagd M, Soliman H, Salman K, El Masry N. Radiological hazards of TENORM in the wasted petroleum pipes. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:51-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Sludge lies within the normal range of radium concentration. The average absorbed dose caused by the exposure to the wasted pipes equal to 4...
  4. Nakamura E, Makishima A, Hagino K, Okabe K. Accumulation of radium in ferruginous protein bodies formed in lung tissue: association of resulting radiation hotspots with malignant mesothelioma and other malignancies. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2009;85:229-39 pubmed
    ..of ferruginous protein bodies extracted from lung tissues reveals anomalously high concentrations of radioactive radium, reaching millions of times higher concentration than that of seawater...
  5. Cooks T, Schmidt M, Bittan H, Lazarov E, Arazi L, Kelson I, et al. Local control of lung derived tumors by diffusing alpha-emitting atoms released from intratumoral wires loaded with radium-224. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;74:966-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examines the antitumoral effects resulting from the release of alpha emitting radioisotopes into solid lung carcinoma (LL2, A427, and NCI-H520)...
  6. Carrasquillo J, O Donoghue J, Pandit Taskar N, Humm J, Rathkopf D, Slovin S, et al. Phase I pharmacokinetic and biodistribution study with escalating doses of ²²³Ra-dichloride in men with castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2013;40:1384-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a study to better profile the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and biodistribution of this agent...
  7. Nilsson S, Franzen L, Parker C, Tyrrell C, Blom R, Tennvall J, et al. Bone-targeted radium-223 in symptomatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase II study. Lancet Oncol. 2007;8:587-94 pubmed
    The alpha-emitter radium-223 ((223)Ra) is a bone-seeking radionuclide studied as a new treatment for patients with bone metastases from hormone-refractory prostate cancer...
  8. Chałupnik S, Franus W, Wysocka M, Gzyl G. Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:7900-6 pubmed publisher
    For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed...
  9. Parker C, Pascoe S, Chodacki A, O Sullivan J, Germa J, O Bryan Tear C, et al. A randomized, double-blind, dose-finding, multicenter, phase 2 study of radium chloride (Ra 223) in patients with bone metastases and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2013;63:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and bone metastases have an unmet clinical need for effective treatments that improve quality of life and survival with a favorable safety profile...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nilsson S, Franzen L, Parker C, Tyrrell C, Blom R, Tennvall J, et al. Two-year survival follow-up of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study of radium-223 chloride in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2013;11:20-6 pubmed publisher
    This phase II randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of radium-223 in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and painful bone metastases...
  2. Brady D, Parker C, O Sullivan J. Bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals including radium-223. Cancer J. 2013;19:71-8 pubmed publisher
    ..survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with the first-in-class ?-radionuclide, radium-223 (Ra) has rekindled interest in the role of bone-seeking radionuclide therapy...
  3. Chalupnik S, Wysocka M. Radium removal from mine waters in underground treatment installations. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1548-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In deep mines, inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes are numerous...
  4. Sartor O, Coleman R, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle S, O Sullivan J, et al. Effect of radium-223 dichloride on symptomatic skeletal events in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases: results from a phase 3, double-blind, randomised trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15:738-46 pubmed publisher
    Bone metastases frequently cause skeletal events in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy, short-range ?-particles...
  5. Carvalho F, Madruga M, Reis M, Alves J, Oliveira J, Gouveia J, et al. Radioactivity in the environment around past radium and uranium mining sites of Portugal. J Environ Radioact. 2007;96:39-46 pubmed
    ..and determination of radionuclide concentrations in mining waste and soils were performed in 60 areas of former radium and uranium mining...
  6. Hirunwatthanakul P, Sriplung H, Geater A. Radium-contaminated water: a risk factor for cancer of the upper digestive tract. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:295-8 pubmed
    ..oral, pharynx and esophagus cancer among males in Na Mom district in Songkhla Province in Thailand, an area where radium concentration in shallow well water is found to be higher than other areas in this province...
  7. Cheetham P, Petrylak D. Alpha particles as radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of bone metastases: mechanism of action of radium-223 chloride (Alpharadin) and radiation protection. Oncology (Williston Park). 2012;26:330-7, 341 pubmed
    ..It will review preclinical and clinical studies of the experimental radiopharmaceutical radium-223 chloride (Alpharadin), a first-in-class, highly targeted and well-tolerated alpha-pharmaceutical under ..
  8. Nilsson S, Strang P, Aksnes A, Franzen L, Olivier P, Pecking A, et al. A randomized, dose-response, multicenter phase II study of radium-223 chloride for the palliation of painful bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48:678-86 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the dose-response relationship and pain-relieving effect of radium-223, a highly bone-targeted alpha-pharmaceutical.
  9. Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle S, O Sullivan J, Fossa S, et al. Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:213-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), an alpha emitter, selectively targets bone metastases with alpha particles...
  10. Guy J. Edgar Haydon (1859-1942): general practitioner and radium pioneer. J Med Biogr. 2009;17:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..He introduced radium therapy to the cottage hospital in this small market town in 1914 at a time when many cities lacked this facility...
  11. Leenhouts H, Brugmans M. An analysis of bone and head sinus cancers in radium dial painters using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. J Radiol Prot. 2000;20:169-88 pubmed
    Bone and head sinus cancer incidence after ingestion of 226Ra and 228Ra by radium dial painters is analysed using a two-mutation clonal expansion model for radiation carcinogenesis, taking into account the retention and radiation patterns ..
  12. Nilsson S, Larsen R, Fossa S, Balteskard L, Borch K, Westlin J, et al. First clinical experience with alpha-emitting radium-223 in the treatment of skeletal metastases. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4451-9 pubmed
    The main goals were to study the safety and tolerability of the alpha-emitter radium-223 (223Ra) in breast and prostate cancer patients with skeletal metastases. In addition, pain palliation was evaluated.
  13. Farai I, Ademola J. Radium equivalent activity concentrations in concrete building blocks in eight cities in Southwestern Nigeria. J Environ Radioact. 2005;79:119-25 pubmed
    ..The results were used to compute the radium equivalent activity concentration for each city...
  14. Auvinen A, Salonen L, Pekkanen J, Pukkala E, Ilus T, Kurttio P. Radon and other natural radionuclides in drinking water and risk of stomach cancer: a case-cohort study in Finland. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:109-13 pubmed
    ..Activity concentrations of radon, radium-226 and natural uranium in the drinking water were analyzed using radiochemical and alpha spectrometric methods...
  15. Yeh H, Matanoski G, Wang Ny -, Sandler D, Comstock G. Cancer incidence after childhood nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: a follow-up study in Washington County, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:749-56 pubmed
    ..clinic in Washington County, Maryland, in 1943-1960 was followed to assess the risk of developing neoplasms from radium treatment of the nasopharynx for adenoid hypertrophy...
  16. Auvinen A, Kurttio P, Pekkanen J, Pukkala E, Ilus T, Salonen L. Uranium and other natural radionuclides in drinking water and risk of leukemia: a case-cohort study in Finland. Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13:825-9 pubmed
    ..We assessed the effect of natural uranium and other radionuclides in drinking water on risk of leukemia...
  17. Almeida R, Lauria D, Ferreira A, Sracek O. Groundwater radon, radium and uranium concentrations in Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. J Environ Radioact. 2004;73:323-34 pubmed
    ..Low pH value is the most important water parameter linked to high radium concentration...
  18. Henriksen G, Fisher D, Roeske J, Bruland Ø, Larsen R. Targeting of osseous sites with alpha-emitting 223Ra: comparison with the beta-emitter 89Sr in mice. J Nucl Med. 2003;44:252-9 pubmed
    ..The bone-seeking property and the potential exposure of red marrow by the alpha-particle emitter (223)Ra (half-life, 11.43 d) were compared with those of the beta-emitter (89)Sr (half-life, 50.53 d)...
  19. Henriksen G, Breistøl K, Bruland Ø, Fodstad Ø, Larsen R. Significant antitumor effect from bone-seeking, alpha-particle-emitting (223)Ra demonstrated in an experimental skeletal metastases model. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3120-5 pubmed
    ..The results of this study indicate that (223)Ra should be additionally studied as a potential bone marrow-sparing treatment of cancers involving the skeleton...
  20. Guse C, Marbella A, George V, Layde P. Radium in Wisconsin drinking water: an analysis of osteosarcoma risk. Arch Environ Health. 2002;57:294-303 pubmed
    Epidemiological studies of radium dial painters have found an association between exposure to high-dose radium and bone cancers...
  21. Boice J, Mumma M, Schweitzer S, Blot W. Cancer mortality in a Texas county with prior uranium mining and milling activities, 1950-2001. J Radiol Prot. 2003;23:247-62 pubmed
    ..Further, any radium intake would deposit primarily in the bone and radon progeny primarily in the lung...
  22. Henriksen G, Schoultz B, Michaelsen T, Bruland Ø, Larsen R. Sterically stabilized liposomes as a carrier for alpha-emitting radium and actinium radionuclides. Nucl Med Biol. 2004;31:441-9 pubmed
    ..The potential usefulness of liposomes as carriers was studied in the present work. Radium and actinium radionuclides could be loaded in good yields into sterically stabilized liposomes...
  23. Black R, Sharp L, Finlayson A, Harkness E. Cancer incidence in a population potentially exposed to radium-226 at Dalgety Bay, Scotland. Br J Cancer. 1994;69:140-3 pubmed
    Cancer incidence in the Dalgety Bay area of Fife, Scotland, was examined following the detection of radium-226 particles by routine radiation monitoring...
  24. Brugge D, Buchner V. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects. Rev Environ Health. 2012;27:1-17 pubmed
    b>Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans...
  25. Jibiri N, Farai I, Alausa S. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th, and 40K in different food crops from a high background radiation area in Bitsichi, Jos Plateau, Nigeria. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2007;46:53-9 pubmed
    ..However, the values obtained suggest that the dose from intake of these radionuclides by the food crops is low and that harmful health effects are not expected...
  26. Bruland Ø, Nilsson S, Fisher D, Larsen R. High-linear energy transfer irradiation targeted to skeletal metastases by the alpha-emitter 223Ra: adjuvant or alternative to conventional modalities?. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:6250s-6257s pubmed
    ..Lastly, we present preliminary dose estimates for 223Ra in humans. Results indicate that repeated dosing is feasible and toxicity is low, and that opportunities are available for combined treatment strategies...
  27. Sakoda A, Hanamoto K, Ishimori Y, Kataoka T, Kawabe A, Yamaoka K. First model of the effect of grain size on radon emanation. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:1169-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study should serve as an initial step toward improving the modeling of this radon emanation...
  28. Hafeez S, Parker C. Radium-223 for the treatment of prostate cancer. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2013;22:379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Phase III studies have also shown a survival advantage for sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and radium-223 . Radium-223 is unique among these agents, as the only bone-directed therapy shown to prolong survival in CRPC.
  29. Hindorf C, Flux G, Ibisch C, Kraeber Bodere F. Clinical dosimetry in the treatment of bone tumors: old and new agents. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011;55:198-204 pubmed
    ..The dosimetry data can be used to individualise and further improve the treatment for each patient. Dosimetry for radionuclide therapy of bone metastases is feasible and can be performed in a routine clinical practice...
  30. Aykamis A, Turhan S, Aysun Ugur F, Baykan U, Kiliç A. Natural radioactivity, radon exhalation rates and indoor radon concentration of some granite samples used as construction material in Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;157:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..1±0.1, 0.16±0.02 mSv and 5.0±0.7 mSv, respectively, for the granite samples. ..
  31. Keisari Y, Hochman I, Confino H, Korenstein R, Kelson I. Activation of local and systemic anti-tumor immune responses by ablation of solid tumors with intratumoral electrochemical or alpha radiation treatments. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014;63:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrochemical ablation or DaRT together with chemotherapy and immunostimulatory agents can serve as treatment protocols for solid metastatic tumors and can be applied instead of or in combination with surgery. ..
  32. Rapantova N, Licbinska M, Babka O, Grmela A, Pospisil P. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:7590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability...
  33. Cooks T, Tal M, Raab S, Efrati M, Reitkopf S, Lazarov E, et al. Intratumoral 224Ra-loaded wires spread alpha-emitters inside solid human tumors in athymic mice achieving tumor control. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:5315-21 pubmed
    ..Here, we examined their ability to destroy and control the development of several human-derived tumors implanted in athymic mice...
  34. Peterson R, Burnett W, Opsahl S, Santos I, Misra S, Froelich P. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) through the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River system. J Environ Radioact. 2013;116:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Radium isotopes ((228)Ra and (226)Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of ..
  35. Ogawa M, Ae R, Sasahara T. Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma: A Case Report with 10-Year Patient Medical Data. Case Rep Oncol. 2017;10:851-856 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic exposure to carcinogens, such as thorium dioxide, arsenic, vinyl chloride, and radium, is associated with HAS. However, our patient had not been exposed to such carcinogens...
  36. Dragovic S, Gajić B, Dragović R, Janković Mandić L, Slavković Beškoski L, Mihailović N, et al. Edaphic factors affecting the vertical distribution of radionuclides in the different soil types of Belgrade, Serbia. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:127-37 pubmed publisher
  37. Berelson W, Corsetti F, Pepe Ranney C, Hammond D, Beaumont W, Spear J. Hot spring siliceous stromatolites from Yellowstone National Park: assessing growth rate and laminae formation. Geobiology. 2011;9:411-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In OPP, lithification on the nearly diurnal time scale is likely related to temperature control on silica solubility...
  38. Turhan S, Gündüz L. Determination of specific activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K for assessment of radiation hazards from Turkish pumice samples. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:332-42 pubmed
    ..0 to 58.6ppm with a mean of 21.4+/-15.1ppm) and K (from 1.0 to 6.1% with a mean of 3.9+/-1.3%). The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the activity index, the emanation coefficient, the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate, the ..
  39. Arndt M, West L. An experimental analysis of the contribution of 224Ra and 226Ra and progeny to the gross alpha-particle activity of water samples. Health Phys. 2008;94:459-70 pubmed publisher
  40. Havelka M, Bluďovský R. Activity standardisation of ²²?Ra by 4?? liquid scintillation counting method. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;81:216-20 pubmed publisher
    Activity of (226)Ra in radium daughter products free solution was determined by 4?? liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method, where the detection efficiency of radium decay is practically equal to 1...
  41. Silva C, Amaral R, Amaral A. Determination of 226Ra in cheese produced in the rural area of Pernambuco-Brazil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;79:336-9 pubmed
    ..In this context, this report discusses the methodology of sample analyses as well as possible consequences of the (226)Ra intake for human health...
  42. Pacilio M, Ventroni G, Cassano B, Ialongo P, Lorenzon L, Di Castro E, et al. A case report of image-based dosimetry of bone metastases with Alpharadin ((223)Ra-dichloride) therapy: inter-fraction variability of absorbed dose and follow-up. Ann Nucl Med. 2016;30:163-8 pubmed publisher
  43. Waska H, Kim S, Kim G, Peterson R, Burnett W. An efficient and simple method for measuring (226)Ra using the scintillation cell in a delayed coincidence counting system (RaDeCC). J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1859-62 pubmed publisher
  44. Lauria D, Ribeiro F, Conti C, Loureiro F. Radium and uranium levels in vegetables grown using different farming management systems. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Vegetables from organically and conventionally grown farming systems showed no differences in the concentration of radium and uranium...
  45. Nakano Ohta T, Kubota T, Ando A, Fujii T, Fukutani S, Nakata E, et al. Isotopic investigations for the origin of relic from the Matsusaki site, Japan. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1479-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The environmental radioactivity and isotope ratio verified that the adhesion originated from the seaweed and/or sea grass...
  46. Weidner J, Mashnik S, John K, Ballard B, Birnbaum E, Bitteker L, et al. 225Ac and 223Ra production via 800 MeV proton irradiation of natural thorium targets. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:2590-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows agreement within a factor of two. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of (225)Ac and (223)Ra is a viable production method...
  47. Prieto C, Lozano J, Blanco Rodríguez P, Tomé F. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments. J Hazard Mater. 2013;250-251:439-46 pubmed publisher
    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times...
  48. Todorovic N, Forkapic S, Bikit I, Mrdja D, Veskovic M, Todorovic S. Monitoring for exposures to TENORM sources in Vojvodina region. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:655-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of measurement of indoor radon concentration in schools and kindergartens and dose-rate and gamma-spectrometry measurements of the workplace with TENORM materials are presented...
  49. Boukhenfouf W, Boucenna A. The radioactivity measurements in soils and fertilizers using gamma spectrometry technique. J Environ Radioact. 2011;102:336-9 pubmed publisher
    ..93 and 0.12 Bq/kg; however the third value was below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA). The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the representative level index I(?r) for all samples were also calculated...
  50. Vaidyanathan G, Zalutsky M. Applications of 211At and 223Ra in targeted alpha-particle radiotherapy. Curr Radiopharm. 2011;4:283-94 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, for targeting bone metastases, 223Ra is the ideal radionuclide because simple cationic radium can be used for this purpose...
  51. Cam N, Yaprak G, Eren E. The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;142:300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the dose rates in the coal-handling areas due to external gamma radiation are found to be within the range specified by UNSCEAR (2000) report...
  52. Baeza A, Salas A, Legarda F. Determining factors in the elimination of uranium and radium from groundwaters during a standard potabilization process. Sci Total Environ. 2008;406:24-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These waters were used to compare the efficiency in eliminating their uranium and radium content of two potabilization processes - one the standard chlorination-only process used by their respective ..
  53. Antovic N, Svrkota N, Antovic I. Radiological impacts of natural radioactivity from soil in Montenegro. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;148:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..e. in accordance with those in the other South European countries. In order to evaluate the health hazard, radium equivalent activity, absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, external hazard index, annual gonadal dose ..