germanium

Summary

Summary: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.

Top Publications

  1. Wang G, Zhang M, Zhu Y, Ding G, Jiang D, Guo Q, et al. Direct growth of graphene film on germanium substrate. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2465 pubmed publisher
    ..Our technique is compatible with modern microelectronics technology thus allowing integration with high-volume production of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS). ..
  2. Li G, Luo Y, Zheng X, Masini G, Mekis A, Sahni S, et al. Improving CMOS-compatible Germanium photodetectors. Opt Express. 2012;20:26345-50 pubmed publisher
    We report design improvements for evanescently coupled Germanium photodetectors grown at low temperature. The resulting photodetectors with 10 ?m Ge length manufactured in a commercial CMOS process achieve >0...
  3. Chen J, Zhang G, Li B. Impacts of atomistic coating on thermal conductivity of germanium nanowires. Nano Lett. 2012;12:2826-32 pubmed publisher
    By using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrated that thermal conductivity of germanium nanowires can be reduced more than 25% at room temperature by atomistic coating...
  4. Vivien L, Osmond J, Fedeli J, Marris Morini D, Crozat P, Damlencourt J, et al. 42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide. Opt Express. 2009;17:6252-7 pubmed
    ..55 microm and a low dark current density of 60 mA/cm(2). At a wavelength of 1.52 microm, a responsivity of 1 A/W is obtained under -0.5 V bias. The process is fully compatible with CMOS technology...
  5. Song T, Cheng H, Choi H, Lee J, Han H, Lee D, et al. Si/Ge double-layered nanotube array as a lithium ion battery anode. ACS Nano. 2012;6:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This electrode technology creates opportunities in the development of group IVA nanotube heterostructures for next generation lithium ion batteries...
  6. Sanchez Perez J, Boztug C, Chen F, Sudradjat F, Paskiewicz D, Jacobson R, et al. Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18893-8 pubmed publisher
    Silicon, germanium, and related alloys, which provide the leading materials platform of electronics, are extremely inefficient light emitters because of the indirect nature of their fundamental energy bandgap...
  7. Ma Y, Huang C, Tsai J, Shen M, Li Y, Lin L. Water-soluble germanium nanoparticles cause necrotic cell death and the damage can be attenuated by blocking the transduction of necrotic signaling pathway. Toxicol Lett. 2011;207:258-69 pubmed publisher
    Water-soluble germanium nanoparticles (wsGeNPs) with allyamine-conjugated surfaces were fabricated and emit blue fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The wsGeNP was physically and chemically stable at various experimental conditions...
  8. Holmberg V, Rasch M, Korgel B. PEGylation of carboxylic acid-functionalized germanium nanowires. Langmuir. 2010;26:14241-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Germanium (Ge) nanowires were produced in solution by supercritical fluid-liquid-solid (SFLS) growth and then functionalized with carboxylic acid groups by in situ thermal thiolation with mercaptoundecanoic acid...
  9. Sayed S, Buriak J. Epitaxial growth of nanostructured gold films on germanium via galvanic displacement. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2010;2:3515-24 pubmed publisher
    ..microscopy (TEM) techniques were performed to study the crystallinity and orientation of the resulting gold-on-germanium films...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Erogbogbo F, Liu T, Ramadurai N, Tuccarione P, Lai L, Swihart M, et al. Creating ligand-free silicon germanium alloy nanocrystal inks. ACS Nano. 2011;5:7950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate production of silicon-germanium alloy nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis of silane and germane...
  2. Logeeswaran Vj -, Kobayashi N, Islam M, Wu W, Chaturvedi P, Fang N, et al. Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer. Nano Lett. 2009;9:178-82 pubmed publisher
    ..for depositing smooth silver (Ag) films on SiO(2)/Si(100) substrates using a thin seed layer of evaporated germanium (Ge)...
  3. Al Salman R, Mallet J, Molinari M, Fricoteaux P, Martineau F, Troyon M, et al. Template assisted electrodeposition of germanium and silicon nanowires in an ionic liquid. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2008;10:6233-7 pubmed publisher
    In this paper we report for the first time on the room temperature template synthesis of germanium and silicon nanowires by potentiostatic electrochemical deposition from the air- and water stable ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-..
  4. Qin T, Gutu T, Jiao J, Chang C, Rorrer G. Biological fabrication of photoluminescent nanocomb structures by metabolic incorporation of germanium into the biosilica of the diatom Nitzschia frustulum. ACS Nano. 2008;2:1296-304 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the metabolic insertion of low levels of germanium into the frustule biosilica of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frustulum by a two-stage cultivation process induced ..
  5. Lin M, Hsu T, Yang P, Tsai M, Perng T, Lin L. Comparison of organic and inorganic germanium compounds in cellular radiosensitivity and preparation of germanium nanoparticles as a radiosensitizer. Int J Radiat Biol. 2009;85:214-26 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work is to compare the radiosensitizing effect between organic and inorganic germanium compounds and to investigate whether nanometer-sized germanium particles can act as radiosensitizers.
  6. Pi X, Kortshagen U. Nonthermal plasma synthesized freestanding silicon-germanium alloy nanocrystals. Nanotechnology. 2009;20:295602 pubmed publisher
    ..1, indicating that the bandgap of Si nanocrystals is similar to that of Ge nanocrystals at a nanocrystal size of 3 nm...
  7. Ruddy D, Johnson J, Smith E, Neale N. Size and bandgap control in the solution-phase synthesis of near-infrared-emitting germanium nanocrystals. ACS Nano. 2010;4:7459-66 pubmed publisher
    ..A mechanism is proposed for the observed size control, which relies upon the difference in reduction temperatures for Ge(II) versus Ge(IV)...
  8. Yan H, Choe H, Nam S, Hu Y, Das S, Klemic J, et al. Programmable nanowire circuits for nanoprocessors. Nature. 2011;470:240-4 pubmed publisher
  9. Pei L, Cai Z. A review on germanium nanowires. Recent Pat Nanotechnol. 2012;6:44-59 pubmed
    ..Amorphous germanium oxide layer and defects existing in Ge nanowires result in poor Ohmic contact between Ge nanowires and ..
  10. Bianco E, Butler S, Jiang S, Restrepo O, Windl W, GOLDBERGER J. Stability and exfoliation of germanane: a germanium graphane analogue. ACS Nano. 2013;7:4414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We have synthesized for the first time, millimeter-scale crystals of a hydrogen-terminated germanium multilayered graphane analogue (germanane, GeH) from the topochemical deintercalation of CaGe2...
  11. Jung B, Lee J, Lee B. Antiviral effect of dietary germanium biotite supplementation in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Vet Sci. 2013;14:135-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Germanium biotite (GB) is an aluminosilicate mineral containing 36 ppm germanium...
  12. Prokscha T, Chow K, Stilp E, Suter A, Luetkens H, Morenzoni E, et al. Photo-induced persistent inversion of germanium in a 200-nm-deep surface region. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2569 pubmed publisher
    ..show that it is possible to induce a persistent inversion from n- to p-type in a 200-nm-thick surface layer of a germanium wafer by illumination with white and blue light...
  13. Cao L, Park J, Fan P, Clemens B, Brongersma M. Resonant germanium nanoantenna photodetectors. Nano Lett. 2010;10:1229-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate how to overcome these limitations in a nanoscale metal-semiconductor-metal germanium photodetector for the optical communications band...
  14. Xie P, Hu Y, Fang Y, Huang J, Lieber C. Diameter-dependent dopant location in silicon and germanium nanowires. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15254-8 pubmed publisher
    We report studies defining the diameter-dependent location of electrically active dopants in silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) nanowires (NWs) prepared by nanocluster catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth without measurable competing ..
  15. Strait J, George P, Levendorf M, Blood Forsythe M, Rana F, Park J. Measurements of the carrier dynamics and terahertz response of oriented germanium nanowires using optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy. Nano Lett. 2009;9:2967-72 pubmed publisher
    We have measured the terahertz response of oriented Germanium nanowires using ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy. We present results on the time, frequency, and polarization dependence of the terahertz response...
  16. Ben Ishai M, Patolsky F. From crystalline germanium-silicon axial heterostructures to silicon nanowire-nanotubes. Nano Lett. 2012;12:1121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SiNW-NT) heterostructures with controlled geometry, kinked and unkinked, and composition using germanium-silicon nanowire heterostructures with abrupt heterojunctions (~2 nm wide) as a template via the VLS-CVD ..
  17. Wu T, Huang Y, Lee J, Wang S, Wang S, Su C, et al. Radiation exposure during transmission measurements: comparison between CT- and germanium-based techniques with a current PET scanner. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2004;31:38-43 pubmed
    ..PET) scanning, transmission measurements for attenuation correction are commonly performed by using external germanium-68 rod sources...
  18. Riedel M, Muller B, Wintermantel E. Protein adsorption and monocyte activation on germanium nanopyramids. Biomaterials. 2001;22:2307-16 pubmed
    b>Germanium can form defect-free pyramidal islands on Si(1 0 0)-2 x 1 with a height of 15 nm and a width of 60 nm...
  19. Woodruff J, Ratchford J, Goldthorpe I, McIntyre P, Chidsey C. Vertically oriented germanium nanowires grown from gold colloids on silicon substrates and subsequent gold removal. Nano Lett. 2007;7:1637-42 pubmed
    ..Conditions are reported that result in vertically oriented Ge nanowires of uniform diameter and length on Si(111). We then present a method to remove Au catalysts from the nanowires with aqueous triiodide and HCl...
  20. Nakamoto Y, Osman M, Cohade C, Marshall L, Links J, Kohlmyer S, et al. PET/CT: comparison of quantitative tracer uptake between germanium and CT transmission attenuation-corrected images. J Nucl Med. 2002;43:1137-43 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the quantitative differences between CT-based and germanium-based attenuation-corrected PET images.
  21. Hanrath T, Korgel B. Crystallography and surface faceting of germanium nanowires. Small. 2005;1:717-21 pubmed
  22. Chen L, Cheng S, Yu C, Su P, Lin H, Chi K. Structural evolution in amorphous silicon and germanium thin films. Microsc Microanal. 2002;8:268-73 pubmed
    The structural evolution in amorphous silicon and germanium thin films has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in conjunction with autocorrelation function (ACF) analysis...
  23. Nikolic M, Nikolic N, Liang Y, Kirkby E, Romheld V. Germanium-68 as an adequate tracer for silicon transport in plants. Characterization of silicon uptake in different crop species. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:495-503 pubmed
    ..Radioactive germanium-68 ((68)Ge) has been used previously as a Si tracer in biological materials, but its suitability for the study ..
  24. Velikyan I, Beyer G, Langstrom B. Microwave-supported preparation of (68)Ga bioconjugates with high specific radioactivity. Bioconjug Chem. 2004;15:554-60 pubmed
    ..The first automated prototype using this technology is being tested...
  25. Bakkers E, van Dam J, De Franceschi S, Kouwenhoven L, Kaiser M, Verheijen M, et al. Epitaxial growth of InP nanowires on germanium. Nat Mater. 2004;3:769-73 pubmed
    ..We have grown InP nanowires on germanium substrates by a vapour-liquid-solid method. Although the crystal lattice mismatch is large (3...
  26. Fried N, Yang Y, Chaney C, Fried D. Transmission of Q-switched erbium:YSGG (lambda=2.79 microm) and erbium:YAG (lambda=2.94 microm) laser radiation through germanium oxide and sapphire optical fibres at high pulse energies. Lasers Med Sci. 2004;19:155-60 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare germanium oxide and sapphire optical fibres for transmission of sufficient Q-switched erbium laser pulse energies for ..
  27. Yang Y, Chaney C, Fried N. Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers. J Endourol. 2004;18:830-5 pubmed
    ..This paper describes the initial testing of a hybrid germanium oxide/silica optical fiber for potential endoscopic use with the Er:YAG laser.
  28. Seino T, Sato H, Yamamoto A, Nemoto A, Torimura M, Tao H. Matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry using self-assembled germanium nanodots. Anal Chem. 2007;79:4827-32 pubmed
    ..for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) was developed using self-assembled germanium nanodots (GeNDs) of uniform size (approximately 150 - 200-nm width and approximately 50-nm height) grown on a ..
  29. Mainwaring M, Poor C, Zander D, Harman E. Complete remission of pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma after treatment with oral germanium sesquioxide. Chest. 2000;117:591-3 pubmed
    ..response to conventional treatment with combined modality therapy, chose to medicate herself with daily doses of germanium obtained in a health food store...
  30. Ishii T, Matsunaga T, Iwai H, Satoh S, Taoshita J. Germanium does not substitute for boron in cross-linking of rhamnogalacturonan II in pumpkin cell walls. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:1967-73 pubmed
    ..Supplying germanium (Ge), which has been reported to substitute for B, to B-deficient plants does not restore growth or reduce ..
  31. Hirayama C, Suzuki H, Ito M, Okumura M, Oda T. Propagermanium: a nonspecific immune modulator for chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol. 2003;38:525-32 pubmed
  32. Chaney C, Yang Y, Fried N. Hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers for endoscopic delivery of erbium:YAG laser radiation. Lasers Surg Med. 2004;34:5-11 pubmed
    ..This study reports the testing of a hybrid germanium/silica fiber capable of delivering Er:YAG laser radiation through a flexible endoscope.
  33. Adhikari H, Marshall A, Chidsey C, McIntyre P. Germanium nanowire epitaxy: shape and orientation control. Nano Lett. 2006;6:318-23 pubmed
    ..On Ge(111), the growth was mostly vertical. In addition to 111 growth, 110 growth was observed on Ge(001) and Ge(110) substrates. Tapering was avoided by the use of the two-temperature growth procedure, reported earlier by Greytak et al...
  34. Aizawa M, Cooper A, Malac M, Buriak J. Silver nano-inukshuks on germanium. Nano Lett. 2005;5:815-9 pubmed
    ..Through an efficient galvanic displacement reaction on germanium, complex silver nanostructures form spontaneously in aqueous conditions at room temperature...
  35. Lambert T, Andrews N, Gerung H, Boyle T, Oliver J, Wilson B, et al. Water-soluble germanium(0) nanocrystals: cell recognition and near-infrared photothermal conversion properties. Small. 2007;3:691-9 pubmed
    Surfactant-passivated germanium nanocrystals (Ge(0) NCs) 3-5 nm in diameter were synthesized and encapsulated with functionalized phospholipids to yield water-soluble Ge(0) NCs...
  36. Huang J, Lee C, Lin H, Chuang T, Wang W, Juang R, et al. A miniaturized germanium-doped silicon dioxide-based surface plasmon resonance waveguide sensor for immunoassay detection. Biosens Bioelectron. 2006;22:519-25 pubmed
    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) waveguide immunosensor fabricated by germanium-doped silicon dioxide was investigated in this study. The designed waveguide sensor consisted of a 10 microm SiO(2) substrate layer (n=1...
  37. Tutuc E, Appenzeller J, Reuter M, Guha S. Realization of a linear germanium nanowire p-n junction. Nano Lett. 2006;6:2070-4 pubmed
    b>Germanium nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition exhibit a peculiar dopant incorporation mechanism...
  38. Hu J, Jiang Y, Meng X, Lee C, Lee S. Temperature-dependent growth of germanium oxide and silicon oxide based nanostructures, aligned silicon oxide nanowire assemblies, and silicon oxide microtubes. Small. 2005;1:429-38 pubmed
    We demonstrate the temperature-dependent growth of germanium oxide and silicon oxide based composite nanostructures (multiple nanojunctions of Ge nanowires and SiO(x) nanowires, Ge-filled SiO(2) nanotubes, Ge/SiO(2) coaxial nanocables, ..
  39. Kira M, Ishida S, Iwamoto T. Comparative chemistry of isolable divalent compounds of silicon, germanium, and tin. Chem Rec. 2004;4:243-53 pubmed
    ..Comparative studies of the unique reactions among these metallylenes are also discussed...
  40. Vongsvivut J, Fernandez J, Ekgasit S, Braiman M. Characterization of supported cylinder-planar germanium waveguide sensors with synchrotron infrared radiation. Appl Spectrosc. 2004;58:143-51 pubmed
    ..These spectral oscillations are the principal technical limitation on using synchrotron radiation to measure evanescent-wave absorption spectra with the thin waveguides...
  41. Kuwabara M, Ohba S, Yukawa M. Effect of germanium, poly-trans-[2-carboxyethyl] germasesquioxane on natural killer (NK) activity in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:719-21 pubmed
    ..Augmentation of NK cell activities in responsive normal and AC dogs that indicatedanergy in the phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (PHA) skin-test was manifested when the animals were accordingly treated with germanium (GN).
  42. Ronci F, Colonna S, Cricenti A, Le Lay G. Detecting and localizing surface dynamics with STM: a study of the Sn/Ge(111) and Sn/Si(111) ?-phase surfaces. J Phys Condens Matter. 2010;22:264003 pubmed publisher
    ..We put emphasis on the statistical data analysis which allows the localization of the sample areas that are involved in dynamical processes...
  43. Mayer S, Boschung M, Meier K, Laedermann J, Bochud F. Characterisation of the PSI whole body counter by radiographic imaging. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2011;144:398-401 pubmed publisher
    ..used to analyse the structure of the detector, and (60)Co radiography was employed to measure the core of the germanium crystal...
  44. Miller W, Rasin I, Stock D. Evolution of cellular structures during Ge 1-x Si x single-crystal growth by means of a modified phase-field method. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2010;81:051604 pubmed
    ..We also performed classical molecular dynamics calculations in order to compute the diffusion coefficients of Si and Ge in melts of various compositions...
  45. Miyazaki H, Kato H, Kato Y, Tsuchiyama T, Terada H. [Estimation of the intake of radioactive cesium based on analysis of total diet samples in Nagoya]. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2013;54:151-5 pubmed
    ..The contents of radioactive cesium (Cs) were determined by using a ?-ray spectrometer with a germanium semiconductor detector, and a committed effective dose was estimated...
  46. Chakraborty S, Chakravarty R, Sarma H, Dash A, Pillai M. The practicality of nanoceria-PAN-based (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator toward preparation of (68)Ga-labeled cyclic RGD dimer as a potential PET radiotracer for tumor imaging. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013;28:77-83 pubmed publisher
  47. Sharma A, Kulshreshtha C, Sohn K, Sohn K. Systematic control of experimental inconsistency in combinatorial materials science. J Comb Chem. 2009;11:131-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A tetravalent manganese-doped alkali earth germanium/titanium oxide system was used as a model system to be screened using MOEO combinatorial materials search...
  48. Sanghera B, Lowe G, Wellstead D, Lowe J, Chambers J, Wong W. Scan-time reduction using noise-matched images in 2- and 3-dimensional bismuth germanate PET/CT: clinical study in head and neck cancer. J Nucl Med Technol. 2009;37:74-82 pubmed publisher
  49. Yao S, Xiong Y, Driess M. Facile metalation of silicon and germanium analogues of thiocarboxylic acids with a manganese(II) hydride precursor. Chemistry. 2012;18:11356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..They are accessible through reaction of the silicon and germanium analogues of the respective thiocarboxylic acids [L(Dip)E(=S)OH] (E=Si, Ge) with the ?-diketiminato (nacnac) ..
  50. Nakamura T, Saito M, Aso H. Effects of a lactobacilli, oligosaccharide and organic germanium intake on the immune responses of mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:375-7 pubmed
    The organic germanium compound, Ge-132, has immune-modulating effects. We evaluated the symbiotic effects of Ge-132 with lactobacilli and oligosaccharide (LB/OS) on the immune responses of mice...
  51. Lim D, Li M, Seo J, Lim K, Ham S. A novel organogermanium protected atopic dermatitis induced by oxazolone. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:4032-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The histological examination further supported the anti-AD activities. These results suggested that Ge-Vit can be a useful drug candidate for treating atopic dermatitis...
  52. Uche C, Round W, Cree M. A Monte Carlo evaluation of three Compton camera absorbers. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2011;34:351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..study on the performance of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and germanium (Ge) detectors as potential Compton camera absorbers...
  53. Vasko S, Kapetanović A, Talla V, Brasino M, Zhu Z, Scholl A, et al. Serial and parallel Si, Ge, and SiGe direct-write with scanning probes and conducting stamps. Nano Lett. 2011;11:2386-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This facile strategy can be easily expanded to a broad variety of semiconductor materials through precursor selection...