Summary: A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.

Top Publications

  1. Schlueter N, Hardt M, Lussi A, Engelmann F, Klimek J, Ganss C. Tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in enamel: an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue-loss, and scanning electron micrograph study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2009;117:427-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Tin-containing fluoride solutions can reduce erosive tissue loss, but the effects of the reaction between tin and enamel are still not clear. During a 10-d period, enamel specimens were cyclically demineralized (0.05 M citric acid, pH 2...
  2. Ganss C, Hardt M, Lussi A, Cocks A, Klimek J, Schlueter N. Mechanism of action of tin-containing fluoride solutions as anti-erosive agents in dentine - an in vitro tin-uptake, tissue loss, and scanning electron microscopy study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:376-84 pubmed publisher
    Solutions containing tin and fluoride exhibit remarkable anti-erosive properties with tin ions as a major agent...
  3. Kawai T, Takeuchi M, Hara M, Ohashi K, Suzuki H, Yamada K, et al. Accuracy of iodine removal using dual-energy CT with or without a tin filter: an experimental phantom study. Acta Radiol. 2013;54:954-60 pubmed publisher
    The effects of a tin filter on virtual non-enhanced (VNE) images created by dual-energy CT have not been well evaluated.
  4. Kaufmann S, Sauter A, Spira D, Gatidis S, Ketelsen D, Heuschmid M, et al. Tin-filter enhanced dual-energy-CT: image quality and accuracy of CT numbers in virtual noncontrast imaging. Acad Radiol. 2013;20:596-603 pubmed publisher
    To measure and compare the objective image quality of true noncontrast (TNC) images with virtual noncontrast (VNC) images acquired by tin-filter-enhanced, dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of upper abdomen.
  5. Zhang Y, Li Y, Li Q. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A in rat liver by the Diorganotin (IV) compound di-n-Butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzo-hydroxamato)tin (IV) and Its Probable Mechanism. Molecules. 2012;17:10994-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..aims of this study were to evaluate the inhibition effect on CYP3A of di-n-butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzohydroxamato)tin (IV) (DBDCT), a tin-based complex with high antitumor activity, and the probable mechanism(s) of this action...
  6. Sayilkan F, Asiltürk M, Kiraz N, Burunkaya E, Arpaç E, Sayilkan H. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of Sn(4+)-doped TiO(2) thin films on glass substrate. J Hazard Mater. 2009;162:1309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that TiO(2)-Sn(4+) is fully anatase crystalline form and easily dispersed in water. Increasing the solid ratio of TiO(2)-Sn(4+) from 10 to 50% in the coating solution increased antibacterial effect...
  7. Jareonmit P, Sajjaphan K, Sadowsky M. Structure and diversity of arsenic resistant bacteria in an old tin mine area of Thailand. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:169-78 pubmed
  8. Indelli M, Chiorboli C, Ghirotti M, Orlandi M, Scandola F, Kim H, et al. Photoinduced electron transfer in ruthenium(II)/Tin(IV) multiporphyrin arrays. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:14273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Two different motifs connect the ruthenium porphyrin units to central tin porphyrin core, axial coordination via ditopic bridging ligands and/or coordination to peripheral pyridyl groups of ..
  9. Valverde A, Gonzalez Tirante M, Medina Sierra M, Santa Regina I, Garcia Sanchez A, Igual J. Diversity and community structure of culturable arsenic-resistant bacteria across a soil arsenic gradient at an abandoned tungsten-tin mining area. Chemosphere. 2011;85:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also shown that, under aerobic conditions, strains with relatively enhanced tolerance to As(III) predominated over the most As(V)-tolerant ones...

More Information


  1. Kim Y, Woo K, Kim I, Cho Y, Jeong S, Moon J. Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications. Nanoscale. 2013;5:10183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination. ..
  2. Fan W, Feng J, Song S, Lei Y, Zhou L, Zheng G, et al. Near-infrared luminescent copolymerized hybrid materials built from tin nanoclusters and PMMA. Nanoscale. 2010;2:2096-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Transparent films of these materials can be easily prepared through spin-coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) glasses taking advantage of the matrix nature.
  3. Primak A, Giraldo J, Eusemann C, Schmidt B, Kantor B, Fletcher J, et al. Dual-source dual-energy CT with additional tin filtration: Dose and image quality evaluation in phantoms and in vivo. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195:1164-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the effect on radiation dose and image quality of the use of additional spectral filtration for dual-energy CT using dual-source CT (DSCT)...
  4. Gao J, Chen R, Li D, Jiang L, Ye J, Ma X, et al. UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires. Nanotechnology. 2011;22:195706 pubmed publisher
    Multifunctional single crystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires with tuned Sn doping levels are synthesized via a vapor transport method. The Sn concentration in the nanowires can reach 6.4 at...
  5. Dove A, Gibson V, Marshall E, Rzepa H, White A, Williams D. Synthetic, structural, mechanistic, and computational studies on single-site beta-diketiminate tin(II) initiators for the polymerization of rac-lactide. J Am Chem Soc. 2006;128:9834-43 pubmed
    A family of tin(II) complexes supported by beta-diketiminate ligands has been investigated as initiators for the polymerization of rac-lactide...
  6. Reid A, Brougham C, Fogarty A, Roche J. Accelerated solvent-based extraction and enrichment of selected plasticisers and 4-nonylphenol, and extraction of tin from organotin sources in sediments, sludges and leachate soils. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;634:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..0%. Acid digestion was used for the extraction of the tin and organotin compounds with analysis by polarography. In river sediment, levels of up to 24...
  7. Arogunjo A, Höllriegl V, Giussani A, Leopold K, Gerstmann U, Veronese I, et al. Uranium and thorium in soils, mineral sands, water and food samples in a tin mining area in Nigeria with elevated activity. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:232-40 pubmed publisher
    The activity concentrations of uranium and thorium have been determined in soils and mineral sands from the Nigerian tin mining area of Bisichi, located in the Jos Plateau, and from two control areas in Nigeria (Jos City and Akure) using ..
  8. Denmark S, Regens C. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of organosilanols and their salts: practical alternatives to boron- and tin-based methods. Acc Chem Res. 2008;41:1486-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common of these reagents are organic derivatives of tin, boron, and zinc, which each possess unique advantages and shortcomings...
  9. Jankovic L, Gournis D, Trikalitis P, Arfaoui I, Cren T, Rudolf P, et al. Carbon nanotubes encapsulating superconducting single-crystalline tin nanowires. Nano Lett. 2006;6:1131-5 pubmed
    ..for the first time a simple method which yields carbon nanotubes encapsulating single crystalline superconducting tin nanowires by employing the catalytic chemical vapor deposition method over solid tin dioxide...
  10. Thomas V, McGill I. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres in a simulated avian gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds. Sci Total Environ. 2008;394:283-9 pubmed publisher
    The rates of dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres (51.1%W, 44.4%Cu, 3.9%Sn, 0.6%Fe, by mass) were measured in an in vitro simulated avian gizzard at pH 2.0, and 42C...
  11. Dorneles P, Lailson Brito J, Fernandez M, Vidal L, Barbosa L, Azevedo A, et al. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:1268-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs...
  12. Moliner M, Román Leshkov Y, Davis M. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6164-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity...
  13. Bian L, He Y, Tang R, Ma L, Wang C, Ruan Y, et al. Induction of lung epithelial cell transformation and fibroblast activation by Yunnan tin mine dust and their interaction. Med Oncol. 2011;28 Suppl 1:S560-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of and interaction between lung epithelial cell transformation and fibroblast activation induced by Yunnan tin mine dust...
  14. Luo B, Yang D, Liang M, Zhi L. Large-scale fabrication of single crystalline tin nanowire arrays. Nanoscale. 2010;2:1661-4 pubmed publisher
    Large-scale single crystalline tin nanowire arrays with preferred lattice orientation along the [100] direction were fabricated in porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes by the electrodeposition method using copper nanorod as a ..
  15. Marques R, Dorea J, Leão R, Dos Santos V, Bueno L, Marques R, et al. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;62:341-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate neurodevelopment delays coexisting with exposure to multiple neurotoxic substances merits further investigation in poor environmental settings of tin-mining areas.
  16. Solazzo C, Dyer J, Deb Choudhury S, Clerens S, Wyeth P. Proteomic profiling of the photo-oxidation of silk fibroin: implications for historic tin-weighted silk. Photochem Photobiol. 2012;88:1217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..characterizing protein primary level modification leading to coloration changes, and evaluating the effects of tin weighting on photodegradation...
  17. Liu Y, Xu Y, Zhu Y, Culver J, Lundgren C, Xu K, et al. Tin-coated viral nanoforests as sodium-ion battery anodes. ACS Nano. 2013;7:3627-34 pubmed publisher
  18. Karlo C, Lauber A, Götti R, Baumüller S, Stolzmann P, Scheffel H, et al. Dual-energy CT with tin filter technology for the discrimination of renal lesion proxies containing blood, protein, and contrast-agent. An experimental phantom study. Eur Radiol. 2011;21:385-92 pubmed publisher
    To differentiate proxy renal cystic lesions containing protein, blood, iodine contrast or saline solutions using dual-energy CT (DECT) equipped with a new tin filter technology (TFT).
  19. Ghaffari M, Motlagh B. In vitro effect of lead, silver, tin, mercury, indium and bismuth on human sperm creatine kinase activity: a presumable mechanism for men infertility. Iran Biomed J. 2011;15:38-43 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of mercury (Hg+2), lead (Pb+2), silver (Ag+2), tin (Sn+2), bismuth (Bi+3) and indium (In+3) ions on sperm creatine kinase.
  20. Du W, Wang Q, Saxner D, Deskins N, Su D, Krzanowski J, et al. Highly active iridium/iridium-tin/tin oxide heterogeneous nanoparticles as alternative electrocatalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:15172-83 pubmed publisher
  21. Yang H, Jauregui L, Zhang G, Chen Y, Wu Y. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting. Nano Lett. 2012;12:540-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications...
  22. Cui G, Hu Y, Zhi L, Wu D, Lieberwirth I, Maier J, et al. A one-step approach towards carbon-encapsulated hollow tin nanoparticles and their application in lithium batteries. Small. 2007;3:2066-9 pubmed
  23. McMaster C, Bream R, Grainger R. Radical-mediated reduction of the dithiocarbamate group under tin-free conditions. Org Biomol Chem. 2012;10:4752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Deuterium incorporation from D(3)PO(2)-Et(3)N is observed for a system involving a nucleophilic radical intermediate, but not in the case of the electrophilic radical obtained through acyloxy group migration on a glucose derivative...
  24. Hefti A, Huber B. The effect on early plaque formation, gingivitis and salivary bacterial counts of mouthwashes containing hexetidine/zinc, aminefluoride/tin or chlorhexidine. J Clin Periodontol. 1987;14:515-8 pubmed
    This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of mouthwashes containing hexetidine/zinc (HZA) or tin (ASF) in inhibiting plaque formation and gingivitis in humans...
  25. Harrison J, Chen J, Miller W, Chen W, Hnizdo E, Lu J, et al. Risk of silicosis in cohorts of Chinese tin and tungsten miners and pottery workers (II): Workplace-specific silica particle surface composition. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48:10-5 pubmed
    ..In conjunction with an epidemiological investigation of silicosis disease risk in Chinese tin and tungsten mine and pottery workplaces, we analyzed respirable silica dusts using a multiple-voltage scanning ..
  26. Chen W, Zhuang Z, Attfield M, Chen B, Gao P, Harrison J, et al. Exposure to silica and silicosis among tin miners in China: exposure-response analyses and risk assessment. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58:31-7 pubmed
    To investigate the risk of silicosis among tin miners and to investigate the relation between silicosis and cumulative exposure to dust (Chinese total dust and respirable crystalline silica dust).
  27. Lee E, Shin K, Lee Y, Cheon G, Jeong J, Son M, et al. 188Re-tin-colloid as a new therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis. Nucl Med Commun. 2003;24:689-96 pubmed
    ..Radiation synovectomy is a useful treatment modality in patients with refractory synovitis. We have developed a 188Re-tin-colloid as a new radiopharmaceutical agent and investigated its efficacy and safety in patients with rheumatoid ..
  28. Manzoori J, Amjadi M, Abolhasani D. Spectrofluorimetric determination of tin in canned foods. J Hazard Mater. 2006;137:1631-5 pubmed
    A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of tin as its complex with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in a mixed micellar medium was developed...
  29. Xuan X, Lubin J, Li J, Yang L, Luo A, Lan Y, et al. A cohort study in southern China of tin miners exposed to radon and radon decay products. Health Phys. 1993;64:120-31 pubmed
    ..Herein we report on a historical cohort study of male employees of the Yunnan Tin Corporation in southern China...
  30. Marek M. The effect of tin in the Ag-Hg phase of dental amalgam on dissolution of mercury. Dent Mater. 1997;13:353-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the tin content in the gamma 1 phase of dental amalgam and the kinetics of mercury dissolution.
  31. Ratnasinghe D, Tangrea J, Forman M, Hartman T, Gunter E, Qiao Y, et al. Serum tocopherols, selenium and lung cancer risk among tin miners in China. Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:129-35 pubmed
    To evaluate the association of prediagnostic serum antioxidants and lung cancer risk we conducted a case-control study nested in an occupational cohort of tin miners.
  32. Jeong J, Lee Y, Kim Y, Chang Y, Lee D, Chung J, et al. Preparation of rhenium-188-tin colloid as a radiation synovectomy agent and comparison with rhenium-188-sulfur colloid. Appl Radiat Isot. 2000;52:851-5 pubmed
    ..We prepared 188Re-tin colloid and compared its properties with 188Re-sulfur colloid...
  33. Gyori J, Platoshyn O, Carpenter D, Salanki J. Effect of inorganic and organic tin compounds on ACh- and voltage-activated Na currents. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2000;20:591-604 pubmed
    1. Inorganic tin and organotin compounds, occurring in aquatic ecosystems, are toxic and can cause behavioral abnormalities in living organisms...
  34. Hazelton W, Luebeck E, Heidenreich W, Moolgavkar S. Analysis of a historical cohort of Chinese tin miners with arsenic, radon, cigarette smoke, and pipe smoke exposures using the biologically based two-stage clonal expansion model. Radiat Res. 2001;156:78-94 pubmed
    Hazelton, W. D., Luebeck, E. G., Heidenreich, W. F. and Moolgavkar, S. H. Analysis of a Historical Cohort of Chinese Tin Miners with Arsenic, Radon, Cigarette Smoke, and Pipe Smoke Exposures Using the Biologically Based Two-Stage Clonal ..
  35. Embleton M, Nair S, Cookson B, Wilson M. Selective lethal photosensitization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using an IgG-tin (IV) chlorin e6 conjugate. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:857-64 pubmed
    ..to determine whether the ability of MRSA to express the IgG-binding protein, protein A, could be exploited to enable selective lethal photosensitization of the organism with a photosensitizer [tin (IV) chlorin e6; SnCe6] linked to IgG.
  36. Chiba M, Kamiya N, Kikuchi M. Experimental study on interactions between selenium and tin in mice. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1988;15:289-301 pubmed
    The organ distributions of tin and selenium, and their excretion into urine and feces, were determined in mice...
  37. Rotstein I, Mor C, Arwaz J. Changes in surface levels of mercury, silver, tin, and copper of dental amalgam treated with carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1997;83:506-9 pubmed
    The effect of 10% carbamide peroxide or 10% hydrogen peroxide on the surface levels of mercury, silver, tin, and copper of amalgam fillings was tested in vitro with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometric ..
  38. Jones M, McColl I, Grant D, Parker K, Parker T. Protein adsorption and platelet attachment and activation, on TiN, TiC, and DLC coatings on titanium for cardiovascular applications. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;52:413-21 pubmed
    The hemocompatibility of a TiN/TiC/diamond-like carbon (DLC) multilayer structure, deposited on titanium substrates for use as coatings for a heart valve prosthesis, has been studied through the adsorption of blood proteins and the ..
  39. Perring L, Basic Dvorzak M. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2002;374:235-43 pubmed
    b>Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides...
  40. Blunden S, Wallace T. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41:1651-62 pubmed
    Tinplate is light gauge, steel sheet or strip, coated on both sides with commercially pure tin and has been used for well over a hundred years as a robust form of food packaging...
  41. Tomasek L, Zarska H. Lung cancer risk among Czech tin and uranium miners--comparison of lifetime detriment. Neoplasma. 2004;51:255-60 pubmed
    ..The risk in other mines was reported later. The cohort study among 2466 Czech tin miners was conducted in order to estimate the size of the risk and to compare it to that in uranium mines...
  42. Higashi H, Natsugoe S, Uenosono Y, Ehi K, Arigami T, Nakabeppu Y, et al. Particle size of tin and phytate colloid in sentinel node identification. J Surg Res. 2004;121:1-4 pubmed
    ..Sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) has recently been introduced for various types of carcinoma. Numerous radioisotopes are used as tracers for SNNS. However, few reports have examined particle sizes of isotope colloids used in SNNS...
  43. Toyota M, Asano T, Ihara M. Total synthesis of serofendic acids A and B employing tin-free homoallyl-homoallyl radical rearrangement. Org Lett. 2005;7:3929-32 pubmed
    ..The key strategic element of the approach involves the novel tin-free homoallyl-homoallyl radical rearrangement of 5 for the construction of bicyclo[2.2.2]octane ring system 4...
  44. Chen W, Chen J. Nested case-control study of lung cancer in four Chinese tin mines. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:113-8 pubmed
    To evaluate the relation between occupational dust exposure and lung cancer in tin mines. This is an update of a previous study of miners with high exposure to dust at four tin mines in southern China.
  45. Ruiz Encinar J, Rodriguez Gonzalez P, Garcia Alonso J, Sanz Medel A. Evaluation of extraction techniques for the determination of butyltin compounds in sediments using isotope dilution-GC/ICPMS with 118Sn and 119Sn-enriched species. Anal Chem. 2002;74:270-81 pubmed
    ..shaking, ultrasonic, and microwave-assisted extractions, have been evaluated for the quantitative speciation of tin for mono-, di-, and tributyltin (MBT, DBT, and TBT, respectively) in PACS-2 and BCR-646 certified reference ..
  46. Rüdel H. Case study: bioavailability of tin and tin compounds. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2003;56:180-9 pubmed
    This article reviews the literature related to the bioavailability of tin, inorganic tin compounds, and organotin compounds. On the one hand, the toxicity of metallic tin and inorganic tin compounds is low...
  47. Omae I. General aspects of tin-free antifouling paints. Chem Rev. 2003;103:3431-48 pubmed
  48. Kira M, Ishida S, Iwamoto T. Comparative chemistry of isolable divalent compounds of silicon, germanium, and tin. Chem Rec. 2004;4:243-53 pubmed
    ..Comparative studies of the unique reactions among these metallylenes are also discussed...
  49. Chen W, Hnizdo E, Chen J, Attfield M, Gao P, Hearl F, et al. Risk of silicosis in cohorts of Chinese tin and tungsten miners, and pottery workers (I): an epidemiological study. Am J Ind Med. 2005;48:1-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to compare the risk of silicosis among cohorts of silica dust-exposed Chinese tin miners, tungsten miners, and pottery workers and to assess whether gravimetric measurements of respirable silica ..
  50. Chen W, Yang J, Chen J, Bruch J. Exposures to silica mixed dust and cohort mortality study in tin mines: exposure-response analysis and risk assessment of lung cancer. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49:67-76 pubmed
    ..The health impacts on workers with silica mixed dust exposure in tin mines and dose-response relationships between cumulative dust exposure and the mortality from lung cancer are ..
  51. Hayashi N, Hirokawa Y, Shibata I, Yasuda M, Baba A. Bu2SnIH-promoted proximal bond cleavage of methylenecyclopropanes and successive radical cyclization and/or Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:2912-3 pubmed publisher
  52. Liu J, Buchholz D, Hennek J, Chang R, Facchetti A, Marks T. All-amorphous-oxide transparent, flexible thin-film transistors. Efficacy of bilayer gate dielectrics. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:11934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..amorphous Ta(2)O(5)/SiO(x) bilayer transparent oxide insulator (TOI) gate dielectric with an amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide (a-ZITO) transparent oxide semiconductor (TOS) channel and a-ZITO transparent oxide conductor (TOC) ..
  53. Biata N, Nyaba L, Ramontja J, Mketo N, Nomngongo P. Determination of antimony and tin in beverages using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid phase microextraction. Food Chem. 2017;237:904-911 pubmed publisher
    ..dispersive liquid-liquid phase microextraction (UA-IL-DLLME) method for preconcetration of trace antimony and tin in beverage samples...