californium

Summary

Summary: A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cf, atomic number 98, and atomic weight 251. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Californium has medical use as a radiation source for radiotherapy.

Top Publications

  1. Rivard M, Melhus C, Zinkin H, Stapleford L, Evans K, Wazer D, et al. A radiobiological model for the relative biological effectiveness of high-dose-rate 252Cf brachytherapy. Radiat Res. 2005;164:319-23 pubmed
    ..Using these relationships, our results were in general concordance with high-dose-rate 252Cf RBE values obtained from Russian clinical experience...
  2. Martin R, Laxson R, Miller J, Wierzbicki J, Rivard M, Marsh D. Development of high-activity 252Cf sources for neutron brachytherapy. Appl Radiat Isot. 1997;48:1567-70 pubmed
    ..Equipment designed for hot cell fabrication of these wires is being tested. A parallel program is under way to relicense the existing source design for fabrication at the REDC...
  3. Liu H, Wang Q, Jia X, Liu B, Wang C. Early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy: clinical report on 16 cases. Tumori. 2013;99:172-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Californium-252 (²?²Cf) neutron brachytherapy is a form of high linear energy transfer radiotherapy, which has proven effective when used in combination with external beam radiotherapy to treat intracavitary cancers of the cervix, ..
  4. Lei X, Qian C, Qing Y, Zhao K, Yang Z, Dai N, et al. Californium-252 brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer: long-term treatment results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81:1264-70 pubmed publisher
    To observe, by retrospective analysis, the curative effects and complications due to californium-252 (252Cf) neutron intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the treatment of cervical cancer.
  5. Tacev T, Ptácková B, Strnad V. Californium-252 (252Cf) versus conventional gamma radiation in the brachytherapy of advanced cervical carcinoma long-term treatment results of a randomized study. Strahlenther Onkol. 2003;179:377-84 pubmed
    ..Among the reasons for this is the varying radiosensitivity of different tumor subpopulations. Treatment with californium-252 ((252)Cf), as a source of gamma/neutron radiation in brachytherapy, provides properties and new treatment ..
  6. Maruyama Y, van Nagell J, Yoneda J, Donaldson E, Gallion H, Powell D, et al. A review of californium-252 neutron brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Cancer. 1991;68:1189-97 pubmed
    ..test the feasibility, the potential, and to develop methods for using the neutron-emitting radioactive isotope, californium-252 (Cf-252), for the treatment of cervical cancer...
  7. Luo G, Zheng C, Shan J. [The preliminary report of cervical cancer treated with californium-252 neutron after loading intracavitary radiotherapy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2001;36:742-4 pubmed
    To observe the therapeutic effectiveness and complications of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy in cervical cancer.
  8. Caroff M, Deprun C, Karibian D. 252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry applied to the analysis of underivatized rough-type endotoxin preparations. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:12321-4 pubmed
    ..Since these sources of heterogeneity are critical for many biological activities, the spectra underline the need to define the composition of each preparation of endotoxin used in structure-function studies...
  9. Rivard M. Dosimetry for 252Cf neutron emitting brachytherapy sources: protocol, measurements, and calculations. Med Phys. 1999;26:1503-14 pubmed
    ..Neutron isodose distributions and data necessary for clinical implementation of 252Cf AT sources are also presented...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Ryde S, Morgan W, Evans C, Sivyer A, Dutton J. Calibration and evaluation of a 252Cf-based neutron activation analysis instrument for the determination of nitrogen in vivo. Phys Med Biol. 1989;34:1429-41 pubmed
    ..4-110 kg) containing simulated skeletons and the major organs of the body. For these phantoms the mean discrepancy of the measured to the known nitrogen content was +4.9%. The simultaneous measurement of chlorine and carbon is discussed...
  2. Maruyama Y, van Nagell J, Yoneda J, Donaldson E, Gallion H, Higgins R, et al. Efficacy of brachytherapy with californium-252 neutrons versus cesium-137 photons for eradication of bulky localized cervical cancer: single-institution study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988;80:501-6 pubmed
    ..0 for 252Cf...
  3. Lebbar S, Haeffner Cavaillon N, Karibian D, Le Beyec Y, Caroff M. 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry analysis of lipids A obtained by an elimination reaction under mild conditions. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1995;9:693-6 pubmed
    ..Use was made of the special features of 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry for forming molecular ions from these species and giving qualitative and quantitative information from the primary mass spectrum...
  4. Cebulska Wasilewska A, Schneider K, Kim J. Relative biological efficiency for the induction of various gene mutations in normal and enriched with 10B Tradescantia cells by neutrons from 252Cf source. Mutat Res. 2001;474:57-70 pubmed
    The effectiveness of neutrons from a Californium-252 source in the induction of various abnormalities in the Tradescantia clone 4430 stamen hair cells (Trad-SH assay) were studied...
  5. Raimondi N, Tournier B, Groetz J, Piot J, Riebler E, Crovisier P, et al. Assessment of neutron dosemeters around standard sources and nuclear fissile objects. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;101:197-200 pubmed
    ..The CR-39 led to an underestimation of 30% with respect to the neutron dose-rate meter measurements. In addition, the MCNP calculation code was used in the different configurations...
  6. Nielsen P, Landis B, Svoboda M, Schneider K, Przybylski M. N-terminal sequence determination of polypeptides and peptide mixtures by Edman degradation combined with californium-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 1990;191:302-8 pubmed
    ..With the currently used conditions, plasma desorption mass spectrometry has been found feasible for approximately 30 sequence steps and sensitive to subnanomole amounts of proteins, with Mr up to approximately 10,000 Da...
  7. Khan A, Shaikh B, Allen E, Sokoloski E. Californium-252 plasma desorption mass spectrometry of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrom. 1988;17:329-35 pubmed
    This paper presents mass spectral data of eleven aminoglycoside antibiotics by using californium-252 plasma desorption (252Cf PD) mass spectrometry...
  8. Burmeister J, Kota C, Maughan R. Measured microdosimetric spectra and therapeutic potential of boron neutron capture enhancement of 252Cf brachytherapy. Radiat Res. 2005;164:312-8 pubmed
    b>Californium-252 is a neutron-emitting radioisotope used as a brachytherapy source for radioresistant tumors...
  9. Komatsu K, Sawada S, Takeoka S, Kodama S, Okumura Y. Dose-rate effects of neutrons and gamma-rays on the induction of mutation and oncogenic transformation in plateau-phase mouse m5S cells. Int J Radiat Biol. 1993;63:469-74 pubmed
    The dose-rate effect of 252-californium neutrons was investigated using confluent cultures of mouse m5S cells. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons for oncogenic transformation was increased from 3.3 to 5...
  10. Yoshikawa I, Hoshi M, Ikenaga M. Distinct difference in relative biological effectiveness of 252Cf neutrons for the induction of mitotic crossing over and intragenic reversion of the white-ivory allele in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutat Res. 1996;357:35-42 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the RBE of neutrons is much greater for mitotic crossing over in comparison to the intragenic white-ivory reversion events. Possible causes for the difference in RBE are discussed...
  11. Wang C, Zino J, Kessler G. Enhancement of a 252Cf-based neutron beam via subcritical multiplication for neutron capture therapy. Appl Radiat Isot. 2000;53:811-4 pubmed
  12. Sukhodub L, Grebenik L, Chivanov V. Study of anticancer drug interaction with DNA by means of particle-induced desorption mass spectrometry: prospydine and deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1994;8:195-8 pubmed
    ..The adduct which corresponds to a peak at m/z 524.5 and which occurs as a result of the particular degradation of Pro during its alkylating of pdG has been found...
  13. Li T, Yang L, Ma J, Fang D. Fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry using a spherical moderator with position-sensitive detectors. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;123:15-20 pubmed
    ..When realistic input spectra are used for the unfolding, the overall deviations of the calculated results for four dosimetric quantities are less than +/-10%. The results of other input spectra are also discussed in this report...
  14. Maruyama Y, Feola J, Wierzbicki J. Study of biological effects of varying mixtures of Cf-252 and gamma radiation on the acute radiation syndromes: relevance to clinical radiotherapy of radioresistant cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993;27:907-14 pubmed
    ..Data for the 30 day bone marrow syndrome (BM-50) and the 6-10 day gastrointestinal (GI-50) syndrome for a one and two fraction schedule and acute and low dose rate irradiation using pure and mixed Cf-252 and photon radiation are presented...
  15. Himit M, Itoh T, Endo S, Fujikawa K, Hoshi M. Dosimetry of mixed neutron and gamma radiation with paired Fricke solutions in light and heavy water. J Radiat Res. 1996;37:97-106 pubmed
    ..In contrast, we found that micronuclear yields in onion roots can measure the neutron component of mixed radiation fields at the order of 10 cGy with reasonable accuracy even if the neutron to gamma-ray dose ratio is unknown...
  16. Zhang G, Becker F, Urban M, Xuan Y. Simulating Makrofol as a detector for neutron-induced recoils. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:218-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The simulations were based on the restricted energy loss model, and the concept of energy threshold and critical angle. Experiments were carried out with (252)Cf neutrons to verify the simulation results...
  17. Kota C, Maughan R. A dosimetry system for boron neutron capture therapy based on the dual counter microdosimetric technique. Bull Cancer Radiother. 1996;83 Suppl:173s-5s pubmed
    ..A systematic discrepancy is observed in the gamma dose rate measurements, with the present measurements being approximately 35% lower than those reported elsewhere...
  18. Cassels F, Fales H, London J, Carlson R, van Halbeek H. Structure of a streptococcal adhesin carbohydrate receptor. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14127-35 pubmed
    ..sanguis H1 is: alpha-L-Rhap-(1----2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1----3)-alpha-D-Galp- (1----3)-beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-Glcp-(1----3)-alpha/beta-D-Gal...
  19. Yanch J, Zamenhof R. Dosimetry of 252Cf sources for neutron radiotherapy with and without augmentation by boron neutron capture therapy. Radiat Res. 1992;131:249-56 pubmed
    ..Comparisons of Monte Carlo results with experimental and analytical dosimetry data available in the literature are also presented...
  20. Schmidt B, Maughan R, Yudelev M, Kota C, Wanwilairat S. Experimental determination of the thermal neutron flux around two different types of high intensity 252Cf sources. Med Phys. 1999;26:83-6 pubmed
    ..The results of these measurements are compared and indicate that the differences in the construction of the sources influence the thermal dose component...
  21. Matveeva I, Smirnov A, Vodennikov B, Popov I, Semenov D, Kolesnikov M, et al. Neutron flow exposure as a test for survival of Artemia salina spores. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2004;138:470-4 pubmed
    ..Irradiation led to a 4-fold acceleration of nauplius development and to modification of the element profiles of live spores. The difference between absorption/diffusion of thermal neutrons by live and dead spores was revealed...
  22. Martin R, Knauer J, Balo P. Production, distribution and applications of californium-252 neutron sources. Appl Radiat Isot. 2000;53:785-92 pubmed
    ..6-yr half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10(11) neutrons s(-1). Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation ..
  23. Macfarlane R, Hu Z, Song S, Pittenauer E, Schmid E, Allmaier G, et al. 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry. II--A perspective of new directions. Biol Mass Spectrom. 1994;23:117-30 pubmed
  24. Cole R, Domelsmith L, David C, Laine R, DeLucca A. 252Cf plasma-desorption mass spectrometry of lipid A from Enterobacter agglomerans. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 1992;6:616-22 pubmed
    ..minnesota and E. agglomerans show strong similarities. Palmitoyl, hydroxymyristoyl, myristoyl, and lauroyl side-chains which are known to be present in the former are inferred from spectral evidence to be present in the latter...
  25. Yamada K, Ito A, Watanabe H, Takahashi T, Basaran N, Gotoh T. High sensitivity to hepato-tumorigenesis in hypocatalasemic C3H/C(s)b/Gen mice exposed to low doses of 252Cf fission neutrons and 60Co gamma-rays. Anticancer Res. 1997;17:2041-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the implication of oxygen radicals in hepato-tumorigenesis was strongly suggested and high sensitivity of C(s)b to low doses of radiation would be useful to investigate the mechanism of radiation tumorigenesis...
  26. Souto E, Campos L. Brazilian gamma-neutron dosemeter: response to 241AmBe and 252Cf neutron sources. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:215-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To verify the dosimetry system response to different neutron spectra, prototypes were irradiated with a (252)Cf source and evaluated using the dose-calculation algorithm developed for (241)AmBe sources...
  27. Tsarbopoulos A, Becker G, Occolowitz J, Jardine I. Peptide and protein mapping by 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 1988;171:113-23 pubmed
    ..The PD mapping method is both fast and sensitive, requiring only low nanomole amounts per map...
  28. Zhang M, Xu H, Pan S, Lin S, Yue J, Liu J. Low-dose-rate californium-252 neutron intracavitary afterloading radiotherapy combined with conformal radiotherapy for treatment of cervical cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;83:966-71 pubmed publisher
    To study the efficacy of low-dose-rate californium-252 ((252)Cf) neutron intracavitary afterloading radiotherapy (RT) combined with external pelvic RT for treatment of cervical cancer.
  29. Lei X, Shan J, Tang C, Zhao K. [Follow-up study of clinical effects of californium-252 neutron intracavitary radiotherapy and external beam radiotherapy in endometrial cancer]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2007;42:733-6 pubmed
    ..To observe the three year local control rate, overall survival rate, complications and prognostic factors of endometrial cancer treated with (252)Cf neutron intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)...
  30. Roberts N, Jones L. The content of 250Cf and 248Cm in 252Cf neutron sources and the effect on the neutron emission rate. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;126:83-8 pubmed
    ..The importance of this problem to other calibration laboratories and users of (252)Cf sources is emphasised...
  31. Curran W, Littman P, Raney R. Interstitial radiation therapy in the treatment of childhood soft-tissue sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;14:169-74 pubmed
    ..The radionuclides employed were Iridium-192 (9), Iodine-125 (2), and Californium-252 (1). The median prescribed dose in the Iridium-192 group was 3960 cGy (1955-7300)...
  32. Tsujimura N, Yoshida T. Characteristics of the simulated workplace neutron fields using a 252Cf source surrounded with cylindrical moderators. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:117-21 pubmed
    ..These fields can provide the realistic neutron spectra similar to those encountered around the glove-boxes of the fabrication process of MOX (PuO2-UO2 mixed oxide) fuel...
  33. Elsheikh N, Viesti G, Elagib I, Habbani F. On the use of a (252Cf-3He) assembly for landmine detection by the neutron back-scattering method. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:643-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the effect of the shield when a (252)Cf source in the range 10(4)-10(7)s(-1) was employed, and to optimize the geometry for future prototypes...
  34. Lewis D, Natto S, Ryde S, Evans C. Monte Carlo design study of a moderated 252Cf source for in vivo neutron activation analysis of aluminium. Phys Med Biol. 1997;42:625-36 pubmed
    ..Increased source strengths may be necessary to compensate for this decreased thermal fluence, to allow measurements to be made within an acceptable time limit for the comfort of the patient...
  35. Svoboda M, Przybylski M, Schreurs J, Miyajima A, Hogeland K, Deinzer M. Mass spectrometric determination of glycosylation sites and oligosaccharide composition of insect-expressed mouse interleukin-3. J Chromatogr. 1991;562:403-19 pubmed
    ..Glucose was also present, which indicated incomplete processing of the insect-expressed N-linked oligosaccharides...
  36. Mar ina L, Chekhonadskiĭ V, Kravets O, Rusanov A, Kiseleva V, Riadtseva A, et al. [Comparison of effectiveness of treatment for cervical carcinoma using different brachytherapy equipment]. Vopr Onkol. 2004;50:55-60 pubmed
    ..9% +/- 5.4, respectively. Ten-year survival for stage I was 56.9% +/- 15.1; 85.4% +/- 13.1 and 80.1% +/- 1.5; stage II--65% +/- 5.2; 46.5% +/- 8.7 and 70.7% +/- 3.5; stage III--42% +/- 8.8; 51.3 +/- 9.9 and 64.6% +/- 6.2, respectively...
  37. Brandão S, Campos T. Brain tumour and infiltrations dosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy combined with 252Cf brachytherapy. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;149:289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, BNCT combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy is an alternative technique for brain tumour treatment because it intensifies dose deposition at the tumour and at infiltrations, sparing healthy brain tissue...
  38. Patchell R, Maruyama Y, Tibbs P, Beach J, Kryscio R, Young A. Neutron interstitial brachytherapy for malignant gliomas: a pilot study. J Neurosurg. 1988;68:67-72 pubmed
    Fifty-six patients with malignant glioma were treated with implantation of the neutron-emitting element californium-252 (252Cf) within 2 weeks after surgical debulking of the tumor...
  39. Turker M, Walker K, Jennings C, Mellon I, Yusufji A, Urano M. Spontaneous and ionizing radiation induced mutations involve large events when selecting for loss of an autosomal locus. Mutat Res. 1995;329:97-105 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the suitability of the P19H22 cell line for mutational studies, particularly those that are large in nature...
  40. Niwa O, Fan Y, Numoto M, Kamiya K, Kominami R. Induction of a germline mutation at a hypervariable mouse minisatellite locus by 252Cf radiation. J Radiat Res. 1996;37:217-24 pubmed
    ..9 for spermatozoa stage irradiation, 2.6 for spermatid stage irradiation and 6.5 for spermatogonia irradiation...
  41. Kota C, Maughan R, Tattam D, Beynon T. Use of low-pressure tissue equivalent proportional counters for the dosimetry of neutron beams used in BNCT and BNCEFNT. Med Phys. 2000;27:535-48 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we conclude that the paired low-pressure proportional counters can be used to establish an independent technique of dose measurement in these radiation fields...
  42. Cummings F. On the effect of an error in a standard D2O-moderated 252Cf energy spectrum. Health Phys. 2009;97:628-9 pubmed publisher
    ..If the referenced spectrum is used as tabulated, the error contributes a total error to neutron dose values from this source of approximately 3%...
  43. Ryde S, Morgan W, Compston J, Evans C, Sivyer A, Dutton J. Measurements of total body calcium by prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis using a 252Cf source. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1990;26-27:429-37 pubmed
    ..The mean discrepancy between the measured and known Ca contents was 3.6%. The technique has been applied to two patient groups, and encouraging results were obtained...
  44. Natto S, Lewis D, Ryde S. Benchmarking the MCNP code for Monte Carlo modelling of an in vivo neutron activation analysis system. Appl Radiat Isot. 1998;49:545-7 pubmed
    ..This benchmarking exercise has given us a high degree of confidence in MCNP as a tool for the design of IVNAA systems...
  45. Mackie A, Hannan W, Smith M, Tothill P. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252. J Med Eng Technol. 1988;12:152-9 pubmed
    ..b>Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation ..
  46. Wang C, Zhang X. Compound dual radiation action theory for 252Cf brachytherapy. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;110:801-6 pubmed
  47. Vanhavere F, D ERRICO F. Standardisation of superheated drop and bubble detectors. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2002;101:283-7 pubmed
    ..The analysis was performed in terms of linearity, reproducibility, ageing, minimum detection thresholds, energy and angular dependence of the response and the influence of various climatic conditions...
  48. Tauchi H, Nakamura N, Komatsu K, Sawada S. Accumulation of cells at G2/M stage by low dose-rate irradiation renders the cell population more susceptible to the subsequent induction of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutations by 252Cf fission neutrons. J Radiat Res. 1996;37:49-57 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that radiation-induced G2 block would be at least partly (but can not be totally) responsible for the inverse dose-rate effect...
  49. Maruyama Y, van Nagell J, Yoneda J, Donaldson E, Gallion H, Patel P, et al. Feasibility study of Californium-252 for the therapy of stage IV cervical cancer. Cancer. 1988;61:2448-52 pubmed
    Twenty patients with Stage IVA and IVB cervic cancers were treated with Californium-252 (Cf) neutron brachytherapy (NT) in a feasibility trial between 1976 and 1986...
  50. Yokoyama H, Fujiwara H, Watanabe H. Dietary nucleosides and nucleotides do not affect tumor incidence but reduce amyloidosis incidence in B6C3F1 mice irradiated with californium-252. Nutrition. 2004;20:383-9 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effects of a dietary mixture of nucleosides and nucleotides (NS) on the systemic incidence rates of postirradiation carcinogenesis and non-neoplastic lesions in mice...
  51. Tatara M, Virsik Z. Radiation damage to lymphocyte membrane. Changes of binding and fluorescent parameters of 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulphonate. Gen Physiol Biophys. 1993;12:371-80 pubmed
    ..The quantum yield of fluorescence also decreased compared with control value. The experimental findings were interpreted as suggesting structural changes in the lipid environment of the lymphocyte membrane caused by irradiation...
  52. Ghassoun J. Effect of tissue inhomogeneities on dose distributions from Cf-252 brachytherapy source. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;71:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed a significant change in neutron dose rate distributions in presence of heterogeneities. However, their effect on gamma rays dose distribution is minimal...
  53. Tacev T, Vacek A, Strnad V, Rasovska O, Krystof V, Ptackova B. Hypoxyradiotherapy of uterine cervix cancer to decrease of acute side-effects and treatment complications. Strahlenther Onkol. 1990;166:710-3 pubmed
    ..01). Radiological preconditions for using acute hypoxia in radiotherapy are discussed...