arsenic

Summary

Summary: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Wang S, Zhang D, Pan X. Effects of arsenic on growth and photosystem II (PSII) activity of Microcystis aeruginosa. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;84:104-11 pubmed publisher
    Effects of arsenic on growth, pigments content, oxygen evolution and photosystem II (PSII) activity of Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated in the present study...
  2. Yang G, Ma L, Xu D, Li J, He T, Liu L, et al. Levels and speciation of arsenic in the atmosphere in Beijing, China. Chemosphere. 2012;87:845-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic levels and speciation in the total suspended particles (TSPs) were quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in Beijing, China ..
  3. Ali W, Isner J, Isayenkov S, Liu W, Zhao F, Maathuis F. Heterologous expression of the yeast arsenite efflux system ACR3 improves Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to arsenic stress. New Phytol. 2012;194:716-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic contamination has a negative impact on crop cultivation and on human health. As yet, no proteins have been identified in plants that mediate the extrusion of arsenic...
  4. Yang T, Chen M, Liu L, Wang J, Dasgupta P. Iron(III) modification of Bacillus subtilis membranes provides record sorption capacity for arsenic and endows unusual selectivity for As(V). Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:2251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..At pH 10 both arsenic forms are sorbed, the As(V) sorption capacity of the ferrated Bacillus subtilis is at least of 11 times higher ..
  5. Leslie E. Arsenic-glutathione conjugate transport by the human multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs/ABCCs). J Inorg Biochem. 2012;108:141-9 pubmed publisher
    Millions of people world-wide are chronically exposed to inorganic forms of the environmental toxicant arsenic in drinking water...
  6. Beebe Dimmer J, Iyer P, Nriagu J, Keele G, Mehta S, Meliker J, et al. Genetic variation in glutathione S-transferase omega-1, arsenic methyltransferase and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase, arsenic exposure and bladder cancer: a case-control study. Environ Health. 2012;11:43 pubmed publisher
    Ingestion of groundwater with high concentrations of inorganic arsenic has been linked to adverse health outcomes, including bladder cancer, however studies have not consistently observed any elevation in risk at lower concentrations...
  7. Omoregie E, Couture R, Van Cappellen P, Corkhill C, Charnock J, Polya D, et al. Arsenic bioremediation by biogenic iron oxides and sulfides. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:4325-35 pubmed publisher
    Microcosms containing sediment from an aquifer in Cambodia with naturally elevated levels of arsenic in the associated groundwater were used to evaluate the effectiveness of microbially mediated production of iron minerals for in situ As ..
  8. Karagas M, Andrew A, Nelson H, Li Z, Punshon T, Schned A, et al. SLC39A2 and FSIP1 polymorphisms as potential modifiers of arsenic-related bladder cancer. Hum Genet. 2012;131:453-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic is a carcinogen that contaminates drinking water worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that both exposure and genetic factors may influence susceptibility to arsenic-induced malignancies...
  9. Yang B, Fu J, Zheng H, Xue P, Yarborough K, Woods C, et al. Deficiency in the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 renders pancreatic ?-cells vulnerable to arsenic-induced cell damage. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;264:315-23 pubmed publisher
    Chronic human exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, where impairment of pancreatic ?-cell function is a key pathogenic factor...

More Information

Publications62

  1. LeBlanc M, McKinney E, Meagher R, Smith A. Hijacking membrane transporters for arsenic phytoextraction. J Biotechnol. 2013;163:1-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic is a toxic metalloid and recognized carcinogen. Arsenate and arsenite are the most common arsenic species available for uptake by plants...
  2. Button M, Moriarty M, Watts M, Zhang J, Koch I, Reimer K. Arsenic speciation in field-collected and laboratory-exposed earthworms Lumbricus terrestris. Chemosphere. 2011;85:1277-83 pubmed publisher
    Mature Lumbricus terrestris were host soils and leaf litter were collected from a former arsenic mine in Devon, UK (Devon Great Consols), a former gold mine in Ontario, Canada (Deloro), and an uncontaminated residential garden in ..
  3. Del Razo L, García Vargas G, Valenzuela O, Castellanos E, Sánchez Peña L, Currier J, et al. Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes: a cross-sectional study in the Zimapán and Lagunera regions in Mexico. Environ Health. 2011;10:73 pubmed publisher
    Human exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been linked to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus. Recent laboratory studies showed that methylated trivalent metabolites of iAs may play key roles in the diabetogenic effects of iAs...
  4. Punrat E, Chuanuwatanakul S, Kaneta T, Motomizu S, Chailapakul O. Method development for the determination of arsenic by sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry using long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. Talanta. 2013;116:1018-25 pubmed publisher
    An automated method has been developed for determining the concentration of inorganic arsenic. The technique uses sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry with a long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode...
  5. Steinmaus C, Ferreccio C, Romo J, Yuan Y, Cortes S, Marshall G, et al. Drinking water arsenic in northern chile: high cancer risks 40 years after exposure cessation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:623-30 pubmed publisher
    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated water...
  6. Ying S, Kocar B, Griffis S, Fendorf S. Competitive microbially and Mn oxide mediated redox processes controlling arsenic speciation and partitioning. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:5572-9 pubmed publisher
    The speciation and partitioning of arsenic (As) in surface and subsurface environments are controlled, in part, by redox processes...
  7. Escudero L, Casamayor E, Chong G, Pedros Alio C, Demergasso C. Distribution of microbial arsenic reduction, oxidation and extrusion genes along a wide range of environmental arsenic concentrations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78890 pubmed publisher
    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude...
  8. Asante K, Agusa T, Biney C, Agyekum W, Bello M, Otsuka M, et al. Multi-trace element levels and arsenic speciation in urine of e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Accra in Ghana. Sci Total Environ. 2012;424:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study will contribute to the knowledge about human exposure to trace elements from an e-waste site in a less industrialized region so far scantly covered in the literature...
  9. Kesari V, Kumar A, Khan P. Genotoxic potential of arsenic at its reference dose. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2012;80:126-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic, a highly hazardous contaminant in our drinking water, accounts for various toxic effects (including cancer) in human. However, intake of arsenic @0...
  10. Islam M, Khan I, Attia J, Hassan S, McEvoy M, D Este C, et al. Association between hypertension and chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012;9:4522-36 pubmed publisher
    Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association...
  11. Whaley Martin K, Koch I, Moriarty M, Reimer K. Arsenic speciation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) along a highly contaminated arsenic gradient. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:3110-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues...
  12. Pandey S, Rai R, Rai L. Proteomics combines morphological, physiological and biochemical attributes to unravel the survival strategy of Anabaena sp. PCC7120 under arsenic stress. J Proteomics. 2012;75:921-37 pubmed publisher
    ..PCC7120 under Arsenic (As) stress...
  13. Rahman M, Hasegawa H. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:4645-55 pubmed publisher
    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries...
  14. Gao S, Duan X, Wang X, Dong D, Liu D, Li X, et al. Curcumin attenuates arsenic-induced hepatic injuries and oxidative stress in experimental mice through activation of Nrf2 pathway, promotion of arsenic methylation and urinary excretion. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;59:739-47 pubmed publisher
    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms implicated in inorganic arsenic poisoning. Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound with impressive antioxidant properties...
  15. Gilbert Diamond D, Li Z, Perry A, Spencer S, Gandolfi A, Karagas M. A population-based case-control study of urinary arsenic species and squamous cell carcinoma in New Hampshire, USA. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:1154-60 pubmed publisher
    Chronic high arsenic exposure is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, and inorganic arsenic (iAs) metabolites may play an important role in this association...
  16. Li C, Srivastava R, Elmets C, Afaq F, Athar M. Arsenic-induced cutaneous hyperplastic lesions are associated with the dysregulation of Yap, a Hippo signaling-related protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;438:607-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic exposure in humans causes a number of toxic manifestations in the skin including cutaneous neoplasm. However, the mechanism of these alterations remains elusive...
  17. Tellez Plaza M, Gribble M, Voruganti V, Francesconi K, Goessler W, Umans J, et al. Heritability and preliminary genome-wide linkage analysis of arsenic metabolites in urine. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:345-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic (III) methyltransferase (AS3MT) has been related to urine arsenic metabolites in association studies. Other genes might also play roles in arsenic metabolism and excretion.
  18. Rajaković L, Marković D, Rajaković Ognjanović V, Antanasijević D. Review: the approaches for estimation of limit of detection for ICP-MS trace analysis of arsenic. Talanta. 2012;102:79-87 pubmed publisher
    ..paper, the focus is the LOD of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements employed for the determination of arsenic. The current approaches for the calculation of the LOD are summarized and critically discussed.
  19. Hol A, van der Weijden R, Van Weert G, Kondos P, Buisman C. Processing of arsenopyritic gold concentrates by partial bio-oxidation followed by bioreduction. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:6316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Depending on the number of treatments this method could be an interesting alternative to bio-oxidation...
  20. Gruber J, Karagas M, Gilbert Diamond D, Bagley P, Zens M, SAYARATH V, et al. Associations between toenail arsenic concentration and dietary factors in a New Hampshire population. Nutr J. 2012;11:45 pubmed publisher
    Dietary factors such as folate, vitamin B12, protein, and methionine are important for the excretion of arsenic via one-carbon metabolism in undernourished populations exposed to high levels of arsenic via drinking water...
  21. Balazs C, Morello Frosch R, Hubbard A, Ray I. Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California's San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems. Environ Health. 2012;11:84 pubmed publisher
    ..The US EPA's 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ?g/L to 10 ?g/L, offers an opportunity to ..
  22. Akerman N, Price R, Pichler T, Amend J. Energy sources for chemolithotrophs in an arsenic- and iron-rich shallow-sea hydrothermal system. Geobiology. 2011;9:436-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Papua New Guinea, are ideal for investigating the chemolithotrophic activities of micro-organisms involved in arsenic cycling because hydrothermal vents there expel fluids with arsenite (As(III)) concentrations as high as 950 ?g L(-..
  23. Liu S, Guo X, Zhang X, Cui Y, Zhang Y, Wu B. Impact of iron precipitant on toxicity of arsenic in water: a combined in vivo and in vitro study. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:3432-8 pubmed publisher
    Removing arsenic (As) from drinking water is widely dependent on iron (Fe)-based coagulation/flocculation techniques. However, little is known about the influence of Fe precipitant on As toxicity...
  24. Zhao Y, Wen G, Qiao Z, Xu H, Sun Q, Huang H, et al. Effects of tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide on BXSB lupus-prone mice: a pilot study. Lupus. 2013;22:469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used in lupus-prone mice with a regulatory effect on immune abnormality...
  25. Wu M, Chiou H, Chen C, Hsu L, Lien L, Wang C, et al. Association of heme oxygenase-1 GT-repeat polymorphism with blood pressure phenotypes and its relevance to future cardiovascular mortality risk: an observation based on arsenic-exposed individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219:704-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we reported the association of GT-repeat polymorphism with blood pressure (BP) phenotypes, and their interaction on cardiovascular (CV) mortality risk in arsenic-exposed cohorts.
  26. Argos M, Ahsan H, Graziano J. Arsenic and human health: epidemiologic progress and public health implications. Rev Environ Health. 2012;27:191-5 pubmed publisher
    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide, including severely affected populations in South and Southeast Asia...
  27. Ferreccio C, Yuan Y, Calle J, Benítez H, Parra R, Acevedo J, et al. Arsenic, tobacco smoke, and occupation: associations of multiple agents with lung and bladder cancer. Epidemiology. 2013;24:898-905 pubmed publisher
    Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, and many are likely coexposed to other agents that could substantially increase their risks of arsenic-related cancer.
  28. Rehman K, Naranmandura H. Arsenic metabolism and thioarsenicals. Metallomics. 2012;4:881-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic has received considerable attention in the world, since it can lead to a multitude of toxic effects and has been recognized as a human carcinogen causing cancers...
  29. Oguri T, Yoshinaga J, Tao H, Nakazato T. Inorganic arsenic in the Japanese diet: daily intake and source. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;66:100-12 pubmed publisher
    The concentrations of arsenic (As) species in 19 food composites prepared from 159 food items purchased in Shizuoka city, Japan, were determined (1) to estimate total daily intake of inorganic As (InAs) and some organic As species and (2)..
  30. Liu D, Duan X, Dong D, Bai C, Li X, Sun G, et al. Activation of the Nrf2 pathway by inorganic arsenic in human hepatocytes and the role of transcriptional repressor Bach1. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:984546 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have proved that the environmental toxicant, inorganic arsenic, activates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in many different cell types...
  31. George C, Gamble M, Slavkovich V, Levy D, Ahmed A, Ahsan H, et al. A cross-sectional study of the impact of blood selenium on blood and urinary arsenic concentrations in Bangladesh. Environ Health. 2013;12:52 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic can naturally occur in the groundwater without an anthropogenic source of contamination...
  32. Koestler D, Avissar Whiting M, Houseman E, Karagas M, Marsit C. Differential DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood of infants exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:971-7 pubmed publisher
    There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero, even at low levels found throughout much of the world, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects...
  33. Wu Y, Liu L, Zhan S, Wang F, Zhou P. Ultrasensitive aptamer biosensor for arsenic(III) detection in aqueous solution based on surfactant-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles. Analyst. 2012;137:4171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of As(III) in aqueous solution via aggregating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by the special interactions between arsenic-binding aptamer, target and cationic surfactant...
  34. Meza Montenegro M, Valenzuela Quintanar A, Balderas Cortés J, Yáñez Estrada L, Gutiérrez Coronado M, Cuevas Robles A, et al. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;64:519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of ..
  35. Srivastava S, Sharma Y. Arsenic occurrence and accumulation in soil and water of eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:4995-5002 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic in the soil and water of eastern districts of Uttar Pradesh (Ballia and Ghazipur) was estimated. Survey results revealed that arsenic in soil samples ranged from 5.40 to 15.43 parts per million (ppm)...
  36. Paul S, Das N, Bhattacharjee P, Banerjee M, Das J, Sarma N, et al. Arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity: a two-wave cross-sectional study in arsenicosis individuals in West Bengal, India. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2013;23:156-62 pubmed publisher
    In the state of West Bengal in India, over 26 million individuals are exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Dermatological, non-dermatological disorders and cancers are associated with arsenic toxicity...
  37. Seyedmousavi S, Badali H, Chlebicki A, Zhao J, Prenafeta Boldú F, de Hoog G. Exophiala sideris, a novel black yeast isolated from environments polluted with toxic alkyl benzenes and arsenic. Fungal Biol. 2011;115:1030-7 pubmed publisher
    ..enriching samples of wild berries from different plants, guano-rich soil and from oak railway ties treated with arsenic creosote under a toluene-rich atmosphere...
  38. Cutler W, Brewer R, El Kadi A, Hue N, Niemeyer P, Peard J, et al. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii. Sci Total Environ. 2013;442:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern ..
  39. Mendoza Cózatl D, Jobe T, Hauser F, Schroeder J. Long-distance transport, vacuolar sequestration, tolerance, and transcriptional responses induced by cadmium and arsenic. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..copper and manganese are essential metals for cellular enzyme functions while cadmium, mercury and the metalloid arsenic lack any biological function...
  40. Chen J, Qin J, Zhu Y, De Lorenzo V, Rosen B. Engineering the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida for arsenic methylation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:4493-5 pubmed publisher
    Accumulation of arsenic has potential health risks through consumption of food. Here, we inserted the arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (ArsM) gene into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440...
  41. Rahbar M, Samms Vaughan M, Ardjomand Hessabi M, Loveland K, Dickerson A, Chen Z, et al. The role of drinking water sources, consumption of vegetables and seafood in relation to blood arsenic concentrations of Jamaican children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders. Sci Total Environ. 2012;433:362-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic is a toxic metal with harmful effects on human health, particularly on cognitive function. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are lifelong neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders manifesting in infancy or early childhood...
  42. Sawada N, Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Takachi R, Sasazuki S, Yamaji T, et al. Dietary arsenic intake and subsequent risk of cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) Prospective Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24:1403-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and has been linked to adverse health outcomes, including cancer. However, the effects of arsenic exposure from food on health are still unknown...
  43. Ramsey K, Bosco A, McKenna K, Carter K, Elliot J, Berry L, et al. In utero exposure to arsenic alters lung development and genes related to immune and mucociliary function in mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:244-50 pubmed publisher
    Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a global environmental health problem...
  44. Govindaswamy S, Schupp D, Rock S. Batch and continuous removal of arsenic using hyacinth roots. Int J Phytoremediation. 2011;13:513-27 pubmed
    b>Arsenic is considered a primary pollutant in drinking water because of its high toxicity...
  45. Sun G, Van de Wiele T, Alava P, Tack F, Du Laing G. Arsenic in cooked rice: effect of chemical, enzymatic and microbial processes on bioaccessibility and speciation in the human gastrointestinal tract. Environ Pollut. 2012;162:241-6 pubmed publisher
    Rice, used as staple food for half of the world population, can easily accumulate arsenic (As) into its grain, which often leads to As contamination...
  46. Banerjee N, Paul S, Sau T, Das J, Bandyopadhyay A, Banerjee S, et al. Epigenetic modifications of DAPK and p16 genes contribute to arsenic-induced skin lesions and nondermatological health effects. Toxicol Sci. 2013;135:300-8 pubmed publisher
    Over 26 million people in West Bengal, India, are exposed to very high levels of arsenic through drinking water, leading to several deleterious endpoints including cancers...
  47. Rana T, Bera A, Bhattacharya D, Das S, Pan D, Das S. Chronic arsenicosis in goats with special reference to its exposure, excretion and deposition in an arsenic contaminated zone. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;33:372-6 pubmed publisher
    ..blood, urine, faeces, hair and meat were collected to evaluate the arsenic status...
  48. Bennett W, Teasdale P, Panther J, Welsh D, Zhao H, Jolley D. Investigating arsenic speciation and mobilization in sediments with DGT and DET: a mesocosm evaluation of oxic-anoxic transitions. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:3981-9 pubmed publisher
    Mobilization of arsenic from freshwater and estuarine sediments during the transition from oxic to anoxic conditions was investigated using recently developed diffusive sampling techniques...
  49. Wang L, Kou M, Weng C, Hu L, Wang Y, Wu M. Arsenic modulates heme oxygenase-1, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in endothelial cells: roles of ROS, NF-?B, and MAPK pathways. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:879-96 pubmed publisher
    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to an increased risk of vascular diseases...
  50. Dwivedi S, Mishra A, Tripathi P, Dave R, Kumar A, Srivastava S, et al. Arsenic affects essential and non-essential amino acids differentially in rice grains: inadequacy of amino acids in rice based diet. Environ Int. 2012;46:16-22 pubmed publisher
    Recent breakthroughs in rice arsenic (As) research demonstrate that As accumulation significantly affects trace nutrients in rice grain...
  51. Cho Y, Seo S, Choi S, Lee S, Kim K, Kim H, et al. Association of arsenic levels in soil and water with urinary arsenic concentration of residents in the vicinity of closed metal mines. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013;216:255-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Arsenic (As) pollution in the surroundings of metal mines has been observed, and may induce serious health problems, in particular cancer...
  52. James K, Marshall J, Hokanson J, Meliker J, Zerbe G, Byers T. A case-cohort study examining lifetime exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and diabetes mellitus. Environ Res. 2013;123:33-8 pubmed publisher
    Consumption of drinking water with high levels of inorganic arsenic (over 500 ?g/L) has been associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM), but previous studies have been inconclusive about risks at lower levels (<100 ?g/L)...
  53. Williams P, Zhang H, Davison W, Meharg A, Hossain M, Norton G, et al. Organic matter-solid phase interactions are critical for predicting arsenic release and plant uptake in Bangladesh paddy soils. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:6080-7 pubmed publisher
    Agroecological zones within Bangladesh with low levels of arsenic in groundwater and soils produce rice that is high in arsenic with respect to other producing regions of the globe...