antimony

Summary

Summary: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.

Top Publications

  1. Wang Q, He M, Wang Y. Influence of combined pollution of antimony and arsenic on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities. Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:9-19 pubmed publisher
    The effects of both combined and single pollution of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) in different concentrations on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities were studied under laboratory conditions...
  2. Vanaerschot M, De Doncker S, Rijal S, Maes L, Dujardin J, Decuypere S. Antimonial resistance in Leishmania donovani is associated with increased in vivo parasite burden. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23120 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore highlight the need to closely monitor drug efficacy in the field, especially in the context of the Kala-azar elimination programme ongoing in the Indian subcontinent...
  3. Rai S, Bhaskar -, Goel S, Nath Dwivedi U, Sundar S, Goyal N. Role of efflux pumps and intracellular thiols in natural antimony resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74862 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, the study of determinants of antimony resistance is urgently warranted...
  4. Guha R, Das S, Ghosh J, Naskar K, Mandala A, Sundar S, et al. Heterologous priming-boosting with DNA and vaccinia virus expressing kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 induces potent cellular immune response and confers protection against infection with antimony resistant and sensitive strains of Leishmania (Leish. Vaccine. 2013;31:1905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Absence of any licensed vaccine against VL emphasizes the urgent need to develop an effective alternative vaccination strategy...
  5. Mukherjee A, Boisvert S, Monte Neto R, Coelho A, Raymond F, Mukhopadhyay R, et al. Telomeric gene deletion and intrachromosomal amplification in antimony-resistant Leishmania. Mol Microbiol. 2013;88:189-202 pubmed publisher
    ..sequencing (NGS) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of three independent Leishmania major antimony-resistant mutants. Copy number variations were consistently detected with both NGS and CGH...
  6. Oliveira L, Silva M, Paula F, Pereira Maia E, Donnici C, Simone C, et al. Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol: synthesis, crystal structure and cytotoxic activity. Molecules. 2011;16:10314-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimony(V) and bismuth(V) complexes of lapachol have been synthesized by the reaction of Ph?SbCl? or Ph?BiCl? with lapachol (Lp) and characterized by several physicochemical techniques such as IR, and NMR spectroscopy and X-ray ..
  7. Canuto G, Castilho Martins E, Tavares M, López Gonzálvez Á, Rivas L, Barbas C. CE-ESI-MS metabolic fingerprinting of Leishmania resistance to antimony treatment. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:1901-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the low concentrations typical for most of these metabolites, the assay can be considered a success that should be explored for new biological questions...
  8. de Perio M, Durgam S, Caldwell K, Eisenberg J. A health hazard evaluation of antimony exposure in fire fighters. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:81-4 pubmed publisher
    Some firefighter station uniforms contain the flame-retardant, antimony trioxide...
  9. Mandal S, Maharjan M, Singh S, Chatterjee M, Madhubala R. Assessing aquaglyceroporin gene status and expression profile in antimony-susceptible and -resistant clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani from India. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Down-regulation of AQP1 in Leishmania results in resistance to trivalent antimony, whereas overexpression of AQP1 in drug-resistant parasites can reverse the resistance...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Costa D, Carregaro V, Lima Júnior D, Silva N, Milanezi C, Cardoso C, et al. BALB/c mice infected with antimony treatment refractory isolate of Leishmania braziliensis present severe lesions due to IL-4 production. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e965 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, L. braziliensis-infected mice develop strong Th1 responses and easily resolve the infection, thus making the study of factors affecting susceptibility to this parasite difficult...
  2. Simmons C, Schmitt D, Wei X, Han D, Volosin A, Ladd D, et al. Size-selective incorporation of DNA nanocages into nanoporous antimony-doped tin oxide materials. ACS Nano. 2011;5:6060-8 pubmed publisher
    A conductive nanoporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) powder has been prepared using the sol-gel method that contains three-dimensionally interconnected pores within the metal oxide and highly tunable pore sizes on the nanoscale...
  3. Fu H, Rosen B, Bhattacharjee H. Biochemical characterization of a novel ArsA ATPase complex from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens QYMF. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3089-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that AmArsA1-AmArsA2 interaction is needed to form the functional ArsA ATPase. This novel AmArsA1-AmArsA2 complex may provide insight in how it participates with Acr3 in arsenite detoxification...
  4. Torres D, Adaui V, Ribeiro Alves M, Romero G, Arevalo J, Cupolillo E, et al. Targeted gene expression profiling in Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania guyanensis parasites isolated from Brazilian patients with different antimonial treatment outcomes. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:727-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The RNA expression profiles of six genes encoding proteins with roles in antimony metabolism (AQP1, MRPA, GSH1, GSH2, TRYR and TDR1) were assessed by means of real-time quantitative PCR...
  5. Mehta R, Zhang Y, Zhu H, Parker D, Belley M, Singh D, et al. Seebeck and figure of merit enhancement in nanostructured antimony telluride by antisite defect suppression through sulfur doping. Nano Lett. 2012;12:4523-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimony telluride has a low thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT < ?0.3) because of a low Seebeck coefficient ? arising from high degenerate hole concentrations generated by antimony antisite defects...
  6. Ge S, Zhang C, Zhu Y, Yu J, Zhang S. BSA activated CdTe quantum dot nanosensor for antimony ion detection. Analyst. 2010;135:111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It was the first antimony ion sensor using QD nanoparticles in a receptor-fluorophore system...
  7. Soto J, Rojas E, Guzman M, Verduguez A, Nena W, Maldonado M, et al. Intralesional antimony for single lesions of bolivian cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1255-60 pubmed publisher
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an ultimately self-curing disease for which systemic therapy with pentavalent antimony (Sb) is effective but with side effects...
  8. Sharma A, Madhubala R. Ubiquitin conjugation of open reading frame F DNA vaccine leads to enhanced cell-mediated immune response and induces protection against both antimony-susceptible and -resistant strains of Leishmania donovani. J Immunol. 2009;183:7719-31 pubmed publisher
    Resistance of Leishmania donovani to sodium antimony gluconate has become a critical issue in the current, prolonged epidemic in India...
  9. Kazemi Rad E, Mohebali M, Khadem Erfan M, Saffari M, Raoofian R, Hajjaran H, et al. Identification of antimony resistance markers in Leishmania tropica field isolates through a cDNA-AFLP approach. Exp Parasitol. 2013;135:344-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operating in antimony resistance is critical for development of new strategies for treatment...
  10. Bellido Martín A, Gomez Ariza J, Smichowsky P, Sánchez Rodas D. Speciation of antimony in airborne particulate matter using ultrasound probe fast extraction and analysis by HPLC-HG-AFS. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;649:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed the presence of both Sb species at similar concentrations in the ng m(-3) level. The extraction yield was higher than 90% for all the analyzed samples...
  11. Miranda Verastegui C, Tulliano G, Gyorkos T, Calderon W, Rahme E, Ward B, et al. First-line therapy for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru using the TLR7 agonist imiquimod in combination with pentavalent antimony. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e491 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated if pentavalent antimony (an anti-parasitic drug) combined with imiquimod (an immunomodulator) was more effective than pentavalent ..
  12. Brotherton M, Bourassa S, Leprohon P, Legare D, Poirier G, Droit A, et al. Proteomic and genomic analyses of antimony resistant Leishmania infantum mutant. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81899 pubmed publisher
    ..Antimonials remain the primary antileishmanial drugs in most developing countries. However, drug resistance to these compounds is increasing and our understanding of resistance mechanisms is partial...
  13. Friedrich K, Vieira F, Porrozzi R, Marchevsky R, Miekeley N, Grimaldi G, et al. Disposition of antimony in rhesus monkeys infected with Leishmania braziliensis and treated with meglumine antimoniate. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012;75:63-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimony (Sb) disposition and toxicity was evaluated in Leishmania braziliensis-infected monkeys (Macaca mulatta) treated with a 21-d course of low (LOW) or standard (STD) meglumine antimoniate (MA) dosage regimens (5 or 20 mg Sb(V)/kg ..
  14. Ashutosh -, Garg M, Sundar S, Duncan R, Nakhasi H, Goyal N. Downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 of Leishmania donovani field isolates is associated with antimony resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:518-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms operating in laboratory-generated strains are somewhat known, but the determinants of clinical antimony resistance are not well understood...
  15. do Monte Neto R, Coelho A, Raymond F, Legare D, Corbeil J, Melo M, et al. Gene expression profiling and molecular characterization of antimony resistance in Leishmania amazonensis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1167 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic analysis has been performed primarily with Old World Leishmania species and here we investigate molecular alterations in antimony resistance in the New World species L. amazonensis.
  16. Biyani N, Singh A, Mandal S, Chawla B, Madhubala R. Differential expression of proteins in antimony-susceptible and -resistant isolates of Leishmania donovani. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;179:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we used quantitative mass spectrometery to identify global proteome differences between antimony-susceptible/-resistant isolates...
  17. Reis D, Pinto M, Souza Fagundes E, Rocha L, Pereira V, Melo C, et al. Investigation on the pharmacological profile of antimony(III) complexes with hydroxyquinoline derivatives: anti-trypanosomal activity and cytotoxicity against human leukemia cell lines. Biometals. 2011;24:595-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The quinoline derivatives and their antimony(III) complexes were evaluated for their anti-trypanosomal activity as well as for their cytotoxicity against HL-..
  18. Liu F, Le X, McKnight Whitford A, Xia Y, Wu F, Elswick E, et al. Antimony speciation and contamination of waters in the Xikuangshan antimony mining and smelting area, China. Environ Geochem Health. 2010;32:401-13 pubmed publisher
    Water samples from Xikuangshan (China), the world largest antimony (Sb) mine with a Sb mining and smelting history of more than 200 years, were analyzed...
  19. Asakura K, Satoh H, Chiba M, Okamoto M, Serizawa K, Nakano M, et al. Genotoxicity studies of heavy metals: lead, bismuth, indium, silver and antimony. J Occup Health. 2009;51:498-512 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we examined the genotoxicity of lead and also those of metallic bismuth, indium, silver and antimony which are possible substitutes for lead in solder.
  20. Singh R, Kumar D, Duncan R, Nakhasi H, Salotra P. Overexpression of histone H2A modulates drug susceptibility in Leishmania parasites. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36:50-7 pubmed publisher
    ..KA), the disease caused by Leishmania donovani, in India where >60% of KA patients are unresponsive to sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) treatment...
  21. Wyllie S, Mandal G, Singh N, Sundar S, Fairlamb A, Chatterjee M. Elevated levels of tryparedoxin peroxidase in antimony unresponsive Leishmania donovani field isolates. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;173:162-4 pubmed publisher
    ..parasites, dependent upon the unique dithiol trypanothione, has been implicated in laboratory-generated antimony resistance...
  22. Adaui V, Schnorbusch K, Zimic M, Gutierrez A, Decuypere S, Vanaerschot M, et al. Comparison of gene expression patterns among Leishmania braziliensis clinical isolates showing a different in vitro susceptibility to pentavalent antimony. Parasitology. 2011;138:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We analysed here the gene expression profile of 21 L. braziliensis clinical isolates in vitro defined as Sb(V)-resistant and -sensitive, in order to identify potential resistance markers...
  23. Souza A, Giudice A, Pereira J, Guimarães L, de Jesus A, de Moura T, et al. Resistance of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis to nitric oxide: correlation with antimony therapy and TNF-alpha production. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:209 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, 5 to 11% of the patients did not respond to three or more antimony treatments" (refractory patients)...
  24. Sax L. Polyethylene terephthalate may yield endocrine disruptors. Environ Health Perspect. 2010;118:445-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PET is the main ingredient in most clear plastic containers used for beverages and condiments worldwide and has previously been generally assumed not to be a source of endocrine disruptors...
  25. Alvarez Ayuso E, Otones V, Murciego A, Garcia Sanchez A, Regina I. Antimony, arsenic and lead distribution in soils and plants of an agricultural area impacted by former mining activities. Sci Total Environ. 2012;439:35-43 pubmed publisher
    An agricultural area impacted by the former exploitation of an arsenical lead-antimony deposit was studied in order to assess the current and eventual environmental and health impacts...
  26. Mukherjee S, Mukherjee B, Mukhopadhyay R, Naskar K, Sundar S, Dujardin J, et al. Imipramine is an orally active drug against both antimony sensitive and resistant Leishmania donovani clinical isolates in experimental infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1987 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus there is a genuine need for an orally active antileishmanial drug. Previously it was shown that imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant alters the protonmotive force in promastigotes, but its in vivo efficacy was not reported...
  27. Kumar D, Singh R, Bhandari V, Kulshrestha A, Negi N, Salotra P. Biomarkers of antimony resistance: need for expression analysis of multiple genes to distinguish resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:223-30 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to antimony is a major cause of failure to therapy in a large proportion of visceral leishmaniasis cases...
  28. Mukherjee B, Mukhopadhyay R, Bannerjee B, Chowdhury S, Mukherjee S, Naskar K, et al. Antimony-resistant but not antimony-sensitive Leishmania donovani up-regulates host IL-10 to overexpress multidrug-resistant protein 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E575-82 pubmed publisher
    The molecular mechanism of antimony-resistant Leishmania donovani (Sb(R)LD)-driven up-regulation of IL-10 and multidrug-resistant protein 1 (MDR1) in infected macrophages (Ms) has been investigated...
  29. Adaui V, Maes I, Huyse T, Van den Broeck F, Talledo M, Kuhls K, et al. Multilocus genotyping reveals a polyphyletic pattern among naturally antimony-resistant Leishmania braziliensis isolates from Peru. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..we analyzed the population structure of 24 Peruvian Leishmania braziliensis clinical isolates with known in vitro antimony susceptibility and clinical phenotype by multilocus microsatellite typing (14 microsatellite loci)...
  30. Apa H, Devrim I, Bayram N, Deveci R, Demir Özek G, Carti O. Liposomal amphotericin B versus pentavalent antimony salts for visceral Leishmania in children. Turk J Pediatr. 2013;55:378-83 pubmed
    ..study was to investigate the efficacy of a 21-day schedule of liposomal amphotericin B compared to pentavalent antimony salts in the treatment of patients during a first episode of visceral leishmaniasis...
  31. Ribeiro R, Ferreira W, Martins P, Neto R, Rocha O, Le Moyec L, et al. Prolonged absorption of antimony(V) by the oral route from non-inclusion meglumine antimoniate-beta-cyclodextrin conjugates. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2010;31:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The composition investigated here was prepared at a 7:1 antimony(Sb)/beta-CD molar ratio, a condition that improves its solubility in water and allows the oral administration of ..
  32. Bukowiecki N, Lienemann P, Hill M, Figi R, Richard A, Furger M, et al. Real-world emission factors for antimony and other brake wear related trace elements: size-segregated values for light and heavy duty vehicles. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:8072-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Antimony and other brake wear associated elements were detected in three particle size ranges (2.5-10, 1-2.5, and 0...
  33. Salaün P, Frezard F. Unexpectedly high levels of antimony (III) in the pentavalent antimonial drug Glucantime: insights from a new voltammetric approach. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:5201-14 pubmed publisher
    ..antimonial drug, is commonly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis but the presence of residual trivalent antimony, Sb(III), is thought to be responsible for toxic side-effects observed in patients...
  34. Kazemi Rad E, Mohebali M, Khadem Erfan M, Hajjaran H, Hadighi R, Khamesipour A, et al. Overexpression of ubiquitin and amino acid permease genes in association with antimony resistance in Leishmania tropica field isolates. Korean J Parasitol. 2013;51:413-9 pubmed publisher
    The mainstay therapy against leishmaniasis is still pentavalent antimonial drugs; however, the rate of antimony resistance is increasing in endemic regions such as Iran...
  35. Mukherjee A, Roy G, Guimond C, Ouellette M. The gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene of Leishmania is essential and involved in response to oxidants. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:914-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These mutants showed a significant decreased survival in the presence of antimony (SbV) compared with control cells...
  36. Sundar S, Chakravarty J. Antimony toxicity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:4267-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms...
  37. Denys S, Caboche J, Tack K, Rychen G, Wragg J, Cave M, et al. In vivo validation of the unified BARGE method to assess the bioaccessibility of arsenic, antimony, cadmium, and lead in soils. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46:6252-60 pubmed publisher
    The relative bioavailability of arsenic, antimony, cadmium, and lead for the ingestion pathway was measured in 16 soils contaminated by either smelting or mining activities using a juvenile swine model...
  38. Okkenhaug G, Zhu Y, Luo L, Lei M, Li X, Mulder J. Distribution, speciation and availability of antimony (Sb) in soils and terrestrial plants from an active Sb mining area. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:2427-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the first studies investigating the mobility, solubility and the speciation-dependent in-situ bioaccumulation of antimony (Sb) in an active Sb mining area (Xikuangshan, China)...
  39. Moreira W, Leprohon P, Ouellette M. Tolerance to drug-induced cell death favours the acquisition of multidrug resistance in Leishmania. Cell Death Dis. 2011;2:e201 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore link the mode of killing of drugs to tolerance to cell death and to a facilitated emergence of multidrug resistance. These findings may have fundamental implications in the field of chemotherapeutic interventions...
  40. Subba Raju B, Gurumurthy S, Kuhls K, Bhandari V, Schnonian G, Salotra P. Genetic typing reveals monomorphism between antimony sensitive and resistant Leishmania donovani isolates from visceral leishmaniasis or post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis cases in India. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1559-68 pubmed
    ..In India, over 60% of KA patients are unresponsive to the first-line drug sodium antimony gluconate (SAG)...
  41. Sadeghi R, Zakavi S, Forghani M, Aryana K, Kakhki V, Ayati N, et al. The efficacy of Tc-99m sestamibi for sentinel node mapping in breast carcinomas: comparison with Tc-99m antimony sulphide colloid. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur. 2010;13:1-4 pubmed
    ..To study the value of periareolar intra-dermal injection of Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) for sentinel node mapping in breast carcinoma...
  42. Luo J, Zhang H, Santner J, Davison W. Performance characteristics of diffusive gradients in thin films equipped with a binding gel layer containing precipitated ferrihydrite for measuring arsenic(V), selenium(VI), vanadium(V), and antimony(V). Anal Chem. 2010;82:8903-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential capability for measuring labile forms of these oxyanions in acidic to neutral, fresh to brackish waters was demonstrated. ..
  43. Wu F, Fu Z, Liu B, Mo C, Chen B, Corns W, et al. Health risk associated with dietary co-exposure to high levels of antimony and arsenic in the world's largest antimony mine area. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:3344-51 pubmed publisher
    Like arsenic (As), antimony (Sb) is known to be a genotoxic element in vitro and in vivo. Sb is now recognized as a global contaminant and has aroused the global concerns recently...
  44. Ait Oudhia K, Gazanion E, Vergnes B, Oury B, Sereno D. Leishmania antimony resistance: what we know what we can learn from the field. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, in most parts of the world, the frequency of parasite antimony resistance linked to treatment failure is unknown because of a lack of information on Leishmania antimony ..
  45. Decuypere S, Vanaerschot M, Brunker K, Imamura H, Muller S, Khanal B, et al. Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in natural Leishmania populations vary with genetic background. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1514 pubmed publisher
    ..This heterogeneity of parasite adaptations provides severe challenges for the control of drug resistance in the field and the design of molecular surveillance tools for widespread applicability...
  46. Stauch A, Duerr H, Dujardin J, Vanaerschot M, Sundar S, Eichner M. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis: model-based analyses on the spread of antimony-resistant L. donovani in Bihar, India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1973 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental evidence has suggested that parasites which are resistant against antimonials have superior survival skills than sensitive ones even in the absence of antimonial treatment...
  47. Hendrickx S, Inocêncio da Luz R, Bhandari V, Kuypers K, Shaw C, Lonchamp J, et al. Experimental induction of paromomycin resistance in antimony-resistant strains of L. donovani: outcome dependent on in vitro selection protocol. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1664 pubmed publisher
    ..Cloned antimony-resistant L...
  48. Sun M, Li D, Zheng Y, Zhang W, Shao Y, Chen Y, et al. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of calcium antimony oxide hydroxide with high photocatalytic activity toward benzene. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:7877-82 pubmed publisher
    ..CaSb2O5(OH)2 has also exhibited activity toward other aromatic organic compounds. A possible mechanism of photocatalysis over CaSb2O5(OH)2 nanocrystals was proposed...
  49. Matrangolo F, Liarte D, Andrade L, de Melo M, Andrade J, Ferreira R, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of antimony-resistant and -susceptible Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum chagasi lines. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013;190:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparative proteomic analysis of antimony-susceptible and antimony-resistant Leishmania braziliensis (LbSbR) and Leishmania infantum chagasi (LcSbR) lines ..
  50. Mehta R, Karthik C, Jiang W, Singh B, Shi Y, Siegel R, et al. High electrical conductivity antimony selenide nanocrystals and assemblies. Nano Lett. 2010;10:4417-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Antimony selenide is a promising thermoelectric material with a high Seebeck coefficient, but its figure of merit is limited by its low electrical conductivity...
  51. Walker J, Gongora R, Vasquez J, Drummelsmith J, Burchmore R, Roy G, et al. Discovery of factors linked to antimony resistance in Leishmania panamensis through differential proteome analysis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;183:166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..proteomic-based analysis of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis lines selected in vitro for resistance to trivalent antimony (Sb(III)) to identify factors associated with antimony resistance...
  52. Frezard F, Demicheli C, Ribeiro R. Pentavalent antimonials: new perspectives for old drugs. Molecules. 2009;14:2317-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Some recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony acts as a prodrug that is converted to active and more toxic trivalent antimony...
  53. Chakraborty A, Majumder H. Mode of action of pentavalent antimonials: specific inhibition of type I DNA topoisomerase of Leishmania donovani. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;152:605-11 pubmed
    ..The inhibition reported here concerning a type I DNA topoisomerase demonstrates at least one possible mode of action of these antileishmanial drugs...