manganese

Summary

Summary: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)

Top Publications

  1. Lisher J, Higgins K, Maroney M, Giedroc D. Physical characterization of the manganese-sensing pneumococcal surface antigen repressor from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Biochemistry. 2013;52:7689-701 pubmed publisher
    Transition metals, including manganese, are required for the proper virulence and persistence of many pathogenic bacteria...
  2. Tuschl K, Mills P, Clayton P. Manganese and the brain. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2013;110:277-312 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal that is pivotal for normal cell function and metabolism. Its homeostasis is tightly regulated; however, the mechanisms of Mn homeostasis are poorly characterized...
  3. Choi M, Bae Y. Relationship between dietary magnesium, manganese, and copper and metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;156:56-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, this study aims to assess the dietary intakes of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) to determine their relationship with MS...
  4. Zou Y, Qing L, Zeng X, Shen Y, Zhong Y, Liu J, et al. Cognitive function and plasma BDNF levels among manganese-exposed smelters. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71:189-94 pubmed publisher
    To explore the potential dose-response relationship between manganese (Mn) exposure and cognitive function and also plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in occupational Mn exposure workers.
  5. Lisher J, Giedroc D. Manganese acquisition and homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:91 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights recent biological, chemical and structural studies focused on manganese (Mn) acquisition and homeostasis and connects this process to oxidative stress resistance and iron (Fe) ..
  6. Yamaji N, Sasaki A, Xia J, Yokosho K, Ma J. A node-based switch for preferential distribution of manganese in rice. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2442 pubmed publisher
    Mineral nutrients, such as manganese, are required for the development of plants and their reproductive organs, but these can be toxic if accumulated at high concentrations...
  7. Pérez Navarro M, Ames W, Nilsson H, Lohmiller T, Pantazis D, Rapatskiy L, et al. Ammonia binding to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II identifies the solvent-exchangeable oxygen bridge (?-oxo) of the manganese tetramer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15561-6 pubmed publisher
    The assignment of the two substrate water sites of the tetra-manganese penta-oxygen calcium (Mn4O5Ca) cluster of photosystem II is essential for the elucidation of the mechanism of biological O-O bond formation and the subsequent design ..
  8. Banh A, Chavez V, Doi J, Nguyen A, Hernandez S, Ha V, et al. Manganese (Mn) oxidation increases intracellular Mn in Pseudomonas putida GB-1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77835 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial manganese (Mn) oxidation plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other compounds, and the diversity and prevalence of Mn oxidizers have been well established...
  9. Singh P, Dutta G, Goldberg I, Mahammed A, Gross Z. Expected and unexpected transformations of manganese(III) tris(4-nitrophenyl)corrole. Inorg Chem. 2013;52:9349-55 pubmed publisher
    The synthesis and characterization of manganese complexes of 5,10,15-tris(4-nitrophenyl) corrole in different oxidation states are described...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gaston M, Pellino C, Weiss A. Failure of manganese to protect from Shiga toxin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69823 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently, there are no approved therapeutics for these infections; however manganese has been reported to provide protection from the Stx1 variant isolated from Shigella dysenteriae (Stx1-S) both ..
  2. Gribenko A, Mosyak L, Ghosh S, Parris K, Svenson K, Moran J, et al. Three-dimensional structure and biophysical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus cell surface antigen-manganese transporter MntC. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:3429-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is unlikely that antibody binding to this antigen will be affected by the occupancy of the metal-binding site by Mn²?...
  3. Chen L, Ding G, Gao Y, Wang P, Shi R, Huang H, et al. Manganese concentrations in maternal-infant blood and birth weight. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21:6170-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral nutrient in mammals...
  4. Lechpammer M, Clegg M, Muzar Z, Huebner P, Jin L, Gospe S. Pathology of inherited manganese transporter deficiency. Ann Neurol. 2014;75:608-12 pubmed publisher
    We followed a patient with manganese transporter deficiency due to homozygous SLC30A10 mutations from age 14 years until his death at age 38 years and present the first postmortem findings of this disorder...
  5. Kehl Fie T, Zhang Y, Moore J, Farrand A, Hood M, Rathi S, et al. MntABC and MntH contribute to systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection by competing with calprotectin for nutrient manganese. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3395-405 pubmed publisher
    During infection, vertebrates limit access to manganese and zinc, starving invading pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, of these essential metals in a process termed "nutritional immunity...
  6. Rink S, Ardoino G, Queirolo E, Cicariello D, Mañay N, Kordas K. Associations between hair manganese levels and cognitive, language, and motor development in preschool children from Montevideo, Uruguay. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2014;69:46-54 pubmed publisher
    Environmental manganese (Mn) exposure in childhood has been associated with developmental deficits. This study investigated associations between low-level Mn exposure and developmental scores in children aged 14-45 months...
  7. Budis H, Kalisińska E, Lanocha N, Kosik Bogacka D. The concentration of manganese, iron and strontium in bone of red fox Vulpes vulpes (L. 1758). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;155:361-9 pubmed publisher
    The aims of the study were to determine manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and strontium (Sr) concentrations in fox bone samples from north-western Poland and to examine the relationships between the bone Mn, Fe and Sr concentrations and the sex ..
  8. Bhang S, Cho S, Kim J, Hong Y, Shin M, Yoo H, et al. Relationship between blood manganese levels and children's attention, cognition, behavior, and academic performance--a nationwide cross-sectional study. Environ Res. 2013;126:9-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic at high concentrations. However, Mn is an essential element that can protect against oxidative damage; thus, extremely low levels of Mn might be harmful...
  9. da Silva Santos V, Bisen Hersh E, Yu Y, Cabral I, Nardini V, Culbreth M, et al. Anthocyanin-rich açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) extract attenuates manganese-induced oxidative stress in rat primary astrocyte cultures. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77:390-404 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for human health. However, at high concentrations Mn may be neurotoxic. Mn accumulates in astrocytes, affecting their redox status...
  10. Gunier R, Bradman A, Jerrett M, Smith D, Harley K, Austin C, et al. Determinants of manganese in prenatal dentin of shed teeth from CHAMACOS children living in an agricultural community. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:11249-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but overexposure can be neurotoxic. Over 800?000 kg of Mn-containing fungicides are applied each year in California. Manganese levels in teeth are a promising biomarker of perinatal exposure...
  11. Ganeshan M, Sainath P, Padmavathi I, Venu L, Kishore Y, Kumar K, et al. Maternal manganese restriction increases susceptibility to high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and altered adipose function in WNIN male rat offspring. Exp Diabetes Res. 2011;2011:486316 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal manganese restriction increased the susceptibility of the offspring to high-fat-induced adiposity, dyslipidaemia, and a ..
  12. Kouzuma A, Hashimoto K, Watanabe K. Roles of siderophore in manganese-oxide reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;326:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that siderophore is important for S. oneidensis MR-1 to respire MnO(2), because iron availability influences the expression of cytochromes necessary for metal reduction...
  13. Racette B, Aschner M, Guilarte T, Dydak U, Criswell S, Zheng W. Pathophysiology of manganese-associated neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:881-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is a well established neurotoxin associated with specific damage to the basal ganglia in humans...
  14. Kanninen K, Grubman A, Meyerowitz J, Duncan C, Tan J, Parker S, et al. Increased zinc and manganese in parallel with neurodegeneration, synaptic protein changes and activation of Akt/GSK3 signaling in ovine CLN6 neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58644 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses revealed increased zinc and manganese concentrations in affected sheep brain in those regions where neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration first ..
  15. Yuan L, Yang S, Liu B, Zhang M, Wu K. Molecular characterization of a rice metal tolerance protein, OsMTP1. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results show that OsMTP1 is a bivalent cation transporter localized in the cell membrane, which is necessary for efficient translocation of Zn, Cd and other heavy metals, and maintain ion homeostasis in plant...
  16. Zheng G, Chen J, Zheng W. Relative contribution of CTR1 and DMT1 in copper transport by the blood-CSF barrier: implication in manganese-induced neurotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;260:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..from human and animal studies suggest an increased Cu concentration in blood, CSF, and brains following in vivo manganese (Mn) exposure...
  17. Khan K, Factor Litvak P, Wasserman G, Liu X, Ahmed E, Parvez F, et al. Manganese exposure from drinking water and children's classroom behavior in Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect. 2011;119:1501-6 pubmed publisher
    Evidence of neurological, cognitive, and neuropsychological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure from drinking water (WMn) in children has generated widespread public health concern...
  18. Millaleo R, Reyes Díaz M, Alberdi M, Ivanov A, Krol M, Huner N. Excess manganese differentially inhibits photosystem I versus II in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:343-54 pubmed publisher
    The effects of exposure to increasing manganese concentrations (50-1500 µM) from the start of the experiment on the functional performance of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) and photosynthetic apparatus composition of ..
  19. Martín M, Garcia Ortiz M, Esteban V, Blanco L. Ribonucleotides and manganese ions improve non-homologous end joining by human Pol?. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2428-36 pubmed publisher
  20. Shemesh M, Chai Y. A combination of glycerol and manganese promotes biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis via histidine kinase KinD signaling. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:2747-54 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis in LB medium is triggered by a combination of glycerol and manganese (GM)...
  21. Chakraborty S, Aschner M. Altered manganese homeostasis: implications for BLI-3-dependent dopaminergic neurodegeneration and SKN-1 protection in C. elegans. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012;26:183-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The heavy metal manganese (Mn) falls into this category of environmental contributors, as it is both essential but also neurotoxic upon ..
  22. Bissig D, Berkowitz B. Same-session functional assessment of rat retina and brain with manganese-enhanced MRI. Neuroimage. 2011;58:749-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is a powerful non-invasive approach for objectively measuring either retina or binocular visual brain activity in vivo...
  23. Prokop K, Neu H, de Visser S, Goldberg D. A manganese(V)-oxo ?-cation radical complex: influence of one-electron oxidation on oxygen-atom transfer. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:15874-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are relevant to comparisons between Compound I and Compound II in heme enzymes...
  24. Quadri M, Federico A, Zhao T, Breedveld G, Battisti C, Delnooz C, et al. Mutations in SLC30A10 cause parkinsonism and dystonia with hypermanganesemia, polycythemia, and chronic liver disease. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:467-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese is essential for several metabolic pathways but becomes toxic in excessive amounts. Manganese levels in the body are therefore tightly regulated, but the responsible protein(s) remain incompletely known...
  25. Sasaki A, Yamaji N, Xia J, Ma J. OsYSL6 is involved in the detoxification of excess manganese in rice. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1832-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockout of OsYSL6 resulted in decreased growth of both roots and shoots only in the high-manganese (Mn) condition...
  26. García Ruiz E, Gonzalez Perez D, Ruiz Duenas F, Martinez A, Alcalde M. Directed evolution of a temperature-, peroxide- and alkaline pH-tolerant versatile peroxidase. Biochem J. 2012;441:487-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the directed evolution approach described provides a set of strategies for selecting VPs with improvements in secretion, activity and stability...
  27. Gonzalez M, Yim M, Cheng S, Moyes A, Hobbs A, Mascharak P. Manganese carbonyls bearing tripodal polypyridine ligands as photoactive carbon monoxide-releasing molecules. Inorg Chem. 2012;51:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The superior stability of 3 in aqueous media makes it a photoCORM suitable for inducing vasorelaxation in mouse aortic muscle rings...
  28. Fujishiro H, Yano Y, Takada Y, Tanihara M, Himeno S. Roles of ZIP8, ZIP14, and DMT1 in transport of cadmium and manganese in mouse kidney proximal tubule cells. Metallomics. 2012;4:700-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ZIP8 and ZIP14 expressed in the S3 segment of proximal tubules play significant roles in the absorption of Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) in the kidney...
  29. Chang Y, Jin S, Kim Y, Shin K, Lee H, Kim S, et al. Decreased brain volumes in manganese-exposed welders. Neurotoxicology. 2013;37:182-9 pubmed publisher
    A great deal of research has been devoted to identifying subclinical functional brain abnormalities in manganese (Mn)-exposed welders...
  30. Geszvain K, McCarthy J, Tebo B. Elimination of manganese(II,III) oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 by a double knockout of two putative multicopper oxidase genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:357-66 pubmed publisher
    Bacterial manganese(II) oxidation impacts the redox cycling of Mn, other elements, and compounds in the environment; therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms of and enzymes responsible for Mn(II) oxidation...
  31. Tan J, Zhang T, Jiang L, Chi J, Hu D, Pan Q, et al. Regulation of intracellular manganese homeostasis by Kufor-Rakeb syndrome-associated ATP13A2 protein. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, wild-type ATP13A2 reduced intracellular manganese concentrations and prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria compared with the pathogenic mutants...
  32. Baruah S, Ortinero C, Shipin O, Dutta J. Manganese doped zinc sulfide quantum dots for detection of Escherichia coli. J Fluoresc. 2012;22:403-8 pubmed publisher
    A novel biocompatible chitosan passivated manganese doped zinc sulfide (Mn doped ZnS) nanophosphor has been synthesized through a simple aqueous precipitation reaction...
  33. Hesketh S, Thompsett A, Brown D. Prion protein polymerisation triggered by manganese-generated prion protein seeds. J Neurochem. 2012;120:177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..developed a model of this process using an oligomeric species generated from recombinant protein by exposure to manganese. On fractionation of the seeding species, we estimated that the smallest size the oligomer would be is an ..
  34. Fordahl S, Cooney P, Qiu Y, Xie G, Jia W, Erikson K. Waterborne manganese exposure alters plasma, brain, and liver metabolites accompanied by changes in stereotypic behaviors. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012;34:27-36 pubmed publisher
    Overexposure to waterborne manganese (Mn) is linked with cognitive impairment in children and neurochemical abnormalities in other experimental models...
  35. Yamaguchi N, Ishikawa S, Abe T, Baba K, Arao T, Terada Y. Role of the node in controlling traffic of cadmium, zinc, and manganese in rice. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:2729-37 pubmed publisher
    ..To find a mechanism for restricting cadmium (Cd) transport into grains, the distribution of Cd, zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and sulphur (S) around the vascular bundles in node I (the node beneath the panicle) of Oryza sativa '..
  36. Leeladee P, Baglia R, Prokop K, Latifi R, de Visser S, Goldberg D. Valence tautomerism in a high-valent manganese-oxo porphyrinoid complex induced by a Lewis acid. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:10397-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Removal of Zn(2+) quantitatively restores the starting material. Electron-transfer and hydrogen-atom-transfer reactions are strongly influenced by the presence of Zn(2+)...
  37. Martorell M, Pajot H, Rovati J, Figueroa L. Optimization of culture medium composition for manganese peroxidase and tyrosinase production during Reactive Black 5 decolourization by the yeast Trichosporon akiyoshidainum. Yeast. 2012;29:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..design was employed for the study and optimization of the decolourization process and production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and tyrosinase activities...
  38. Maller A, da Silva T, Damásio A, Hirata I, Jorge J, Terenzi H, et al. Functional properties of a manganese-activated exo-polygalacturonase produced by a thermotolerant fungus Aspergillus niveus. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2013;58:615-21 pubmed publisher
    ..7 mg/ml, 230 U/mg, 393.3/s, and 58.7 mg/ml/s, respectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence presented 80 % identity with PglB1, PglA2, and PglA3 putative exo-PG of Aspergillus fumigatus and an exo-PG Neosartorya fischeri. ..
  39. Geszvain K, Yamaguchi A, Maybee J, Tebo B. Mn(II) oxidation in Pseudomonas putida GB-1 is influenced by flagella synthesis and surface substrate. Arch Microbiol. 2011;193:605-14 pubmed publisher
    Bacterially mediated manganese(II) oxidation greatly affects the biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other elements. One species of bacteria that are capable of Mn(II) oxidation is the gamma-proteobacterium Pseudomonas putida GB-1...
  40. Dixit A, Dhankher O. A novel stress-associated protein 'AtSAP10' from Arabidopsis thaliana confers tolerance to nickel, manganese, zinc, and high temperature stress. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20921 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results showed that AtSAP10 is a potentially useful candidate gene for engineering tolerance to heavy metals and to abiotic stress in cultivated plants...
  41. Mougel V, Chatelain L, Pécaut J, Caciuffo R, Colineau E, Griveau J, et al. Uranium and manganese assembled in a wheel-shaped nanoscale single-molecule magnet with high spin-reversal barrier. Nat Chem. 2012;4:1011-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 K), which suggests that uranium might indeed provide a route to magnetic storage devices. This molecule also represents an interesting model for actinide nanoparticles occurring in the environment and in spent fuel separation cycles...
  42. Wichgers Schreur P, Rebel J, Smits M, van Putten J, Smith H. TroA of Streptococcus suis is required for manganese acquisition and full virulence. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Supplementing the medium with extra manganese but not with magnesium, zinc, copper, nickel, or iron restored growth to wild-type levels, indicating that TroA ..
  43. Wang F, Appelkvist P, Klason T, Gissberg O, Bogstedt A, Eliason K, et al. Decreased axonal transport rates in the Tg2576 APP transgenic mouse: improvement with the gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK-560 as detected by manganese-enhanced MRI. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:3165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..study indicates that axonal transport is compromised in the olfactory system of Tg2576 mice, as measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI)...
  44. Chtourou Y, Fetoui H, Garoui E, Boudawara T, Zeghal N. Improvement of cerebellum redox states and cholinergic functions contribute to the beneficial effects of silymarin against manganese-induced neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:469-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is a potent neurotoxin involved in the initiation and progression of various cognitive disorders. Oxidative stress is reported as one of accepted mechanisms of Mn toxicity...
  45. Lee H, Yoo S, Lee S, Song H, Huh M, Jin S, et al. Functional activity mapping of rat auditory pathway after intratympanic manganese administration. Neuroimage. 2012;60:1046-54 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we report a new method of manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) using intratympanic (IT) manganese administration...
  46. Sobota J, Imlay J. Iron enzyme ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase in Escherichia coli is rapidly damaged by hydrogen peroxide but can be protected by manganese. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Manganese import and iron sequestration are key elements of the H(2)O(2) stress response, and we found that manganese can ..
  47. Tuschl K, Clayton P, Gospe S, Gulab S, Ibrahim S, Singhi P, et al. Syndrome of hepatic cirrhosis, dystonia, polycythemia, and hypermanganesemia caused by mutations in SLC30A10, a manganese transporter in man. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:457-66 pubmed publisher
    Environmental manganese (Mn) toxicity causes an extrapyramidal, parkinsonian-type movement disorder with characteristic magnetic resonance images of Mn accumulation in the basal ganglia...
  48. Sun Y, Lee M, Yoon C, Hassoun J, Amine K, Scrosati B. The role of AlF3 coatings in improving electrochemical cycling of Li-enriched nickel-manganese oxide electrodes for Li-ion batteries. Adv Mater. 2012;24:1192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This improvement was attributed to the transformation of the initial electrode layer to a spinel phase, induced by the Li chemical leaching effect of the AlF(3) coating layer...
  49. Martins E, Pessano N, Leal L, Roos D, Folmer V, Puntel G, et al. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87:74-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  50. Veyrier F, Boneca I, Cellier M, Taha M. A novel metal transporter mediating manganese export (MntX) regulates the Mn to Fe intracellular ratio and Neisseria meningitidis virulence. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002261 pubmed publisher
    ..fully understood, previous studies (including our own data) have reported that, unlike Ng, Nm tolerates high manganese concentrations...
  51. Brismar T, Kartalis N, Kylander C, Albiin N. MRI of colorectal cancer liver metastases: comparison of orally administered manganese with intravenously administered gadobenate dimeglumine. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:633-41 pubmed publisher
    To compare the sensitivity of MRI to detect colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) after ingestion of manganese-based contrast agent (CMC-001) with that of a comprehensive intravenous gadobenate dimeglumine protocol, and to assess the ..
  52. Hernández R, Farina M, Espósito B, Souza Pinto N, Barbosa F, Suñol C. Mechanisms of manganese-induced neurotoxicity in primary neuronal cultures: the role of manganese speciation and cell type. Toxicol Sci. 2011;124:414-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for the proper functioning of a variety of physiological processes...
  53. Berggren G, Anderlund M, Styring S, Thapper A. FTIR study of manganese dimers with carboxylate donors as model complexes for the water oxidation complex in Photosystem II. Inorg Chem. 2012;51:2332-7 pubmed publisher
    The carboxylate stretching frequencies of two high-valent, di-?-oxido bridged, manganese dimers has been studied with IR spectroscopy in three different oxidation states...