gallium

Summary

Summary: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.

Top Publications

  1. Gao Y, Li H, Liu J. Direct writing of flexible electronics through room temperature liquid metal ink. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45485 pubmed publisher
  2. Subramania G, Li Q, Lee Y, Figiel J, Wang G, Fischer A. Gallium nitride based logpile photonic crystals. Nano Lett. 2011;11:4591-6 pubmed publisher
    We demonstrate a nine-layer logpile three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) composed of single crystalline gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods, ?100 nm in size with lattice constants of 260, 280, and 300 nm with photonic band gap in the ..
  3. Hohman J, Kim M, Wadsworth G, Bednar H, Jiang J, Lethai M, et al. Directing substrate morphology via self-assembly: ligand-mediated scission of gallium-indium microspheres to the nanoscale. Nano Lett. 2011;11:5104-10 pubmed publisher
    We have developed a facile method for the construction of liquid-phase eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) alloy nanoparticles. Particle formation is directed by molecular self-assembly and assisted by sonication...
  4. Chen C, Zhu G, Hu Y, Yu J, Song J, Cheng K, et al. Gallium nitride nanowire based nanogenerators and light-emitting diodes. ACS Nano. 2012;6:5687-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the GaN nanowire LED can be lighted up by the power provided by a ZnO nanowire based nanogenerator, demonstrating a self-powered LED using wurtzite-structured nanomaterials...
  5. Reus W, Thuo M, Shapiro N, Nijhuis C, Whitesides G. The SAM, not the electrodes, dominates charge transport in metal-monolayer//Ga2O3/gallium-indium eutectic junctions. ACS Nano. 2012;6:4806-22 pubmed publisher
    The liquid-metal eutectic of gallium and indium (EGaIn) is a useful electrode for making soft electrical contacts to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs)...
  6. Ivanoff C, Ivanoff A, Hottel T. Gallium poisoning: a rare case report. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:212-5 pubmed publisher
    The authors present a case of a college student who suffered acute gallium poisoning as a result of accidental exposure to gallium halide complexes. This is extremely rare and has never been reported in the literature...
  7. Wu J, Wang Z, Li A, Benamara M, Li S, Salamo G. Nanoscale footprints of self-running gallium droplets on GaAs surface. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20765 pubmed publisher
    In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001) surface will be presented and analyzed...
  8. Wojtowicz H, Bielecki M, Wojaczyński J, Olczak M, Smalley J, Olczak T. The Porphyromonas gingivalis HmuY haemophore binds gallium(iii), zinc(ii), cobalt(iii), manganese(iii), nickel(ii), and copper(ii) protoporphyrin IX but in a manner different to iron(iii) protoporphyrin IX. Metallomics. 2013;5:343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..HmuY binds gallium(iii), zinc(ii), cobalt(iii), manganese(iii), nickel(ii), and copper(ii) protoporphyrin IX but in a manner ..
  9. Enyedy E, Dömötör O, Varga E, Kiss T, Trondl R, Hartinger C, et al. Comparative solution equilibrium studies of anticancer gallium(III) complexes of 8-hydroxyquinoline and hydroxy(thio)pyrone ligands. J Inorg Biochem. 2012;117:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of the outstanding stability of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)gallium(III) (KP46) the dissociation of the complex is negligible at physiological pH even in the biologically relevant ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Esken D, Turner S, Wiktor C, Kalidindi S, van Tendeloo G, Fischer R. GaN@ZIF-8: selective formation of gallium nitride quantum dots inside a zinc methylimidazolate framework. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:16370-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The data give evidence for the presence of GaN nanoparticles (1-3 nm) embedded in the cavities of ZIF-8, including a blue-shift of the PL emission band caused by the quantum size effect...
  2. King J, Li Y, Meriles C, Reimer J. Optically rewritable patterns of nuclear magnetization in gallium arsenide. Nat Commun. 2012;3:918 pubmed publisher
  3. Hummer A, Bartel C, Arion V, Jakupec M, Meyer Klaucke W, Geraki T, et al. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of an investigational anticancer gallium(III) drug: interaction with serum proteins, elemental distribution pattern, and coordination of the compound in tissue. J Med Chem. 2012;55:5601-13 pubmed publisher
    Tris(8-quinolinolato)gallium(III) (1, KP46) is a very promising investigational anticancer drug...
  4. Olczak T, Maszczak Seneczko D, Smalley J, Olczak M. Gallium(III), cobalt(III) and copper(II) protoporphyrin IX exhibit antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis by reducing planktonic and biofilm growth and invasion of host epithelial cells. Arch Microbiol. 2012;194:719-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, cobalt(III), gallium(III) and copper(II) protoporphyrin IX exhibited antimicrobial activity against P...
  5. Sun J, Liu C, Yang P. Surfactant-free, large-scale, solution-liquid-solid growth of gallium phosphide nanowires and their use for visible-light-driven hydrogen production from water reduction. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:19306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that colloidal surfactant-free GaP NWs combined with potent surface electrocatalysts could serve as promising photocathodes for artificial photosynthesis...
  6. Malavasi G, Pedone A, Menziani M. Study of the structural role of gallium and aluminum in 45S5 bioactive glasses by molecular dynamics simulations. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:4142-50 pubmed publisher
    The structural properties of phosphosilicate glasses based on the 45S5 Bioglass doped with gallium and aluminum (46.2 SiO2·24.3Na2O·26.9CaO·2.6P2O5·1...
  7. Simeček J, Schulz M, Notni J, Plutnar J, Kubíček V, Havlícková J, et al. Complexation of metal ions with TRAP (1,4,7-triazacyclononane phosphinic acid) ligands and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid: phosphinate-containing ligands as unique chelators for trivalent gallium. Inorg Chem. 2012;51:577-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The discussed TRAP ligands are suitable alternatives for the development of (68)Ga radiopharmaceuticals...
  8. Antunes L, Imperi F, Minandri F, Visca P. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of gallium nitrate against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:5961-70 pubmed publisher
    ..baumannii chemotherapy using gallium as an iron mimetic...
  9. Shruti S, Salinas A, Lusvardi G, Malavasi G, Menabue L, Vallet Regi M. Mesoporous bioactive scaffolds prepared with cerium-, gallium- and zinc-containing glasses. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:4836-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Cerium, gallium and zinc trace elements were selected because of their inherent beneficial biological properties...
  10. Arsos G, Moralidis E, Tsechelidis I, Sakagiannis G, Sidiropoulou V, Psarouli E. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate with chromium-51 ethylene diamino tetraacetic acid in the presence of gallium-67 citrate: a novel method for the solution of the problem. Nucl Med Commun. 2011;32:221-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This type of correction is problematic in the case of gallium-67 (??Ga) mainly because of the close vicinity of its 300 keV photopeak with that of the 320 keV photopeak of ?¹..
  11. DeLeon K, Balldin F, Watters C, Hamood A, Griswold J, Sreedharan S, et al. Gallium maltolate treatment eradicates Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in thermally injured mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:1331-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Gallium (Ga) is a semimetallic element that has demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic-imaging potential in a number of disease settings, including cancer and infectious diseases...
  12. Arion V, Jakupec M, Galanski M, Unfried P, Keppler B. Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and in vitro antitumour studies of a novel gallium(III) complex with 2-acetylpyridine (4)N-dimethylthiosemicarbazone. J Inorg Biochem. 2002;91:298-305 pubmed
    ..The crystal structure of the gallium(III) complex has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods...
  13. Albertini R, Aimbire F, Correa F, Ribeiro W, Cogo J, Antunes E, et al. Effects of different protocol doses of low power gallium-aluminum-arsenate (Ga-Al-As) laser radiation (650 nm) on carrageenan induced rat paw ooedema. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2004;74:101-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that low power laser irradiation possibly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by stimulating the release of adrenal corticosteroid hormones...
  14. Kuykendall T, Pauzauskie P, Zhang Y, Goldberger J, Sirbuly D, Denlinger J, et al. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays. Nat Mater. 2004;3:524-8 pubmed
    ..and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties...
  15. Li L, Auer E, Liao M, Fang X, Zhai T, Gautam U, et al. Deep-ultraviolet solar-blind photoconductivity of individual gallium oxide nanobelts. Nanoscale. 2011;3:1120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Present Ga2O3 nanobelts can be exploited for future applications in photo sensing, light-emitting diodes, and optical switches...
  16. Davies N, Suryo Rahmanto Y, Chitambar C, Richardson D. Resistance to the antineoplastic agent gallium nitrate results in marked alterations in intracellular iron and gallium trafficking: identification of novel intermediates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;317:153-62 pubmed
    b>Gallium (Ga) shows significant antitumor activity by markedly interfering with iron (Fe) metabolism, and (67)Ga is used as a radio-imaging agent for cancer detection...
  17. Chaniotakis N, Sofikiti N. Novel semiconductor materials for the development of chemical sensors and biosensors: a review. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;615:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is given to the selective interaction of novel semiconductor surfaces, including doped conductive diamond, gallium nitride, and indium nitride, with the analyte, and how this interaction can be properly transduced using ..
  18. Kaneko Y, Thoendel M, Olakanmi O, Britigan B, Singh P. The transition metal gallium disrupts Pseudomonas aeruginosa iron metabolism and has antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:877-88 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate a "Trojan horse" strategy that uses the transition metal gallium to disrupt bacterial Fe metabolism and exploit the Fe stress of in vivo environments...
  19. Kowol C, Berger R, Eichinger R, Roller A, Jakupec M, Schmidt P, et al. Gallium(III) and iron(III) complexes of alpha-N-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, and interaction with ribonucleotide reductase. J Med Chem. 2007;50:1254-65 pubmed
    A series of gallium(III) and iron(III) complexes with five different 4N-substituted alpha-N-heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones, viz...
  20. Richardson D. Iron and gallium increase iron uptake from transferrin by human melanoma cells: further examination of the ferric ammonium citrate-activated iron uptake process. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1536:43-54 pubmed
    ..ions, cells were preincubated with either FAC, ferric chloride, ferrous sulphate, ferrous ammonium sulphate, gallium nitrate, copper chloride, zinc chloride, or cobalt chloride...
  21. Chenier D, Beriault R, Mailloux R, Baquie M, Abramia G, Lemire J, et al. Involvement of fumarase C and NADH oxidase in metabolic adaptation of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells evoked by aluminum and gallium toxicity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3977-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga), two Fe mimetics, severely impeded the ability of the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescens to perform ..
  22. Takao H, Yamahira K, Watanabe T. Gallium uptake in pericardial fat necrosis. Clin Nucl Med. 2004;29:378-9 pubmed
  23. Okada M, Karube H, Niitsuya M, Aizawa Y, Okayasu I, Kotani M. In vitro toxicity of gallium arsenide in alveolar macrophages evaluated by magnetometry, cytochemistry and morphology. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1999;189:267-81 pubmed
    b>Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a chemical compound of gallium and arsenic, causes various toxic effects including pulmonary diseases in animals...
  24. Wolff N, Deniau C, Létoffé S, Simenel C, Kumar V, Stojiljkovic I, et al. Histidine pK(a) shifts and changes of tautomeric states induced by the binding of gallium-protoporphyrin IX in the hemophore HasA(SM). Protein Sci. 2002;11:757-65 pubmed
    ..Holo-HasA(SM) was formed with gallium-protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX), giving rise to a diamagnetic protein...
  25. Johnson J, Choi H, Knutsen K, Schaller R, Yang P, Saykally R. Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers. Nat Mater. 2002;1:106-10 pubmed
    ..b>Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of much practical interest, because it is widely used in ..
  26. Straus D. Gallium nitrate in the treatment of lymphoma. Semin Oncol. 2003;30:25-33 pubmed
    b>Gallium nitrate is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of cancer-related hypercalcemia. At somewhat higher doses, gallium nitrate also has cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancers...
  27. Huang Z, Higgins B, Foss F. Activity of gallium nitrate in refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma. 2005;6:43-5 pubmed
    ..The authors report significant clinical activity of infusional gallium nitrate in a patient with stage IV PTCL disease refractory to chemotherapy.
  28. Yang J, Chen H. Effects of gallium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio): acute test, serum biochemistry, and erythrocyte morphology. Chemosphere. 2003;53:877-82 pubmed
    b>Gallium (Ga) is one of the intermetallic elements that are increasingly being used in making high-speed semiconductors such as gallium arsenide...
  29. Epstein H, Berger V, Levi I, Eisenberg G, Koroukhov N, Gao J, et al. Nanosuspensions of alendronate with gallium or gadolinium attenuate neointimal hyperplasia in rats. J Control Release. 2007;117:322-32 pubmed
    ..with a minimum amount of expients, could be formulated by complexing the negatively charged alendronate with gallium or gadolinium...
  30. Kimura S, Bill E, Bothe E, Weyhermuller T, Wieghardt K. Phenylthiyl radical complexes of gallium(III), iron(III), and cobalt(III) and comparison with their phenoxyl analogues. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:6025-39 pubmed
    ..complexes [M(III)L(1)] (M = Ga, Fe, Co), [M(III)L(2)] (M = Ga, Fe, Co), and [M(III)L(3)] (M = Ga, Co) where the gallium and cobalt complexes possess an S = 0 and the iron complexes an S = (5)/(2) ground state. Complexes [CoL(1)]...
  31. Yilmaz S, Kuru B, Kuru L, Noyan U, Argun D, Kadir T. Effect of gallium arsenide diode laser on human periodontal disease: a microbiological and clinical study. Lasers Surg Med. 2002;30:60-6 pubmed
  32. Collery P, Keppler B, Madoulet C, Desoize B. Gallium in cancer treatment. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2002;42:283-96 pubmed
    b>Gallium (Ga) is the second metal ion, after platinum, to be used in cancer treatment. Its activities are numerous and various...
  33. Flora S, Kannan G, Pant B, Jaiswal D. Combined administration of oxalic acid, succimer and its analogue for the reversal of gallium arsenide-induced oxidative stress in rats. Arch Toxicol. 2002;76:269-76 pubmed
    b>Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a group III-VA intermetallic semiconductor, possesses superior electronic and optical properties and has a wide application in the electronics industry...
  34. Chua M, Bernstein L, Li R, So S. Gallium maltolate is a promising chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:1739-43 pubmed
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a particularly lethal cancer with few treatment options. Since gallium is known to accumulate specifically in HCC tumors but not in non-tumor liver, we investigated two gallium compounds, gallium nitrate ..
  35. Kiremitci A, Bolay S. A 3-year clinical evaluation of a gallium restorative alloy. J Oral Rehabil. 2003;30:664-7 pubmed
    ..One such material is gallium-based alloy restoratives...
  36. Slart R, Jager P, Poot L, Piers D, Tervaert J, Stegeman C. Clinical value of gallium-67 scintigraphy in assessment of disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62:659-62 pubmed
    Diagnosis of active pulmonary and paranasal involvement in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) can be difficult. The diagnostic value of gallium-67 scintigraphy in WG is unclear.
  37. Eby G. A hypothesis for anti-nanobacteria effects of gallium with observations from treating kidney disease. Med Hypotheses. 2008;71:584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gallium has antibiotic properties to iron-dependent bacteria and has potent anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-..
  38. Flora S, Mehta A, Rao P, Kannan G, Bhaskar A, Dube S, et al. Therapeutic potential of monoisoamyl and monomethyl esters of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in gallium arsenide intoxicated rats. Toxicology. 2004;195:127-46 pubmed
    ..consequences and DNA damage (based on DNA fragmentation and comet assay) following sub-chronic administration of gallium arsenide and the mobilization of gallium and arsenic were examined...
  39. Dundar U, Evcik D, Samli F, Pusak H, Kavuncu V. The effect of gallium arsenide aluminum laser therapy in the management of cervical myofascial pain syndrome: a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Rheumatol. 2007;26:930-4 pubmed
    ..trial was conducted in patients with chronic MPS in the neck to evaluate the effects of low-level 830-nm gallium arsenide aluminum (Ga-As-Al) laser therapy. The study group consisted of 64 MPS patients...
  40. Lai C, Chi C, Chen H, Lai C, Fung C, Liu C. Port-A catheter-associated Nocardia bacteremia detected by gallium inflammation scan: a case report and literature review. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36:775-7 pubmed
    ..Nocardia bacteremia was diagnosed on the basis of the clinical response to removal of the catheter and the finding of increased gallium uptake, along with the Port-A catheter presented in the gallium inflammation scan.
  41. Harrington J, Martens R, Cohen N, Bernstein L. Antimicrobial activity of gallium against virulent Rhodococcus equiin vitro and in vivo. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2006;29:121-7 pubmed
    ..This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of gallium against R. equi, as a potential chemoprophylactic and therapeutic agent...
  42. Yoshimura M, Kawamoto A, Nakasone K, Kakizaki D, Tsutsui H, Serizawa H, et al. Gallium-67 accumulation to the tumor thrombus in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Ann Nucl Med. 2003;17:689-91 pubmed
    A sixty-five-year-old woman was hospitalized for examination of swelling in the left arm. Gallium-67 scintigraphy showed the same radioactivity in the left lobe of the thyroid gland and the junction of the internal jugular vein and the ..
  43. Enyedy E, Primik M, Kowol C, Arion V, Kiss T, Keppler B. Interaction of Triapine and related thiosemicarbazones with iron(III)/(II) and gallium(III): a comparative solution equilibrium study. Dalton Trans. 2011;40:5895-905 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition the fluorescence properties of the ligands in aqueous solution and their changes caused by Ga(III) were studied...
  44. Arumugam G, Sundravel S, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P. Tamoxifen flare hypercalcemia: an additional support for gallium nitrate usage. J Bone Miner Metab. 2006;24:243-7 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the effect of such a drug, gallium nitrate, on flare hypercalcemia...
  45. Thomson L, Goodman M, Naqvi T, Feldman R, Buchbinder N, Waxman A, et al. Aortic root infection in a prosthetic valve demonstrated by gallium-67 citrate SPECT. Clin Nucl Med. 2005;30:265-8 pubmed
    ..b>Gallium planar imaging demonstrated increased activity in the lumbar spine, suspicious for the presence of infection, and ..
  46. Wasielewski E, Atkinson R, Abdallah M, Kieffer B. The three-dimensional structure of the gallium complex of azoverdin, a siderophore of Azomonas macrocytogenes ATCC 12334, determined by NMR using residual dipolar coupling constants. Biochemistry. 2002;41:12488-97 pubmed
    ..the N(delta)-acetyl-N(delta)-hydroxyornithine side chains adopting extended conformations in order to chelate the gallium ion. This conformation leaves a large open space permitting access to the gallium ion...
  47. Schuster D, Alazraki N. Gallium and other agents in diseases of the lung. Semin Nucl Med. 2002;32:193-211 pubmed
    The use of gallium for pulmonary diseases is hampered by its relative lack of specificity, typical 1- to 3-day delay between injection and imaging time, and suboptimal imaging characteristics...
  48. Yumita N, Okudaira K, Momose Y, Umemura S. Sonodynamically induced apoptosis and active oxygen generation by gallium-porphyrin complex, ATX-70. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010;66:1071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we investigated the induction of apoptosis by ultrasound in the presence of the photochemically active gallium-porphyrin complex, 7,12-bis(1-decyloxyethyl)-Ga(III)-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-porphyrin 2,18-dipropionyl diaspartic ..
  49. Li S, Beheshti M, Peck Radosavljevic M, Oezer S, Grumbeck E, Schmid M, et al. Comparison of (11)C-acetate positron emission tomography and (67)Gallium citrate scintigraphy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2006;26:920-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare prospectively the Gallium-67 citrate ((67)Ga) scintigraphy results with those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) using (11)C-..
  50. Olakanmi O, Gunn J, Su S, Soni S, Hassett D, Britigan B. Gallium disrupts iron uptake by intracellular and extracellular Francisella strains and exhibits therapeutic efficacy in a murine pulmonary infection model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Fe acquisition is a potential target for novel therapies. Gallium (Ga) is a transition metal that interferes with cellular Fe metabolism by competing with Fe for uptake/..
  51. Mohammadi K, Thompson K, Patrick B, Storr T, Martins C, Polishchuk E, et al. Synthesis and characterization of dual function vanadyl, gallium and indium curcumin complexes for medicinal applications. J Inorg Biochem. 2005;99:2217-25 pubmed
    ..b>Gallium and indium curcumin complexes had IC(50) values in the same 5-10 microM range; whereas Ga(DAC)(3) and In(DAC)(3) (..
  52. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Hasegawa A, Noguchi T. Pre-Irradiation of blood by gallium aluminum arsenide (830 nm) low-level laser enhances peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia in rats. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether pre-irradiation of blood by LLLT enhances peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia...
  53. Tanaka A. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004;198:405-11 pubmed
    b>Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications...