tungsten

Summary

Summary: A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.

Top Publications

  1. Xiao J, Liu P, Liang Y, Li H, Yang G. Porous tungsten oxide nanoflakes for highly alcohol sensitive performance. Nanoscale. 2012;4:7078-83 pubmed publisher
    Porous tungsten oxide (WO(3)) nanoflakes have been synthesized by a simple and green approach in an ambient environment...
  2. Chang F, Chen J, Wey M, Tsai S. Effects of particulates, heavy metals and acid gas on the removals of NO and PAHs by V2O5-WO3 catalysts in waste incineration system. J Hazard Mater. 2009;170:239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of ESCA analysis reveal that the presence of these pollutants on the surface of catalysts did not change the chemical state of V and W...
  3. Kula I, Arslan Y, Bakirdere S, Titretir S, Kendüzler E, Ataman O. Determination and interference studies of bismuth by tungsten trap hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta. 2009;80:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified water reference material and the result was found to be in good agreement with the certified values at the 95% confidence level...
  4. Nandi G, Sarkar S. Solid-state synthesis of molybdenum and tungsten porphyrins and aerial oxidation of coordinated benzenethiolate to benzenesulfonate. Inorg Chem. 2012;51:6412-20 pubmed publisher
    A new route is developed for the synthesis of molybdenum and tungsten porphyrins using [M(NO)(2)py(2)Cl(2)] (M = Mo, W) as the metal source and TPP (dianion of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetraphenylporphyrin) in the benzoic acid melt...
  5. Mizrahi D, Saphier S, Columbus I. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM. J Hazard Mater. 2010;179:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ((31)P and (13)C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring...
  6. Adamakis I, Panteris E, Eleftheriou E. The fatal effect of tungsten on Pisum sativum L. root cells: indications for endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced programmed cell death. Planta. 2011;234:21-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tungsten (W) is increasingly considered toxic for plants since it irreversibly affects their growth...
  7. Tenbrink F, Schink B, Kroneck P. Exploring the active site of the tungsten, iron-sulfur enzyme acetylene hydratase. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1229-36 pubmed publisher
    The soluble tungsten, iron-sulfur enzyme acetylene hydratase (AH) from mesophilic Pelobacter acetylenicus is a member of the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase family...
  8. Machado B, Murr L, Suro R, Gaytan S, Ramirez D, Garza K, et al. Characterization and cytotoxic assessment of ballistic aerosol particulates for tungsten alloy penetrators into steel target plates. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:3313-31 pubmed publisher
    The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
  9. De Palma G, Manini P, Sarnico M, Molinari S, Apostoli P. Biological monitoring of tungsten (and cobalt) in workers of a hard metal alloy industry. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010;83:173-81 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate a combined biomonitoring approach based on both cobalt and tungsten determination in workers of the hard metal alloy sector.

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Liu C, Luo C, Gao Y, Li F, Lin L, Wu C, et al. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:820-6 pubmed publisher
    ..field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China...
  2. Poludniowski G, Landry G, DeBlois F, Evans P, Verhaegen F. SpekCalc: a program to calculate photon spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes. Phys Med Biol. 2009;54:N433-8 pubmed publisher
    A software program, SpekCalc, is presented for the calculation of x-ray spectra from tungsten anode x-ray tubes...
  3. Johnson D, Ang C, Bednar A, Inouye L. Tungsten effects on phosphate-dependent biochemical pathways are species and liver cell line dependent. Toxicol Sci. 2010;116:523-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Tungsten, in the form of tungstate, polymerizes with phosphate, and as extensive polymerization occurs, cellular phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions may be disrupted, resulting in negative effects on cellular functions...
  4. Liao R, Yu J, Himo F. Mechanism of tungsten-dependent acetylene hydratase from quantum chemical calculations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22523-7 pubmed publisher
    Acetylene hydratase is a tungsten-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the nonredox hydration of acetylene to acetaldehyde...
  5. Patrick E, Orazem M, Sanchez J, Nishida T. Corrosion of tungsten microelectrodes used in neural recording applications. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;198:158-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The corrosion of tungsten microwire electrodes used for intracortical recording applications was analyzed in a controlled bench-top study ..
  6. Valverde A, Gonzalez Tirante M, Medina Sierra M, Santa Regina I, Garcia Sanchez A, Igual J. Diversity and community structure of culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria across a soil arsenic gradient at an abandoned tungsten-tin mining area. Chemosphere. 2011;85:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also shown that, under aerobic conditions, strains with relatively enhanced tolerance to As(III) predominated over the most As(V)-tolerant ones...
  7. Tan X, Yao T, Long R, Sun Z, Feng Y, Cheng H, et al. Unraveling metal-insulator transition mechanism of VO? triggered by tungsten doping. Sci Rep. 2012;2:466 pubmed publisher
  8. Rothery R, Stein B, Solomonson M, Kirk M, Weiner J. Pyranopterin conformation defines the function of molybdenum and tungsten enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14773-8 pubmed publisher
    We have analyzed the conformations of 319 pyranopterins in 102 protein structures of mononuclear molybdenum and tungsten enzymes...
  9. Schuster B, Roszell L, Murr L, Ramirez D, Demaree J, Klotz B, et al. In vivo corrosion, tumor outcome, and microarray gene expression for two types of muscle-implanted tungsten alloys. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;265:128-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Tungsten alloys are composed of tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron...
  10. Höfle S, Bruns M, Strässle S, Feldmann C, Lemmer U, Colsmann A. Tungsten oxide buffer layers fabricated in an inert sol-gel process at room-temperature for blue organic light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater. 2013;25:4113-6 pubmed publisher
    WO3 deposition from tungsten ethoxide precursor solutions at room temperature is demonstrated...
  11. Taveirne M, Sikes M, Olson J. Molybdenum and tungsten in Campylobacter jejuni: their physiological role and identification of separate transporters regulated by a single ModE-like protein. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:758-71 pubmed
    ..least four enzymes predicted to contain a metal binding pterin (MPT), with the metal being either molybdenum or tungsten. Also predicted are two separate transport systems, one for molybdenum encoded by modABC and a second for ..
  12. Liu Y, Xie C, Li H, Chen H, Zou T, Zeng D. Improvement of gaseous pollutant photocatalysis with WO3/TiO2 heterojunctional-electrical layered system. J Hazard Mater. 2011;196:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2V. Furthermore, the results also showed that the remarkable improvement could not be obtained when either the WO(3) layer or the low external bias was absent...
  13. Hariharan V, Radhakrishnan S, Parthibavarman M, Dhilipkumar R, Sekar C. Synthesis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) assisted tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles for L-dopa bio-sensing applications. Talanta. 2011;85:2166-74 pubmed publisher
    Nanocrystalline tungsten oxides (WO(3-?)) are currently receiving a lot of attention because of their interesting electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical properties...
  14. da Silva S, Pimentel C, Valente F, Rodrigues Pousada C, Pereira I. Tungsten and molybdenum regulation of formate dehydrogenase expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2909-16 pubmed publisher
    ..is an important energy substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in natural environments, and both molybdenum- and tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenases have been reported in these organisms...
  15. Seidl A, Hainzl O, Richter M, Fischer R, Böhm S, Deutel B, et al. Tungsten-induced denaturation and aggregation of epoetin alfa during primary packaging as a cause of immunogenicity. Pharm Res. 2012;29:1454-67 pubmed publisher
  16. Witten M, Sheppard P, Witten B. Tungsten toxicity. Chem Biol Interact. 2012;196:87-8 pubmed publisher
    There is emerging evidence that tungsten has toxic health effects. We summarize the recent tungsten toxicity research in this short review...
  17. Roedel E, Cafasso D, Lee K, Pierce L. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;259:74-86 pubmed publisher
    ..War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives...
  18. Harris R, Williams T, Hodges N, Waring R. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage mediate the cytotoxicity of tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloys in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;250:19-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Tungsten alloys (WA) have been introduced in an attempt to find safer alternatives to depleted uranium and lead munitions...
  19. Kennedy A, Johnson D, Seiter J, Lindsay J, Boyd R, Bednar A, et al. Tungsten toxicity, bioaccumulation, and compartmentalization into organisms representing two trophic levels. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:9646-52 pubmed publisher
    Metallic tungsten has civil and military applications and was considered a green alternative to lead. Recent reports of contamination in drinking water and soil have raised scrutiny and suspended some applications...
  20. Borovikov V, Tang X, Perez D, Bai X, Uberuaga B, Voter A. Influence of point defects on grain boundary mobility in bcc tungsten. J Phys Condens Matter. 2013;25:035402 pubmed publisher
    ..were performed to study the influence of radiation-induced damage on grain boundary (GB) sliding processes in bcc tungsten (W), the divertor material in the ITER tokamak and the leading candidate for the first wall material in future ..
  21. Jiang Y, Nashed Samuel Y, Li C, Liu W, Pollastrini J, Mallard D, et al. Tungsten-induced protein aggregation: solution behavior. J Pharm Sci. 2009;98:4695-710 pubmed publisher
    b>Tungsten has been associated with protein aggregation in prefilled syringes (PFSs). This study probed the relationship between PFSs, tungsten, visible particles, and protein aggregates...
  22. Wilson B, Pyatt F. Bioavailability of tungsten and associated metals in calcareous soils in the vicinity of an ancient metalliferous mine in the Corbières area, southwestern France. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:807-16 pubmed publisher
    The mobility and bioavailability of tungsten and associated metals are examined in calcareous soils and subsequent bioaccumulation by four species of plants is determined...
  23. Kung J, Löffler C, Dörner K, Heintz D, Gallien S, Van Dorsselaer A, et al. Identification and characterization of the tungsten-containing class of benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17687-92 pubmed publisher
    ..BamBC represents the prototype of a previously undescribed class of dearomatizing BCRs that differ completely from the ATP-dependent enzymes from facultative anaerobes...
  24. Xiao J, Liu P, Liang Y, Li H, Yang G. Super-stable ultrafine beta-tungsten nanocrystals with metastable phase and related magnetism. Nanoscale. 2013;5:899-903 pubmed publisher
    Ultrafine tungsten nanocrystals (average size of 3 nm) with a metastable phase (beta-tungsten with A15 structure, ?-W) have been prepared by laser ablation of tungsten in liquid nitrogen...
  25. Harrison D, Iovan D, Myers W, Sabat M, Wang S, Zottig V, et al. [4 + 2] Cyclocondensation reactions of tungsten-dihydropyridine complexes and the generation of tri- and tetrasubstituted piperidines. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:18378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..2.2] bicyclic species. In several cases the diazabicyclooctene products derived from DHP complexes and isocyanates can be further elaborated into novel syn-2,5-disubstituted and 2,3,6-trisubstituted piperidinamides...
  26. Verma R, Xu X, Jaiswal M, Olsen C, Mears D, Caretti G, et al. In vitro profiling of epigenetic modifications underlying heavy metal toxicity of tungsten-alloy and its components. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011;253:178-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Tungsten-alloy has carcinogenic potential as demonstrated by cancer development in rats with intramuscular implanted tungsten-alloy pellets...
  27. Prasad A, Xue Q, Sankar V, Nishida T, Shaw G, Streit W, et al. Comprehensive characterization and failure modes of tungsten microwire arrays in chronic neural implants. J Neural Eng. 2012;9:056015 pubmed
    For nearly 55 years, tungsten microwires have been widely used in neurophysiological experiments in animal models to chronically record neuronal activity...
  28. Wongchoosuk C, Wisitsoraat A, Phokharatkul D, Tuantranont A, Kerdcharoen T. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-doped tungsten oxide thin films for hydrogen gas sensing. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:7705-15 pubmed publisher
    ..we have fabricated hydrogen gas sensors based on undoped and 1 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-doped tungsten oxide (WO(3)) thin films by means of the powder mixing and electron beam (E-beam) evaporation technique...
  29. Tamura K, Ohashi Y, Tsubota T, Takeuchi D, Hirabayashi T, Yaguchi M, et al. A glass-coated tungsten microelectrode enclosing optical fibers for optogenetic exploration in primate deep brain structures. J Neurosci Methods. 2012;211:49-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents a tungsten microelectrode-based optrode that encloses optical fibers within its insulation glass...
  30. Smart J, Cliff M, Kelly D. A role for tungsten in the biology of Campylobacter jejuni: tungstate stimulates formate dehydrogenase activity and is transported via an ultra-high affinity ABC system distinct from the molybdate transporter. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:742-57 pubmed publisher
    ..of single and double mutants showed that this large difference in affinity is reflected in a lower cellular tungsten content in a cj1540 (tupA) mutant compared with a cj0303c (modA) mutant...
  31. Strigul N, Koutsospyros A, Arienti P, Christodoulatos C, Dermatas D, Braida W. Effects of tungsten on environmental systems. Chemosphere. 2005;61:248-58 pubmed
    b>Tungsten is a metal with many industrial and military applications, including manufacturing of commercial and military ammunition. Despite its widespread use, the potential environmental effects of tungsten are essentially unknown...
  32. Lagarde F, Leroy M. Metabolism and toxicity of tungsten in humans and animals. Met Ions Biol Syst. 2002;39:741-59 pubmed
  33. Hermans A, Wightman R. Conical tungsten tips as substrates for the preparation of ultramicroelectrodes. Langmuir. 2006;22:10348-53 pubmed
    Here we describe a simple method to prepare voltammetric microelectrodes using tungsten wires as a substrate...
  34. Hensgens C, Hagen W, Hansen T. Purification and characterization of a benzylviologen-linked, tungsten-containing aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:6195-200 pubmed
    ..Until now W-containing aldehyde oxidoreductases had only been found in two Clostridium strains and two hyperthermophilic archaea. The D. gigas enzyme is the first example of such an enzyme in a gram-negative bacterium...
  35. Miller A, Xu J, Stewart M, Prasanna P, Page N. Potential late health effects of depleted uranium and tungsten used in armor-piercing munitions: comparison of neoplastic transformation and genotoxicity with the known carcinogen nickel. Mil Med. 2002;167:120-2 pubmed
    ..For comparison, we also examined tungsten alloys used in military projectiles and the known carcinogen nickel...
  36. Jeong J, Knapp F. Use of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator for preparation of the rhenium-188 HDD/lipiodol complex for trans-arterial liver cancer therapy. Semin Nucl Med. 2008;38:S19-29 pubmed publisher
    This work describes the installation, use, and quality control (QC) of the alumina-based tungsten-188 ((188)W)/rhenium-188 ((188)Re) generators provided by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)...
  37. Rauh D, Graentzdoerffer A, Granderath K, Andreesen J, Pich A. Tungsten-containing aldehyde oxidoreductase of Eubacterium acidaminophilum. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:212-9 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 0.1 iron, 1.1 +/- 0.2 tungsten, about 0.6 mol pterin cofactor and zinc, but no molybdenum...
  38. Hou X, Levine K, Salido A, Jones B, Ezer M, Elwood S, et al. Tungsten coil devices in atomic spectrometry: absorption, fluorescence, and emission. Anal Sci. 2001;17:175-80 pubmed
    In this work, tungsten coil (W-Coil) devices are used as atomizers for electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), electrothermal atomization laser excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry (ETA-LEAFS), and ..
  39. Sun N, Fastje C, Wong S, Sheppard P, Macdonald S, Ridenour G, et al. Dose-dependent transcriptome changes by metal ores on a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Toxicol Ind Health. 2003;19:157-63 pubmed
    ..Twenty-eight metals of both ores were quantified and their presence may be associated with the cell growth rate and dose-dependent activation of transcriptomes in immature T-cells...
  40. Boll M, Schink B, Messerschmidt A, Kroneck P. Novel bacterial molybdenum and tungsten enzymes: three-dimensional structure, spectroscopy, and reaction mechanism. Biol Chem. 2005;386:999-1006 pubmed
    The molybdenum enzymes 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase and pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase and the tungsten enzyme acetylene hydratase catalyze reductive dehydroxylation reactions, i.e...
  41. Brondino C, Romão M, Moura I, Moura J. Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes: the xanthine oxidase family. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2006;10:109-14 pubmed
    Mononuclear molybdenum and tungsten are found in the active site of a diverse group of enzymes that, in general, catalyze oxygen atom transfer reactions...
  42. Sheppard P, Speakman R, Farris C, Witten M. Multiple environmental monitoring techniques for assessing spatial patterns of airborne tungsten. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:406-10 pubmed
    ..of total suspended particulates, lichens/mosses, and surface dust for assessing spatial patterns of airborne tungsten and other metals...
  43. Chang M, Chou L, Chueh Y, Lee Y, Hsieh C, Chen C, et al. Nitrogen-doped tungsten oxide nanowires: low-temperature synthesis on Si, and electrical, optical, and field-emission properties. Small. 2007;3:658-64 pubmed
    Very dense and uniformly distributed nitrogen-doped tungsten oxide (WO(3)) nanowires were synthesized successfully on a 4-inch Si(100) wafer at low temperature...
  44. Groysman S, Holm R. Biomimetic chemistry of iron, nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten in sulfur-ligated protein sites. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2310-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This account describes the current status of the synthetic analogue approach as applied to the mononuclear sites in certain molybdoenzymes and the polynuclear sites in hydrogenases, nitrogenase, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenases...
  45. Wang J, Groysman S, Lee S, Holm R. Synthesis of structural analogues of the oxidized sites in the xanthine oxidoreductase enzyme family. J Am Chem Soc. 2007;129:7512-3 pubmed
  46. Enemark J, Cooney J, Wang J, Holm R. Synthetic analogues and reaction systems relevant to the molybdenum and tungsten oxotransferases. Chem Rev. 2004;104:1175-200 pubmed
  47. Takahashi H, Suzurikawa J, Nakao M, Mase F, Kaga K. Easy-to-prepare assembly array of Tungsten microelectrodes. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005;52:952-6 pubmed
    This paper provides a detailed process flow for fabricating an easy-to-prepare, inexpensive, dense array of tungsten microelectrodes...
  48. Sung K, Holm R. Functional analogue reaction systems of the DMSO reductase isoenzyme family: probable mechanism of S-oxide reduction in oxo transfer reactions mediated by bis(dithiolene)-tungsten(IV,VI) complexes. J Am Chem Soc. 2002;124:4312-20 pubmed
    ..This work is the most detailed mechanistic investigation of oxo transfer mediated by a biological metal...
  49. Alimonti A, Forte G, Spezia S, Gatti A, Mincione G, Ronchi A, et al. Uncertainty of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based measurements: an application to the analysis of urinary barium, cesium, antimony and tungsten. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19:3131-8 pubmed
    The wide use of barium (Ba), cesium (Cs), antimony (Sb) and tungsten (W) in many industrial and agricultural fields causes the increased release of these metals into the environment, laying the basis for health risk...
  50. Roy R, Mukund S, Schut G, Dunn D, Weiss R, Adams M. Purification and molecular characterization of the tungsten-containing formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus: the third of a putative five-member tungstoenzyme family. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1171-80 pubmed
    ..Its growth requires tungsten, and two different tungsten-containing enzymes, aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and glyceraldehyde-3-..
  51. Harper E, Graedel T. Illuminating tungsten's life cycle in the United States: 1975-2000. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:3835-42 pubmed
    b>Tungsten's unique properties, such as its high density and melting point, are manifest in a variety of technological applications, and attention has recently centered upon the health and environmental effects of tungsten...
  52. Boone J, Fewell T, Jennings R. Molybdenum, rhodium, and tungsten anode spectral models using interpolating polynomials with application to mammography. Med Phys. 1997;24:1863-74 pubmed
    ..Using x-ray spectra measured for molybdenum, rhodium, and tungsten anode x-ray tubes at 13 different kV's (18, 20, 22, .....
  53. Zhuang Z, Hearl F, Odencrantz J, Chen W, Chen B, Chen J, et al. Estimating historical respirable crystalline silica exposures for Chinese pottery workers and iron/copper, tin, and tungsten miners. Ann Occup Hyg. 2001;45:631-42 pubmed
    ..0143 for iron/copper, 0.0355 for pottery factories, 0.0429 for tin mines, and 0.0861 for tungsten mines. Conversion factors for individual facilities within each industry were also calculated...