americium

Summary

Summary: A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, and atomic number 95. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.

Top Publications

  1. Jakopic R, Tavcar P, Benedik L. Sequential determination of Pu and Am radioisotopes in environmental samples; a comparison of two separation procedures. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:504-11 pubmed
    ..The methods were tested on reference materials and on two sediments. All the results were in good agreement with the reference values. The evaluation of uncertainty is also included...
  2. Lujaniene G, Aninkevicius V, Lujanas V. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:108-19 pubmed
    ..229 and 0.185, respectively. The exponential decrease in the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio from 0.30 to 0.19 (mean values) was observed in 1995-2003...
  3. Yantasee W, Sangvanich T, Creim J, Pattamakomsan K, Wiacek R, Fryxell G, et al. Functional sorbents for selective capture of plutonium, americium, uranium, and thorium in blood. Health Phys. 2010;99:413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By changing the organic groups of SAMMS, they can be used not only for actinides but also for other radionuclides. By using the mixture of these SAMMS materials, broad spectrum decorporation of radionuclides is very feasible...
  4. Sokolik G, Ovsiannikova S, Ivanova T, Leinova S. Soil-plant transfer of plutonium and americium in contaminated regions of Belarus after the Chernobyl catastrophe. Environ Int. 2004;30:939-47 pubmed
    Experimental data are presented for the soil to plant transfer of plutonium and americium into the main species of grass vegetation of Belarusian grasslands contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe of 1986...
  5. Schäfer T, Artinger R, Dardenne K, Bauer A, Schuessler W, Kim J. Colloid-borne americium migration in Gorleben groundwater: significance of iron secondary phase transformation. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:1528-34 pubmed
    ..the impact of hematite and the low-crystalline precursor 2-line ferrihydrite on colloid-mediated transport of americium(III) is investigated...
  6. Stap J, Krawczyk P, van Oven C, Barendsen G, Essers J, Kanaar R, et al. Induction of linear tracks of DNA double-strand breaks by alpha-particle irradiation of cells. Nat Methods. 2008;5:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..arrays of DSBs in nuclei of adherent eukaryotic cells by exposing the cells to alpha particles from a small Americium source (Box 1)...
  7. Talmor A, Laichter Y, Ben Haim Y, Kushelevsky A. Adaptive assay of radioactive pulmonary aerosols with an external detector. Int J Rad Appl Instrum A. 1990;41:989-93 pubmed
    ..We study the assay of 241Am distributed in the lungs of a Lawrence Livermore realistic phantom using a NaI-CsI Phoswich detector...
  8. Boschi F, Meo S, Rossi P, Calandrino R, Sbarbati A, Spinelli A. Optical imaging of alpha emitters: simulations, phantom, and in vivo results. J Biomed Opt. 2011;16:126011 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that the results presented in this work can be useful to describe a possible mechanism for the in vivo detection of alpha emitters used for therapeutic purposes...
  9. Bondareva L, Vlasova I, Mogilnaya O, Bolsunovsky A, Kalmykov S. Microdistribution of 241Am in structures of submerged macrophyte Elodea canadensis growing in the Yenisei River. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..canadensis was not uniform. (241)Am distribution vary depending on the age of the leaf blades, the state of the cells and morphological features of the plant stem...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Agarande M, Benzoubir S, Bouisset P, Calmet D. Determination of 241Am in sediments by isotope dilution high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID HR ICP-MS). Appl Radiat Isot. 2001;55:161-5 pubmed
    ..The ID HR ICP-MS results are compared with isotope dilution alpha spectrometry...
  2. Rout A, Venkatesan K, Srinivasan T, Vasudeva Rao P. Liquid-liquid extraction of Pu(IV), U(VI) and Am(III) using malonamide in room temperature ionic liquid as diluent. J Hazard Mater. 2012;221-222:62-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The stoichiometry of the metal-solvate was determined to be 1:2 for U(VI) and Pu(IV) and 1:3 for Am(III)...
  3. Knatko V, Asimova V, Yanush A, Golikov Y, Ivashkevich I, Kouzmina L, et al. A prognostic estimation of the area contaminated with alpha-emitting transuranium isotopes in Belarus following the Chernobyl accident. J Environ Radioact. 2005;83:49-59 pubmed
    ..7 times larger, reaching approximately 3.5 x10(3)km(2). Of this, almost 20% will have a contamination level of 1850--3700 Bq/m(2)...
  4. Dyer F, Thomson J, Croudace I, Cox R, Wadsworth R. Records of change in salt marshes: a radiochronological study of three Westerschelde (SW Netherlands) marshes. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:854-61 pubmed
    ..This may be related to a combination of channel deepening and straightening operations undertaken in the mid-1970s and/or natural changes in winter wave climate...
  5. Carroll J, Boisson F, Teyssie J, King S, Krosshavn M, Carroll M, et al. Distribution coefficients (Kd's) for use in risk assessment models of the Kara Sea. Appl Radiat Isot. 1999;51:121-9 pubmed
    ..and laboratory Kd experiments were conducted for the following radionuclides associated with nuclear waste: americium, europium, plutonium, cobalt, cesium and strontium...
  6. Kim S, Kim B, Chang I, Lee J, Kim J, Pradhan A. Response of six neutron survey meters in mixed fields of fast and thermal neutrons. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2013;156:518-24 pubmed publisher
    ..REM-500 (tissue-equivalent proportional counter) exhibited a response close to 1.0 in the fast neutron fields and an under-response of ?50 % in the thermal neutron field. ..
  7. Tanaka T, Ya Anant N. Study on migration behaviour of 237Np and 241Am in near-surface environments. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;146:303-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The sorption was mainly controlled by ion-exchange reaction. The migration behaviour might be evaluated by the distribution coefficient...
  8. Marzocchi O, Breustedt B, Mostacci D, Urban M. Comparison of stretched and sitting configurations for partial-body measurements. Appl Radiat Isot. 2011;69:1156-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The simulations were used to estimate the counting efficiencies and also to estimate the Compton scattering produced by (40)K, in turn used to calculate the minimum detectable activities...
  9. Lusa M, Lehto J, Leskinen A, Jaakkola T. (137)Cs, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am in bottom sediments and surface water of Lake Päijänne, Finland. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:468-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition no previous data on the distribution of plutonium and americium in the sediment profiles of Lake Päijänne exist...
  10. Schmitz Feuerhake I, Mietelski J, Gaca P. Transuranic isotopes and 90Sr in attic dust in the vicinity of two nuclear establishments in northern Germany. Health Phys. 2003;84:599-607 pubmed
    ..The derived release of alpha emitters is assumed to have contributed to the induction of a leukemia cluster in children, which was observed in Elbmarsch between 1990 and 1996...
  11. da Silva C, Loureiro J, Delgado J, Poledna R, Moreira D, Iwahara A, et al. Standardization of (166m)Ho and 243Am/239Np by live-timed anti-coincidence counting with extending dead time. Appl Radiat Isot. 2012;70:2056-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These systems have been used for primary standardization at LNMRI for many radionuclides and recently took part in the (124)Sb and (177)Lu International Key Comparisons with good performance...
  12. Barquinero J, Stephan G, Schmid E. Effect of americium-241 alpha-particles on the dose-response of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Int J Radiat Biol. 2004;80:155-64 pubmed
    ..In particular, the validity of using the yield of characteristic types of chromosome abnormalities in stable cells as quantitative indicators for retrospective dose reconstruction has been evaluated...
  13. Magalotti N, Lacoste V, Lebreton L, Gressier V. Investigation of the neutron energy distribution of the IRSN 241Am-Be(alpha,n) source. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125:69-72 pubmed
  14. Sadi B, Li C, Masoud A, Ko R, Kramer G. An emergency urine bioassay method for 241Am by extraction chromatography and liquid scintillation counting. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;141:134-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Harvey M, Hansom J, MacKenzie A. Constraints on the use of anthropogenic radionuclide-derived chronologies for saltmarsh sediments. J Environ Radioact. 2007;95:126-48 pubmed
    ..Integrating the use of chronologies with other independent methods secures more robust data for assessing both marsh sustainability and their longevity as radionuclide sinks...
  16. Carbaugh E, Lynch T, Antonio C, Medina Del Valle F. Twenty-four years of follow-up for a Hanford plutonium wound case. Health Phys. 2010;99:483-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Annual routine medical exams have not identified any adverse health effects associated with the intake...
  17. Manohari M, Mathiyarasu R, Rajagopal V, Meenakshisundaram V, Indira R. Calibration of phoswich-based lung counting system using realistic chest phantom. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..241)Am activity in the JAERI phantom which was received as a part of IAEA inter-comparison exercise was estimated. This paper presents the optimisation of PSD electronics and the salient results of the calibration...
  18. Potter C. Intake retention fractions developed from models used in the determination of dose coefficients developed for ICRP publication 68--particulate inhalation. Health Phys. 2002;83:594-789 pubmed
    ..The values in these tables can be used for intake calculations, development of bioassay frequencies, and development of action levels...
  19. Vilks P, Baik M. Laboratory migration experiments with radionuclides and natural colloids in a granite fracture. J Contam Hydrol. 2001;47:197-210 pubmed
    ..The introduction of a relatively high concentration of bentonite colloids actually reduced 85Sr transport because, compared to natural colloids, the bentonite colloids were less mobile and they sorbed 85Sr more strongly...
  20. Bhattacharyya A, Mohapatra P, Manchanda V. Separation of Am3+ and Eu3+ using an extraction chromatographic resin containing bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid as the stationary phase. J Chromatogr A. 2006;1123:26-30 pubmed
    ..2 while Am was eluted out using 5 mL of 1 M HNO3. The performance of the resin material was found to be reasonably good even after three cycles...
  21. Roussel Debet S. Experimental values for 241Am and 239+240Pu Kd's in French agricultural soils. J Environ Radioact. 2005;79:171-85 pubmed
    ..These experiments were conducted in stirred batch reactors and the sorption isotherms were plotted. For americium, the experimental K(d) values varied from 60 to 4000 Lkg(-1) (d.w...
  22. Bartle C. Features of the measurement of fat in meat using the neutron/gamma transmission (NEUGAT) method. Appl Radiat Isot. 1995;46:741-50 pubmed
    ..A comparison is made of measurement using an 241Am-Be and a 252Cf source...
  23. Cooper E, Milintawisamai M, Panyatipsakul Y. Implementation of a radiochemical procedure for the analysis of isotopes of Pu, Am and Cm in food and environmental samples. Sci Total Environ. 1993;130-131:177-86 pubmed
    ..b>Americium and curium came off the column unseparated from most of the other elements in the matrix and they were separated ..
  24. Marianno C, Higley K, Moss S, Palmer T. An experimental determination of FIDLER scanning efficiency at specific speeds. Health Phys. 2003;84:197-202 pubmed
    ..Higher response time setting had the effect of reducing the variability of the reading but also reducing efficiency...
  25. Artinger R, Schuessler W, Schaefer T, Kim J. A kinetic study of Am(III)/humic colloid interactions. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:4358-63 pubmed
    ..This paper provides, therefore, a basis for a better understanding of the colloid-borne Am migration in porous aquifer systems...
  26. Nakamura K, Maeda M, Yasumune T, Maehata K, Ishibashi K, Tanaka K, et al. Development of a microcalorimeter with transition edge sensor for detection of LX rays emitted by transuranium elements. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;146:88-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed TES microcalorimeter was irradiated with LX rays emitted by an (241)Am source at an operating temperature of 140 mK. An energy resolution of ~80 eV (full width at the half maximum) was obtained for L(?1)X ray of 17.75 keV...
  27. Stumpf S, Stumpf T, Dardenne K, Hennig C, Foerstendorf H, Klenze R, et al. Sorption of Am(III) onto 6-line-ferrihydrite and its alteration products: investigations by EXAFS. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:3522-8 pubmed
    ..The results of the fit to the EXAFS data indicate the release of sorbed Am(III) at pH 5.5 during the transformation and likely a partial incorporation of Am into the Fh transformation products at pH 8.0...
  28. Lloyd R, Taylor G, Fisher D, Schlenker R, Miller S. Effective thresholds for induction of skeletal malignancies by radionuclides. Health Phys. 2000;79:722-7 pubmed
    ..Re-examination of our data for these analyses has suggested a novel concept for calculation of carcinogenic dose to endosteal bone surfaces...
  29. Zotina T, Bolsunovsky A, Bondareva L. Accumulation of (241)Am by suspended matter, diatoms and aquatic weeds of the Yenisei River. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In our experiments large particles of seston (>8mum), comparable in size with diatoms, took up most of americium from water...
  30. Copplestone D, Johnson M, Jones S. Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in soil and vegetation of a sand dune ecosystem. J Environ Radioact. 2001;55:93-108 pubmed
    ..Concentration ratios (vegetation:soil) for activity concentrations in the two species were similar, in the ranges: 0.05-0.14 (137Cs), 0.025-0.097 (238Pu), 0.022-0.057 (239 + 240Pu) and 0.025-0.212 (241Am)...
  31. Shabana E, Al Shammari H. Assessment of the global fallout of plutonium isotopes and americium-241 in the soil of the central region of Saudi Arabia. J Environ Radioact. 2001;57:67-74 pubmed
    ..Plutonium and americium were sequentially separated from all other components of the sample by anion-exchange chromatography and co-..
  32. Ciffroy P, Durrieu G, Garnier J. Probabilistic distribution coefficients (K(d)s) in freshwater for radioisotopes of Ag, Am, Ba, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, I, Mn, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sb, Sr and Th: implications for uncertainty analysis of models simulating the transport of radionuclides in rivers. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:785-94 pubmed publisher
    ..For 7 other radionuclides (Ba, Be, Ce, Ra, Ru, Sb and Th), a simplified procedure was adopted because of the scarcity of data: only non-conditional PDFs were built, without incorporating a scoring procedure...
  33. Taylor D, Hodgson S, Stradling N. Treatment of human contamination with plutonium and americium: would orally administered Ca- or Zn-DTPA be effective?. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;127:469-71 pubmed
    Accidental or deliberate dispersion of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) into the public environment could contaminate large numbers of people by inhalation...
  34. Bailey B, Eckerman K, Townsend L. An analysis of a puncture wound case with medical intervention. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105:509-12 pubmed
    ..when leaving a work site that was undergoing decontamination because of past operations with plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am). Direct surveys of the wound site confirmed the presence of contamination...
  35. Lujaniene G, Benes P, Stamberg K, Sčiglo T. Kinetics of plutonium and americium sorption to natural clay. J Environ Radioact. 2012;108:41-9 pubmed publisher
  36. Lopez M, Broggio D, Capello K, Cardenas Mendez E, El Faramawy N, Franck D, et al. EURADOS intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling for the assessment of americium in a USTUR leg phantom. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..USTUR) has taken place to carry out an intercomparison on measurements and Monte Carlo modelling determining americium deposited in the bone of a USTUR leg phantom...
  37. Chauhan V, Howland M, Kutzner B, McNamee J, Bellier P, Wilkins R. Biological effects of alpha particle radiation exposure on human monocytic cells. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012;215:339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ?-particle radiation causes dysregulation in the production of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and results in significant DNA damage...
  38. Sullivan M, Ruemmler P. Absorption of 233U, 237Np, 238Pu, 241Am and 244Cm from the gastrointestinal tracts of rats fed an iron-deficient diet. Health Phys. 1988;54:311-6 pubmed
    ..Weanling rats on an iron-deficient diet, gavaged with ferric nitrate immediately before administration of 238Pu nitrate, retained between 4% and 12% of the 238Pu retained by litter mates that were not treated intragastrically with iron...
  39. Shin H, Kim J. Development of realistic RDD scenarios and their radiological consequence analyses. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1516-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Their radiological consequences were assessed in terms of total effective dose, projected cumulative external and internal dose and ground deposition of radioactivity...
  40. Navarro J, Lopez M, Navarro T, Gomez Ros J, Moraleda M. Assessment of the internal dose of 241Am in bone by in vivo measurements of activity deposited in knee. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;127:531-4 pubmed
    ..7% of the whole skeleton mass. The results of in vivo measurements of population and the procedure for internal dose evaluation are presented here...
  41. Gaca P, Mietelski J, Kitowski I, Grabowska S, Tomankiewicz E. 40K, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238,239+240Pu and 241Am in mammals' skulls from owls' pellets and owl skeletons in Poland. J Environ Radioact. 2005;78:93-103 pubmed
    ..A big difference was found for activities of plutonium and americium isotopes...
  42. Dua S, Biswas S, Szerszen P, Boudreaux J, Ebadian M. Measurement of surface alpha contamination using electret ion chambers. Health Phys. 1999;76:664-74 pubmed
    ..Suitable combinations of chambers and electrets to measure surface alpha contamination were determined...
  43. Kedari C, Pandit S, Parikh K, Tripathi S. Removal of 241Am from aqueous nitrate solutions by liquid surfactant membrane containing 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester as ion carrier. Chemosphere. 2010;80:433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..containing 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (H(2)A(2)) was tested for the extraction of americium(III) from aqueous nitrate solutions of different compositions. Span 80 a surface-active agent and 0...
  44. Rajaram S, Brindha J, Sreedevi K, Hegde A. Efficiency as a function of MEQ-CWT for large area germanium detectors using LLNL phantom. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2012;148:121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..4×10?³ to 3.2×10?³, 1.5×10?³ to 3.3×10?³ and 1.1×10?³ to 2.3×10?³ for 59.5, 75.95 and 238.9 keV, respectively. In the energy response, efficiency was observed to be maximum for 75.95 keV compared with 59.5 and 238.9 keV...
  45. Kramer G, Hauck B, Capello K. A field deployable high-resolution urine gamma analyzer. Health Phys. 2008;95:440-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mSv, respectively. Clearly, this instrument can be used as a field deployable gamma spectrometer for urinalysis for activation and fission products, but actinides (and other low energy photon emitters) remain problematic...
  46. Miri Hakimabad H, Izadi Najafabadi R, Vejdani Noghreiyan A, Panjeh H. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method. J Radiol Prot. 2007;27:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources...
  47. Hunt J, Dantas B, Lourenço M, Azeredo A. Voxel phantoms and Monte Carlo methods applied to in vivo measurements for simultaneous 241Am contamination in four body regions. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105:549-52 pubmed
    ..The activities calculated with the radionuclide distributed in the four body regions as a factor of time, and the activities calculated with the radionuclide deposited in the lung only are compared...
  48. Malatova I, Foltánová S, Beckova V, Filgas R, Pospisilova H, Hölgye Z. Assessment of occupational doses from internal contamination with 241Am. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105:325-8 pubmed
    ..The contaminant was presumably the same as that in the group of workers with old intakes, but its physical and chemical form could be influenced by a fixating lacquer used to prevent the spread of contamination...
  49. Bunin D, Chang P, Doppalapudi R, Riccio E, An D, Jarvis E, et al. Dose-dependent efficacy and safety toxicology of hydroxypyridinonate actinide decorporation agents in rodents: towards a safe and effective human dosing regimen. Radiat Res. 2013;179:171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are necessary components of the regulatory approval process and will help determine the optimal human dosing regimens for the treatment of internal radionuclide contamination...
  50. Staaf E, Deperas Kaminska M, Brehwens K, Haghdoost S, Czub J, Wojcik A. Complex aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to mixed beams of (241)Am alpha particles and X-rays. Mutat Res. 2013;756:95-100 pubmed publisher
  51. Bolsunovsky A, Zotina T, Kosinenko S. Assessment of 241Am accumulation rate by samples of algobacterial community of the Yenisei River. Dokl Biol Sci. 2002;385:374-6 pubmed
  52. Sueda K, Sadgrove M, Fitzsimmons J, Jay M. Physicochemical characterization of a prodrug of a radionuclide decorporation agent for oral delivery. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101:2844-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The properties of the prodrug indicate that it is conducive to oral delivery and may offer therapeutic benefits over the standard DTPA therapy following radionuclide contamination...
  53. Chavan V, Agarwal C, Pandey A. Pore-Filled Scintillating Membrane as Sensing Matrix for ?-Emitting Actinides. Anal Chem. 2016;88:3796-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The membranes have been found to be stable and reusable. The scintillating membrane with optimized composition has been applied for quantification of Pu in a soil sample. ..