barium

Summary

Summary: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.

Top Publications

  1. Postgate A, Hyer W, Phillips R, Gupta A, Burling D, Bartram C, et al. Feasibility of video capsule endoscopy in the management of children with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a blinded comparison with barium enterography for the detection of small bowel polyps. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Prophylactic polypectomy may reduce subsequent complications. Traditional barium enterography (BE) has poor sensitivity and requires significant radiation...
  2. Balter V, Braga J, Telouk P, Thackeray J. Evidence for dietary change but not landscape use in South African early hominins. Nature. 2012;489:558-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Laser ablation profiles of strontium/calcium, barium/calcium and strontium isotope ratios in tooth enamel are a means to decipher intra-individual diet and habitat ..
  3. Thang N, Yajima I, Kumasaka M, Ohnuma S, Yanagishita T, Hayashi R, et al. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25636 pubmed publisher
    ..This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water...
  4. Piasta K, Theobald D, Miller C. Potassium-selective block of barium permeation through single KcsA channels. J Gen Physiol. 2011;138:421-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results fit well with other kinetic measurements of selectivity as well as with the many crystal structures of KcsA in various ionic conditions...
  5. Rowley C, Roux B. A computational study of barium blockades in the KcsA potassium channel based on multi-ion potential of mean force calculations and free energy perturbation. J Gen Physiol. 2013;142:451-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A theoretical framework within classical rate theory is presented to incorporate the concentration dependence of the external ions on the lock-in effect...
  6. Thomas R. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) of neurones is electroneutral and exchanges 2 H+ for each Ca2+ or Ba2+ ion extruded. J Physiol. 2009;587:315-27 pubmed publisher
  7. Gazzarrini S, Kang M, Abenavoli A, Romani G, Olivari C, Gaslini D, et al. Chlorella virus ATCV-1 encodes a functional potassium channel of 82 amino acids. Biochem J. 2009;420:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..K+ channels: it assembles into a tetramer, is K+ selective and is inhibited by the canonical K+ channel blockers, barium and caesium...
  8. Blomeley C, Bracci E. Serotonin excites fast-spiking interneurons in the striatum. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1604-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, the effects of serotonin were completely occluded by low concentrations of extracellular barium, which selectively blocks Kir2 channels...
  9. Chatelain F, Gazzarrini S, Fujiwara Y, Arrigoni C, Domigan C, Ferrara G, et al. Selection of inhibitor-resistant viral potassium channels identifies a selectivity filter site that affects barium and amantadine block. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7496 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Chen X, Zhang L, Qi Z, Guo B, Zhong L, Shen B, et al. Novel sulfated glucomannan-barium-alginate microcapsules in islet transplantation: significantly decreased the secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and improved the activity of islet in rats. Transplant Proc. 2009;41:4307-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, novel sulfated glucomannan-barium-alginate (SGA) microcapsules were prepared to encapsulate islets with barium-alginate (ABa) and calcium alginate-..
  2. Tabouret H, Bareille G, Claverie F, Pécheyran C, Prouzet P, Donard O. Simultaneous use of strontium:calcium and barium:calcium ratios in otoliths as markers of habitat: application to the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in the Adour basin, South West France. Mar Environ Res. 2010;70:35-45 pubmed publisher
  3. Miller J. The effects of temperature and water concentration on the otolith incorporation of barium and manganese in black rockfish Sebastes melanops. J Fish Biol. 2009;75:39-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Caution should be applied in the interpretation of geographic variation of [Mn:Ca](otolith) until the mechanisms regulating its incorporation are more fully understood...
  4. Li G, Hu N, Ding D, Zheng J, Liu Y, Wang Y, et al. Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;86:646-52 pubmed publisher
    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed...
  5. von Wagner C, Smith S, Halligan S, Ghanouni A, Power E, Lilford R, et al. Patient acceptability of CT colonography compared with double contrast barium enema: results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial of symptomatic patients. Eur Radiol. 2011;21:2046-55 pubmed publisher
    To determine patient acceptability of barium enema (BE) or CT colonography (CTC).
  6. Krejci M, Wasserman B, Finney L, McNulty I, Legnini D, Vogt S, et al. Selectivity in biomineralization of barium and strontium. J Struct Biol. 2011;176:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..detected in the terminal vacuoles, we propose a "sulfate trap" model, where the presence of dissolved barium leads to preferential precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) due to its low solubility relative to SrSO(4) and CaSO(4)...
  7. Yajima I, Uemura N, Nizam S, Khalequzzaman M, Thang N, Kumasaka M, et al. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:961-73 pubmed publisher
    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 ?M (145.1 ?g/L) barium in about 3 ?M (210...
  8. Niikura R, Nagata N, Shimbo T, Akiyama J, Uemura N. Colonoscopy can miss diverticula of the left colon identified by barium enema. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:2362-7 pubmed publisher
    To identify the diagnostic value of colonoscopy for diverticulosis as determined by barium enema.
  9. Zhou Y, Zeng X, Lingle C. Barium ions selectively activate BK channels via the Ca2+-bowl site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11413-8 pubmed publisher
    ..6 for Ca(2+) to about ?2.8 for Ba(2+). These results support the idea that ionic radius is an important determinant of selectivity differences among different divalent cations observed for each Ca(2+)-binding site...
  10. Zhang F, Zhao Z, Tan R, Guo Y, Cao L, Chen L, et al. Selective and effective adsorption of methyl blue by barium phosphate nano-flake. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2012;386:277-84 pubmed publisher
    We report the synthesis of barium phosphate (BP) nano-flake and its adsorption behavior to methyl blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The as-obtained BP nano-flake revealed pure rhombohedral crystal structure...
  11. Austin C, Smith T, Bradman A, Hinde K, Joannes Boyau R, Bishop D, et al. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates. Nature. 2013;498:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the ..
  12. Allen B, Baker M, Falk G. Role of barium esophagography in evaluating dysphagia. Cleve Clin J Med. 2009;76:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We usually recommend that most patients with dysphagia initially undergo barium esophagography, and in this paper we discuss its role in evaluating dysphagia.
  13. Kim M, Park S, Lee S, Byeon J, Choi E, Kim J, et al. Efficacy of barium-based fecal tagging for CT colonography: a comparison between the use of high and low density barium suspensions in a Korean population - a preliminary study. Korean J Radiol. 2009;10:25-33 pubmed publisher
    This preliminarily study was designed to determine and to compare the efficacy of two commercially available barium-based fecal tagging agents for CT colonography (CTC) (high-density [40% w/v] and low-density [4...
  14. Babich O, Matveev V, Harris A, Shirokov R. Ca2+-dependent inactivation of CaV1.2 channels prevents Gd3+ block: does Ca2+ block the pore of inactivated channels?. J Gen Physiol. 2007;129:477-83 pubmed
    ..A minimal model, in which the inactivation "gate" is an increase in affinity of the selectivity filter for permeating ions, successfully simulates the characteristic U-shaped voltage dependence of inactivation in Ca(2+)...
  15. Obejero Paz C, Gray I, Jones S. Ni2+ block of CaV3.1 (alpha1G) T-type calcium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2008;132:239-50 pubmed publisher
    ..1, inhibition of Ca(V)3.2 by Ni(2+) was essentially independent of voltage, and was similar in 2 mM Ca(2+) vs. Ba(2+), consistent with inhibition by a different mechanism, at a site outside the pore...
  16. Vassalle M. The vicissitudes of the pacemaker current I (Kdd) of cardiac purkinje fibers. J Biomed Sci. 2007;14:699-716 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the large body of evidence reviewed proves the pacemaker role of I (Kdd) (but not of I (f)) in Purkinje fibers...
  17. Eddins D, Sproul A, Lyford L, McLaughlin J, Rosenberg R. Glutamate 172, essential for modulation of L247T alpha7 ACh receptors by Ca2+, lines the extracellular vestibule. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;283:C1454-60 pubmed
    ..The observations that E172 was essential for divalent cation modulation of L247T alpha7 nAChRs and was accessible to permeating ions suggest that this residue participates in coupling ion permeation with modulation of receptor activity...
  18. Alimonti A, Forte G, Spezia S, Gatti A, Mincione G, Ronchi A, et al. Uncertainty of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry based measurements: an application to the analysis of urinary barium, cesium, antimony and tungsten. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19:3131-8 pubmed
    The wide use of barium (Ba), cesium (Cs), antimony (Sb) and tungsten (W) in many industrial and agricultural fields causes the increased release of these metals into the environment, laying the basis for health risk...
  19. Park J, Kim H, Ryu P, Moczydlowski E. Effect of phosphatidylserine on unitary conductance and Ba2+ block of the BK Ca2+-activated K+ channel: re-examination of the surface charge hypothesis. J Gen Physiol. 2003;121:375-97 pubmed
  20. Gibor G, Yakubovich D, Peretz A, Attali B. External barium affects the gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels and produces a pore block via two discrete sites. J Gen Physiol. 2004;124:83-102 pubmed
    ..Here we used external barium to investigate the permeation characteristics of homomeric KCNQ1 channels...
  21. Tang Z, Liang M, Lu S, Yu D, Yu C, Yue D, et al. Transcript scanning reveals novel and extensive splice variations in human l-type voltage-gated calcium channel, Cav1.2 alpha1 subunit. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:44335-43 pubmed
    ..This systematic portrait of splice variation furnishes a reference library for comprehending combinatorial arrangements of Cav1.2 splice exons, especially as they impact development, physiology, and disease...
  22. Ohata H, Oka M, Yanaoka K, Shimizu Y, Mukoubayashi C, Mugitani K, et al. Gastric cancer screening of a high-risk population in Japan using serum pepsinogen and barium digital radiography. Cancer Sci. 2005;96:713-20 pubmed
    ..programs for use in Japan, we studied a new screening program that combines serum pepsinogen (PG) testing and barium digital radiography (DR)...
  23. Wilson C. The mechanism of intrinsic amplification of hyperpolarizations and spontaneous bursting in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Neuron. 2005;45:575-85 pubmed
  24. Jacobs I, Taddeo J, Kelly K, Valenziano C. Poisoning as a result of barium styphnate explosion. Am J Ind Med. 2002;41:285-8 pubmed
    Acute barium poisoning is most often the result of accidental or suicidal ingestion of the rodenticide, barium carbonate...
  25. Leibold R, Gilula L. Sterilization of barium for vertebroplasty: an effective, reliable, and inexpensive method to sterilize powders for surgical procedures. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179:198-200 pubmed
  26. Garcia R, Carrillo E, Rebolledo S, Garcia M, Sanchez J. The beta1a subunit regulates the functional properties of adult frog and mouse L-type Ca2+ channels of skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2002;545:407-19 pubmed
    ..8 +/- 3.5 nC microF(-1), V = -54.5 +/- 2.2 mV and k = 16.4 +/- 1.3 mV (n = 21). Overall, the work describes a novel preparation to explore in situ the role of the beta(1a) subunit on the function of adult Ca(V)1.1 channels...
  27. Proks P, Antcliff J, Ashcroft F. The ligand-sensitive gate of a potassium channel lies close to the selectivity filter. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:70-5 pubmed
    ..This is in marked contrast to the voltage-dependent gate of K(V) channels, which is located at the intracellular mouth of the pore...
  28. Rota M, Vassalle M. Patch-clamp analysis in canine cardiac Purkinje cells of a novel sodium component in the pacemaker range. J Physiol. 2003;548:147-65 pubmed
  29. Zimmermann H, Hillgärtner M, Manz B, Feilen P, Brunnenmeier F, Leinfelder U, et al. Fabrication of homogeneously cross-linked, functional alginate microcapsules validated by NMR-, CLSM- and AFM-imaging. Biomaterials. 2003;24:2083-96 pubmed
    ..However, the release of low-molecular weight factors (such as insulin) may be delayed when using alginate concentrations in the usual range...
  30. Appel S, Liu Z, McElvain M, Brodie M. Ethanol excitation of dopaminergic ventral tegmental area neurons is blocked by quinidine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;306:437-46 pubmed
    ..Ih with cesium (5 mM) or ZD7288 (30 microM), or by block of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channels with barium (500 microM)...
  31. Purdey M. Chronic barium intoxication disrupts sulphated proteoglycan synthesis: a hypothesis for the origins of multiple sclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62:746-54 pubmed
    High level contamination by natural and industrial sources of the alkali earth metal, barium (Ba) has been identified in the ecosystems/workplaces that are associated with high incidence clustering of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other ..
  32. Zhou M, Drummond J, Hanley L. Barium and strontium leaching from aged glass particle/resin matrix dental composites. Dent Mater. 2005;21:145-55 pubmed
    ..This study characterizes the loss of Ba and Sr from glass particle/resin-matrix dental composites during simulated aging...
  33. Wang D, Wang Y. Phenotypic and behavioral defects caused by barium exposure in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;54:447-53 pubmed
    To examine the possible phenotypic defects from barium exposure, a model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, was chosen to analyze the multiple toxicities in barium-exposed animals...
  34. Strowd L, Kyzima J, Pillsbury D, Valley T, Rubin B. Dysphagia dietary guidelines and the rheology of nutritional feeds and barium test feeds. Chest. 2008;133:1397-1401 pubmed publisher
    ..Dysphagia is diagnosed by assessing the ability to swallow barium test feeds (BTF) of different viscosities...
  35. McLaughlin J, Fu J, Sproul A, Rosenberg R. Role of the outer beta-sheet in divalent cation modulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:16-22 pubmed
    ..In this setting, divalent cations, acting at the conserved glutamate in loop 9, act as full agonists or requisite coagonists...
  36. Lacinova L, Kurejova M, Klugbauer N, Hofmann F. Gating of the expressed T-type Cav3.1 calcium channels is modulated by Ca2+. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2006;186:249-60 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the influence of Ca2+ ions on the basic biophysical properties of T-type calcium channels...
  37. Zimmermann H, Wählisch F, Baier C, Westhoff M, Reuss R, Zimmermann D, et al. Physical and biological properties of barium cross-linked alginate membranes. Biomaterials. 2007;28:1327-45 pubmed
    ..Murine L929 cells adhere strongly to the rough surface of crystal-bombarded membranes. NaCl-mediated membrane swelling can be prevented by partial replacement of salt with sorbitol allowing cell culture on the membranes...
  38. Babich O, Reeves J, Shirokov R. Block of CaV1.2 channels by Gd3+ reveals preopening transitions in the selectivity filter. J Gen Physiol. 2007;129:461-75 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that at submicromolar concentrations, Gd(3+) binds at the entry to the selectivity locus and that the affinity of the site for permeant ions decreases during preopening transitions of the channel...
  39. Dawes M, Sieniawska C, Delves T, Dwivedi R, Chowienczyk P, Ritter J. Barium reduces resting blood flow and inhibits potassium-induced vasodilation in the human forearm. Circulation. 2002;105:1323-8 pubmed
    ..The role (if any) of K(IR) in controlling human resistance vessel tone is unknown, and we investigated this in the forearm...
  40. Cens T, Rousset M, Kajava A, Charnet P. Molecular determinant for specific Ca/Ba selectivity profiles of low and high threshold Ca2+ channels. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:415-25 pubmed
    ..These data therefore attribute to the DCS a unique role in the specific shaping of the Ca(2+) influx between the different HVA channels...
  41. McDaid J, McElvain M, Brodie M. Ethanol effects on dopaminergic ventral tegmental area neurons during block of Ih: involvement of barium-sensitive potassium currents. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:1202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..longer latency ethanol-induced inhibition was not observed in DA VTA neurons from mice or rats in the presence of barium (100 microM), which blocks G protein-linked potassium channels (GIRKs) and other inwardly rectifying potassium ..
  42. Khan N, Gray I, Obejero Paz C, Jones S. Permeation and gating in CaV3.1 (alpha1G) T-type calcium channels effects of Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, and Na+. J Gen Physiol. 2008;132:223-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Voltage strongly affects the concentration dependence of block, but not of permeation, for Ca(2+) or Ba(2+)...
  43. Chatelain F, Alagem N, Xu Q, Pancaroglu R, Reuveny E, Minor D. The pore helix dipole has a minor role in inward rectifier channel function. Neuron. 2005;47:833-43 pubmed
    ..Here, using genetic selections to probe interactions of an exemplar potassium channel blocker, barium, with the inward rectifier Kir2...
  44. Agusa T, Kunito T, Fujihara J, Kubota R, Minh T, Kim Trang P, et al. Contamination by arsenic and other trace elements in tube-well water and its risk assessment to humans in Hanoi, Vietnam. Environ Pollut. 2006;139:95-106 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this study revealed for the first time that the residents are exposed not only to As but also Mn and Ba from groundwater in the Red River Delta, Vietnam...
  45. Koch M, Appoloni O, Haufroid V, Vincent J, Lheureux P. Acute barium intoxication and hemodiafiltration. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003;41:363-7 pubmed
    ..following a suicide attempt associating the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, the antidepressant fluoxetine and barium carbonate...
  46. Schnee M, Ricci A. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of voltage-gated calcium currents in turtle auditory hair cells. J Physiol. 2003;549:697-717 pubmed
    ..A bell-shaped voltage dependence and modest sensitivities to intracellular calcium chelators and external barium ions suggest that inactivation was calcium dependent.
  47. Robson L, Hunter M. Mechanisms underlying regulation of a barium-sensitive K+ conductance by ATP in single proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidney. J Membr Biol. 2005;204:39-47 pubmed
    ..Previous experiments have identified a barium-sensitive K(+) conductance (G(Ba)) in proximal tubule cells isolated from frog kidneys...
  48. Hung Y, Chung H. Acute self-poisoning by ingestion of cadmium and barium. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004;19:1308-9 pubmed
  49. Soh H, Park C. Localization of divalent cation-binding site in the pore of a small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel and its role in determining current-voltage relationship. Biophys J. 2002;83:2528-38 pubmed
    ..Because the Ser residue unique for the subfamily of SK(Ca) channels is likely to locate closely to the selectivity filter of the channels, it may also contribute to other permeation characteristics of SK(Ca) channels...
  50. Wang X, Ponoran T, Rasmusson R, Ragsdale D, Peterson B. Amino acid substitutions in the pore of the Ca(V)1.2 calcium channel reduce barium currents without affecting calcium currents. Biophys J. 2005;89:1731-43 pubmed
    ..In summary, the physicochemical properties of the amino acid residues at positions 1144 and 1152 are crucial to the pore's ability to distinguish between multiple Ba(2+) ions and Ca(2+) ions...
  51. Gillespie D, Boda D. The anomalous mole fraction effect in calcium channels: a measure of preferential selectivity. Biophys J. 2008;95:2658-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The resistors-in-series model provides a fundamentally different explanation of the AMFE than the traditional theory and does not require single filing, multiple occupancy, or momentum-correlated ion motion...
  52. McCulloch M, Fallon S, Wyndham T, Hendy E, Lough J, Barnes D. Coral record of increased sediment flux to the inner Great Barrier Reef since European settlement. Nature. 2003;421:727-30 pubmed
  53. Bakowski D, Parekh A. Voltage-dependent Ba2+ permeation through store-operated CRAC channels: implications for channel selectivity. Cell Calcium. 2007;42:333-9 pubmed