Summary: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, and atomic number 83. Its principal isotope is Bismuth 209.

Top Publications

  1. Niu K, Park J, Zheng H, Alivisatos A. Revealing bismuth oxide hollow nanoparticle formation by the Kirkendall effect. Nano Lett. 2013;13:5715-9 pubmed publisher
    We study the formation of bismuth oxide hollow nanoparticles by the Kirkendall effect using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Rich dynamics of bismuth diffusion through the bismuth oxide shell have been captured in situ...
  2. Hsu P, Chen W, Tsay F, Shih C, Kao S, Wang H, et al. Ten-day Quadruple therapy comprising proton-pump inhibitor, bismuth, tetracycline, and levofloxacin achieves a high eradication rate for Helicobacter pylori infection after failure of sequential therapy. Helicobacter. 2014;19:74-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it fails in 5-24% of infected subjects, and the recommended levofloxacin-containing triple rescue therapy only achieves a 77% eradication rate after failure of sequential therapy...
  3. Liman R. Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles by Allium and Comet assay. Chemosphere. 2013;93:269-73 pubmed publisher
    Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles (BONPs) were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Allium and Comet assay. A...
  4. Fakheri H, Taghvaei T, Hosseini V, Bari Z. A comparison between sequential therapy and a modified bismuth-based quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in Iran: a randomized clinical trial. Helicobacter. 2012;17:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..So we designed a study to compare a sequential regimen with a bismuth-based quadruple therapy that contains a short course of furazolidone, in Iran.
  5. Chatterjee K, Mitra M, Kargupta K, Ganguly S, Banerjee D. Synthesis, characterization and enhanced thermoelectric performance of structurally ordered cable-like novel polyaniline-bismuth telluride nanocomposite. Nanotechnology. 2013;24:215703 pubmed publisher
    b>Bismuth telluride (Bi?Te?) nanorods and polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles have been synthesized by employing solvothermal and chemical oxidative processes, respectively...
  6. Xin H, Zheng H. In situ observation of oscillatory growth of bismuth nanoparticles. Nano Lett. 2012;12:1470-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shed light on a new route for system engineering to reverse particle coursing by Ostwald ripening...
  7. Shavakhi A, Tabesh E, Yaghoutkar A, Hashemi H, Tabesh F, Khodadoostan M, et al. The effects of multistrain probiotic compound on bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized placebo-controlled triple-blind study. Helicobacter. 2013;18:280-4 pubmed publisher
    Evidence has shown benefits of single-strain probiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication. We investigated the effects of adding a multistrain probiotic compound on bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for H. pylori infection.
  8. Sun Y, Cheng H, Gao S, Liu Q, Sun Z, Xiao C, et al. Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding single layers achieving enhanced thermoelectric energy harvesting. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:20294-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This work develops a facile strategy for synthesizing atomically thick single layers and demonstrates their superior ability to optimize the thermoelectric energy harvesting...
  9. Periasamy A, Yang S, Chen S. Preparation and characterization of bismuth oxide nanoparticles-multiwalled carbon nanotube composite for the development of horseradish peroxidase based H?O? biosensor. Talanta. 2011;87:15-23 pubmed publisher
    In this work, preparation and characterization of a novel nanocomposite containing bismuth oxide (Bi(2)O(3)) nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was presented...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Morgenstern A, Bruchertseifer F, Apostolidis C. Bismuth-213 and actinium-225 -- generator performance and evolving therapeutic applications of two generator-derived alpha-emitting radioisotopes. Curr Radiopharm. 2012;5:221-7 pubmed
    ..Selected preclinical studies are highlighted and the current clinical experience with (225)Ac and (213)Bi is summarized...
  2. Chen A, Zhou H, Bi Z, Zhu Y, Luo Z, Bayraktaroglu A, et al. A new class of room-temperature multiferroic thin films with bismuth-based supercell structure. Adv Mater. 2013;25:1028-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results open up a new avenue for exploring room-temperature single-phase multiferroic thin films by controlling the phase mixing of two perovskite BiRO(3) (R = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) materials...
  3. Oliveira L, Silva M, Paula F, Pereira Maia E, Donnici C, Simone C, et al. Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol: synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxic activity. Molecules. 2011;16:10314-23 pubmed publisher
    Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph?SbCl? or Ph?BiCl? with lapachol (Lp) and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray ..
  4. Lee S, Min K, Choi G, Park J, Park S, Lee S, et al. Effects of simvastain and enamel matrix derivative on Portland cement with bismuth oxide-induced growth and odontoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp cells. J Endod. 2012;38:405-10 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that bismuth oxide containing Portland cement (BPC) showed similar biocompatibility to Portland cement (PC) in periodontal ligament cells...
  5. Chen C, He S, Weng H, Zhang W, Zhao L, Liu H, et al. Robustness of topological order and formation of quantum well states in topological insulators exposed to ambient environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3694-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide key information in understanding the surface properties of the topological insulators under ambient environment and in engineering the topological surface state for applications...
  6. Formosa L, Mallia B, Camilleri J. The effect of curing conditions on the physical properties of tricalcium silicate cement for use as a dental biomaterial. Int Endod J. 2012;45:326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the physical properties of tricalcium silicate (TCS) with and without the addition of a radiopacifier and compare them with that of Portland cement (PC) and radiopaque PC in an mineral trioxide aggregate-like system...
  7. Alhariri M, Omri A. Efficacy of liposomal bismuth-ethanedithiol-loaded tobramycin after intratracheal administration in rats with pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:569-78 pubmed publisher
    ..and in the release of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors, as well as the in vivo antimicrobial activity of bismuth-ethanedithiol incorporated into a liposome-loaded tobramycin formulation (LipoBiEDT-TOB) administered to rats ..
  8. Yun Y, Cui F, Geng S, Jin J. Determination of bismuth in pharmaceutical products using phosphoric acid as molecular probe by resonance light scattering. Luminescence. 2012;27:352-6 pubmed publisher
    A novel method for the sensitive determination of bismuth(III) in pharmaceutical products using phosphoric acid as a molecular probe by resonance light scattering (RLS) is discussed. In 0...
  9. Guan M, Xiao C, Zhang J, Fan S, An R, Cheng Q, et al. Vacancy associates promoting solar-driven photocatalytic activity of ultrathin bismuth oxychloride nanosheets. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:10411-7 pubmed publisher
  10. Nogueira A, Longo E, Leite E, Camargo E. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of bismuth titanate with different structures via oxidant peroxo method (OPM). J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014;415:89-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 and Bi12TiO20) powders were synthesized by the Oxidant Peroxide Method (OPM), and the effect of temperatures on physical and chemical properties of particles was investigated...
  11. Mayorga Martinez C, Cadevall M, Guix M, Ros J, Merkoçi A. Bismuth nanoparticles for phenolic compounds biosensing application. Biosens Bioelectron. 2013;40:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A mediator-free amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds detection based on the combination of bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) and Tyr for phenol detections will be hereby reported...
  12. Hernandez Delgadillo R, Velasco Arias D, Diaz D, Arevalo Niño K, Garza Enriquez M, De La Garza Ramos M, et al. Zerovalent bismuth nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth and formation of biofilm. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:2109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. While some bismuth derivatives has been used in medicine to treat vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, the biocidal ..
  13. Liao J, Zheng Q, Liang X, Zhang W, Sun Q, Liu W, et al. Effect of fluoroquinolone resistance on 14-day levofloxacin triple and triple plus bismuth quadruple therapy. Helicobacter. 2013;18:373-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to assess the efficacy and effect of fluoroquinolone resistance on 14-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy with or without the addition of bismuth.
  14. Hwang Y, Lee S, Hwang I, Kang I, Kim M, Kim S, et al. Chemical composition, radiopacity, and biocompatibility of Portland cement with bismuth oxide. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:e96-102 pubmed publisher
    This study compared the chemical constitution, radiopacity, and biocompatibility of Portland cement containing bismuth oxide (experimental cement) with those of Portland cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).
  15. Parrilha G, Vieira R, Campos P, Silva G, Duarte L, Andrade S, et al. Coordination of lapachol to bismuth(III) improves its anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities. Biometals. 2012;25:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, coordination to bismuth(III) could be an interesting strategy for improvement of lapachol's therapeutic properties.
  16. Dadachova E, Burns T, Bryan R, Apostolidis C, Brechbiel M, Nosanchuk J, et al. Feasibility of radioimmunotherapy of experimental pneumococcal infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:1624-9 pubmed
    ..01). The treatment did not cause hematological toxicity, as demonstrated by platelet counts. This feasibility study establishes that RIT can be applied to the treatment of bacterial infections...
  17. Gao X, Qiao X, Song W, Wang X, Liu F. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4357-62 pubmed
    To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China.
  18. Tanomaru Filho M, Luis M, Leonardo M, Tanomaru J, Silva L. Evaluation of periapical repair following retrograde filling with different root-end filling materials in dog teeth with periapical lesions. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:127-32 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate periapical repair following retrograde filling using different root-end filling materials...
  19. Touboul D, Kollmer F, Niehuis E, Brunelle A, Laprevote O. Improvement of biological time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging with a bismuth cluster ion source. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2005;16:1608-18 pubmed
    A new liquid metal ion gun (LMIG) filled with bismuth has been fitted to a time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS). This source provides beams of Bi(n)q+ clusters with n = 1-7 and q = 1 and 2...
  20. Ghaffari M, Motlagh B. In vitro effect of lead, silver, tin, mercury, indium and bismuth on human sperm creatine kinase activity: a presumable mechanism for men infertility. Iran Biomed J. 2011;15:38-43 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of mercury (Hg+2), lead (Pb+2), silver (Ag+2), tin (Sn+2), bismuth (Bi+3) and indium (In+3) ions on sperm creatine kinase.
  21. Cutajar A, Mallia B, Abela S, Camilleri J. Replacement of radiopacifier in mineral trioxide aggregate; characterization and determination of physical properties. Dent Mater. 2011;27:879-91 pubmed publisher
    Investigation of the replacement of bismuth oxide by zirconium oxide in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and characterization and evaluation of the radiopacity and physical properties of varying replacements of zirconium oxide mixed at ..
  22. Pfost B, Seidl C, Autenrieth M, Saur D, Bruchertseifer F, Morgenstern A, et al. Intravesical alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-mAb defeats human bladder carcinoma in xenografted nude mice. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:1700-8 pubmed publisher
  23. Alberich A, Serrano N, Arino C, Díaz Cruz J, Esteban M. Bismuth film electrodes for the study of metal thiolate complexation: an alternative to mercury electrodes. Talanta. 2009;78:1017-22 pubmed publisher
    A comparative study of the usual static mercury drop electrode (SMDE) and the bismuth film electrode (BiFE) as applied to the analysis of metal complexation by thiol-rich peptides is done...
  24. Supiot S, Faivre Chauvet A, Couturier O, Heymann M, Robillard N, Kraeber Bodéré F, et al. Comparison of the biologic effects of MA5 and B-B4 monoclonal antibody labeled with iodine-131 and bismuth-213 on multiple myeloma. Cancer. 2002;94:1202-9 pubmed
    Using a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), B-B4, coupled to bismuth-213 ((213)Bi) by a chelating agent (CITC-DTPA), the feasibility of alpha-radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for multiple myeloma (MM) has been demonstrated previously.
  25. Bentley R, Chasteen T. Microbial methylation of metalloids: arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:250-71 pubmed
    ..The other metalloid elements of the periodic table group 15, antimony and bismuth, also undergo biomethylation to some extent...
  26. Zhang Y, Adeloju S. Flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric determination of selenium, arsenic and bismuth. Talanta. 2008;76:724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..for rapid and reliable hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric determination of selenium, arsenic and bismuth. The system, which composed of one peristaltic pump and one four channel solenoid valve, used water as the ..
  27. Tong J, Ran Z, Shen J, Xiao S. Sequential therapy vs. standard triple therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection: a meta-analysis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34:41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..As standard triple therapies of achieve unsatisfactory eradication of Helicobacter pylori, several alternative regimens have been proposed...
  28. Lee K, Williams M, Camps J, Pashley D. Adhesion of endodontic sealers to dentin and gutta-percha. J Endod. 2002;28:684-8 pubmed
    ..19 +/- 0.01; Sealapex 0.22 +/- 0.01; Kerr 1.07 +/- 0.19; AH 26 2.93 +/- 0.29 MPa. AH 26 gave the significantly highest bonds to gutta-percha...
  29. Kricheldorf H, Hachmann Thiessen H, Schwarz G. Telechelic and star-shaped poly(L-lactide)s by means of bismuth(III) acetate as initiator. Biomacromolecules. 2004;5:492-6 pubmed
    ..However, bismuth acetate (or other carboxylates) have a particularly low toxicity as documented in the literature and by numerous ..
  30. Jurcic J, Larson S, Sgouros G, McDevitt M, Finn R, Divgi C, et al. Targeted alpha particle immunotherapy for myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2002;100:1233-9 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the safety, feasibility, and antileukemic effects of (213)Bi-HuM195, and it is the first proof-of-concept for systemic targeted alpha particle immunotherapy in humans...
  31. von Recklinghausen U, Hartmann L, Rabieh S, Hippler J, Hirner A, Rettenmeier A, et al. Methylated bismuth, but not bismuth citrate or bismuth glutathione, induces cyto- and genotoxic effects in human cells in vitro. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:1219-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Bismuth compounds are widely used in industrial processes and products...
  32. Shipper G, Teixeira F, Arnold R, Trope M. Periapical inflammation after coronal microbial inoculation of dog roots filled with gutta-percha or resilon. J Endod. 2005;31:91-6 pubmed
    ..05). The Resilon "Monoblock" System was associated with less apical periodontitis, which may be because of its superior resistance to coronal microleakage...
  33. Song Y, Qu C, Rizvi S, Li Y, Robertson G, Raja C, et al. Cytotoxicity of PAI2, C595 and Herceptin vectors labeled with the alpha-emitting radioisotope Bismuth-213 for ovarian cancer cell monolayers and clusters. Cancer Lett. 2006;234:176-83 pubmed
    ..The alpha-emitting radionuclide Bismuth-213 was chelated with these targeting vectors to form alpha conjugates (ACs), the cytotoxicity of which were ..
  34. Kadara R, Tothill I. Development of disposable bulk-modified screen-printed electrode based on bismuth oxide for stripping chronopotentiometric analysis of lead (II) and cadmium (II) in soil and water samples. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;623:76-81 pubmed publisher
    A bulk-modified screen-printed carbon electrode characterised for metal ion detection is presented. Bismuth oxide (Bi(2)O(3)) was mixed with graphite-carbon ink to obtain the modified electrode...
  35. Busenlehner L, Apuy J, Giedroc D. Characterization of a metalloregulatory bismuth(III) site in Staphylococcus aureus pI258 CadC repressor. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2002;7:551-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at
  36. Li Y, Tian Z, Rizvi S, Bander N, Allen B. In vitro and preclinical targeted alpha therapy of human prostate cancer with Bi-213 labeled J591 antibody against the prostate specific membrane antigen. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2002;5:36-46 pubmed
    ..Because of its in vitro cytotoxicity and these anti-proliferative properties in vivo, the (213)Bi-J591 conjugate has considerable potential as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer...
  37. Aydin A, Onder G, Akarca U, Tekin F, Tuncyurek M, Musoglu A. The efficacy of two-week therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate, amoxicillin and clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori eradication in clarithromycinresistant and- sensitive cases. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2005;16:203-6 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of two-week therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC), amoxicillin (A), and clarithromycin (C) on H...
  38. Dadachova E, Patel M, Toussi S, Apostolidis C, Morgenstern A, Brechbiel M, et al. Targeted killing of virally infected cells by radiolabeled antibodies to viral proteins. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e427 pubmed
    ..The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy of targeting and eliminating HIV-1-infected cells with radiolabeled antibodies specific to viral proteins in vitro and in vivo...
  39. Wang J, Jing L, Xue L, Qu Y, Fu H. Enhanced activity of bismuth-compounded TiO(2) nanoparticles for photocatalytically degrading rhodamine B solution. J Hazard Mater. 2008;160:208-12 pubmed publisher
    TiO(2) nanoparticles compounded with different amounts of bismuth were prepared by a sol-gel method, and the effects of compounding bismuth on the phase transformation, photoinduced charge separation and photocatalytic activity for ..
  40. Andrews P, Frank R, Junk P, Kedzierski L, Kumar I, MacLellan J. Anti-Leishmanial activity of homo- and heteroleptic bismuth(III) carboxylates. J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105:454-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Bismuth(III) complexes of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs) and substituted benzoic acids (o-methoxybenzoic acid, m-methoxybenzoic acid, o-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid, and 5-[(R/S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl ..
  41. Lee B, Kim N, Hwang T, Lee S, Park Y, Hwang J, et al. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy as second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection: effect of treatment duration and antibiotic resistance on the eradication rate in Korea. Helicobacter. 2010;15:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy as second-line treatment for H. pylori infection based on treatment duration.
  42. Tanomaru Filho M, da Silva G, Duarte M, Gonçalves M, Tanomaru J. Radiopacity evaluation of root-end filling materials by digitization of images. J Appl Oral Sci. 2008;16:376-9 pubmed
    ..05), while white/grey MTA and Super EBA presented the lowest radiopacity values (p<0.05). The tested root-end filling materials presented different radiopacities, white/grey MTA and Super EBA being the least radiopaque materials...
  43. Friesen C, Glatting G, Koop B, Schwarz K, Morgenstern A, Apostolidis C, et al. Breaking chemoresistance and radioresistance with [213Bi]anti-CD45 antibodies in leukemia cells. Cancer Res. 2007;67:1950-8 pubmed
  44. Allen B, Raja C, Rizvi S, Li Y, Tsui W, Graham P, et al. Intralesional targeted alpha therapy for metastatic melanoma. Cancer Biol Ther. 2005;4:1318-24 pubmed
    ..This paper reports the development and application of intralesional targeted alpha therapy (TAT) for melanoma, being the first part of a program to establish a new systemic therapy...
  45. Beck R, Seidl C, Pfost B, Morgenstern A, Bruchertseifer F, Baum H, et al. 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy defeats early-stage disseminated gastric cancer in nude mice. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1215-22 pubmed
    ..85 MBq 213Bi-d9MAb showed excellent therapeutic efficacy without any signs of acute or chronic toxicity, radioimmunotherapy with the alpha-emitter 213Bi is a promising concept for treatment of early peritoneal carcinomatosis...
  46. Min K, Chang H, Bae J, Park S, Hong C, Kim E. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 modulates bismuth oxide-induced cytotoxicity in human dental pulp cells. J Endod. 2007;33:1342-6 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and nitric oxide (NO)-inducing effects of bismuth oxide (Bi(2)O(3))-containing Portland cement (BPC) on human dental pulp cells...
  47. Brogan A, Verghese J, Widger W, Kohn H. Bismuth-dithiol inhibition of the Escherichia coli rho transcription termination factor. J Inorg Biochem. 2005;99:841-51 pubmed
    b>Bismuth-dithiol mixtures are proven antimicrobial agents with unknown mechanism(s) of action. We show that select bismuth-dithiol solutions inhibit the Escherichia coli rho transcription termination factor...
  48. Uygun A, Kadayifci A, Safali M, Ilgan S, Bagci S. The efficacy of bismuth containing quadruple therapy as a first-line treatment option for Helicobacter pylori. J Dig Dis. 2007;8:211-5 pubmed
    ..The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of bismuth-based quadruple regimen with proton pump inhibitor-based triple regimen for eradication of H. pylori.
  49. Vollmar S, Kalender W. Reduction of dose to the female breast in thoracic CT: a comparison of standard-protocol, bismuth-shielded, partial and tube-current-modulated CT examinations. Eur Radiol. 2008;18:1674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..of dose to the female breast in computed tomography (CT) of the thorax by using three different techniques: bismuth shielding, partial CT scanning and tube-current modulation (TCM)...
  50. Larsen A, Martiny N, Stoltenberg M, Danscher G, Rungby J. Gastrointestinal and systemic uptake of bismuth in mice after oral exposure. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003;93:82-90 pubmed
    b>Bismuth compounds have been used in medicine for more than 200 years. In recent years, bismuth has gained renewed interest as a remedy for eradication of gastrointestinal pathogens, especially Helicobacter pylori...
  51. Regan J, Gutmann J, Witherspoon D. Comparison of Diaket and MTA when used as root-end filling materials to support regeneration of the periradicular tissues. Int Endod J. 2002;35:840-7 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate on a comparative basis the potential for mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Diaket to promote periradicular tissue regeneration when used as surgical root-end filling materials...
  52. Coutinho Filho T, De Deus G, Klein L, Manera G, Peixoto C, Gurgel Filho E. Radiopacity and histological assessment of Portland cement plus bismuth oxide. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008;106:e69-77 pubmed publisher
    The present study evaluated the subcutaneous connective tissue reactions and the radiopacity of MTA, Portland cement (PC), and Portland cement plus bismuth oxide (BO).
  53. Du D, Ding J, Tao Y, Li H, Chen X. CdTe nanocrystal-based electrochemical biosensor for the recognition of neutravidin by anodic stripping voltammetry at electrodeposited bismuth film. Biosens Bioelectron. 2008;24:869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..sensor for recognition of neutravidin, as a model protein, using anodic stripping voltammetry at electrodeposited bismuth film is presented...