strontium

Summary

Summary: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.

Top Publications

  1. Buache E, Velard F, Bauden E, Guillaume C, Jallot E, Nedelec J, et al. Effect of strontium-substituted biphasic calcium phosphate on inflammatory mediators production by human monocytes. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:3113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Strontium is well known to counteract the osteoporosis process, but little is known about its effect on inflammatory ..
  2. Römer P, Desaga B, Proff P, Faltermeier A, Reicheneder C. Strontium promotes cell proliferation and suppresses IL-6 expression in human PDL cells. Ann Anat. 2012;194:208-11 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to investigate the effect of strontium on human PDL cells in vitro. Strontium is used to treat osteoporosis because of its bone formation promoting effect on osteoblast cells...
  3. Boanini E, Torricelli P, Fini M, Bigi A. Osteopenic bone cell response to strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:2079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..work, we investigated the response of primary cultures of rat osteoblasts derived from osteopenic (O-OB) bone to strontium substituted hydroxyapatite (SrHA), and to hydroxyapatite (HA) as reference material, compared to normal (N-OB) ..
  4. Li Z, Liu Z, Yin M, Yang X, Yuan Q, Ren J, et al. Aptamer-capped multifunctional mesoporous strontium hydroxyapatite nanovehicle for cancer-cell-responsive drug delivery and imaging. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:4257-63 pubmed publisher
    A novel cancer-cells-triggered controlled-release gadolinium-doped luminescent and mesoporous strontium hydroxyapatite nanorods (designated as Gd:SrHap nanorods) system using cell-type-specific aptamers as caps has been constructed...
  5. Qian W, Sun D, Zhu R, Du X, Liu H, Wang S. pH-sensitive strontium carbonate nanoparticles as new anticancer vehicles for controlled etoposide release. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:5781-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Strontium carbonate nanoparticles (SCNs), a novel biodegradable nanosystem for the pH-sensitive release of anticancer drugs, were developed via a facile mixed solvent method aimed at creating smart drug delivery in acidic conditions, ..
  6. Aina V, Lusvardi G, Annaz B, Gibson I, Imrie F, Malavasi G, et al. Magnesium- and strontium-co-substituted hydroxyapatite: the effects of doped-ions on the structure and chemico-physical properties. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012;23:2867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..An evaluation of the amount of substituents allows us to design and prepare BCP composite materials with a desired HA/?-TCP ratio...
  7. Yang G, Song L, Jiang Q, Wang X, Zhao S, He F. Effect of strontium-substituted nanohydroxyapatite coating of porous implant surfaces on implant osseointegration in a rabbit model. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012;27:1332-9 pubmed
    This study investigated the effects of a strontium-substituted nanohydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) coating, deposited onto porous implant surfaces using an electrochemical process, on implant osseointegration in a rabbit model.
  8. Saidak Z, Marie P. Strontium signaling: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications in osteoporosis. Pharmacol Ther. 2012;136:216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Preclinical and clinical studies provided evidence that strontium (in the form of ranelate) induces beneficial effects on bone mass and resistance in animal models of bone loss ..
  9. Wu C, Zhou Y, Lin C, Chang J, Xiao Y. Strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds with improved osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells for periodontal tissue engineering. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:3805-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Strontium (Sr) and Sr-containing biomaterials have been found to induce osteoblast activity...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Peng S, Liu X, Zhou G, Li Z, Luk K, Guo X, et al. Osteoprotegerin deficiency attenuates strontium-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:1272-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Strontium (Sr) exerts an anabolic and antiresorptive effect on bone, but the mechanism remains unknown...
  2. Li G, Hu N, Ding D, Zheng J, Liu Y, Wang Y, et al. Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;86:646-52 pubmed publisher
    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed...
  3. Andersen O, Offermanns V, Sillassen M, Almtoft K, Andersen I, Sørensen S, et al. Accelerated bone ingrowth by local delivery of strontium from surface functionalized titanium implants. Biomaterials. 2013;34:5883-90 pubmed publisher
    Studies have indicated systemic treatment with strontium (Sr) as a potential route to increase bone quality and formation around osseointegrating implants. However, adverse effects are linked to such treatment...
  4. Lin K, Xia L, Li H, Jiang X, Pan H, Xu Y, et al. Enhanced osteoporotic bone regeneration by strontium-substituted calcium silicate bioactive ceramics. Biomaterials. 2013;34:10028-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Other studies showed that strontium (Sr) plays a distinct role on inhibiting bone resorption...
  5. Fu D, Jiang Q, He F, Yang G, Liu L. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of bone osseointegration of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite implants. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2012;13:364-71 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) on bone osseointegration of the implants using fluorescence microscopy. We allocated 20 implants to two groups: Sr-HA group and HA group...
  6. Gerke T, Little B, Luxton T, Scheckel K, Maynard J. Strontium concentrations in corrosion products from residential drinking water distribution systems. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:5171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..S. drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) to monitor nonradioactive strontium (Sr(2+)) in drinking water in 2013...
  7. Fielding G, Roy M, Bandyopadhyay A, Bose S. Antibacterial and biological characteristics of silver containing and strontium doped plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings. Acta Biomater. 2012;8:3144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..To offset potential cytotoxic effects of Ag in the coatings strontium (Sr) was also added as a binary dopant. HA powder was doped with 2.0 wt.% Ag(2)O, 1.0 wt...
  8. Vestermark M. Strontium in the bone-implant interface. Dan Med Bull. 2011;58:B4286 pubmed
    ..b>Strontium is a dual action drug; being both bone anabolic and anti-catabolic...
  9. Schumacher M, Lode A, Helth A, Gelinsky M. A novel strontium(II)-modified calcium phosphate bone cement stimulates human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:9547-57 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the in vitro effects of novel strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs), prepared using two different approaches on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), were evaluated...
  10. Baier M, Staudt P, Klein R, Sommer U, Wenz R, Grafe I, et al. Strontium enhances osseointegration of calcium phosphate cement: a histomorphometric pilot study in ovariectomized rats. J Orthop Surg Res. 2013;8:16 pubmed publisher
    Calcium phosphate cements are used frequently in orthopedic and dental surgeries. Strontium-containing drugs serve as systemic osteoblast-activating medication in various clinical settings promoting mechanical stability of the ..
  11. Budis H, Kalisińska E, Lanocha N, Kosik Bogacka D. The concentration of manganese, iron and strontium in bone of red fox Vulpes vulpes (L. 1758). Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;155:361-9 pubmed publisher
    The aims of the study were to determine manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and strontium (Sr) concentrations in fox bone samples from north-western Poland and to examine the relationships between the bone Mn, Fe and Sr concentrations and the sex ..
  12. Schumacher M, Hens A, Rohnke M, Gelinsky M. A novel and easy-to-prepare strontium(II) modified calcium phosphate bone cement with enhanced mechanical properties. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:7536-44 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate two different approaches to obtaining strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs) without elaborate synthesis of Sr-containing calcium phosphate species as cement precursors that could ..
  13. Wallace S, Shaw S, Morris K, Small J, Burke I. Alteration of sediments by hyperalkaline K-rich cement leachate: implications for strontium adsorption and incorporation. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:3694-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that Sr retention may be enhanced in this high pH zone and that the incorporation process may lead to irreversible exchange of the contaminant over extended time periods...
  14. Isaac J, Nohra J, Lao J, Jallot E, Nedelec J, Berdal A, et al. Effects of strontium-doped bioactive glass on the differentiation of cultured osteogenic cells. Eur Cell Mater. 2011;21:130-43 pubmed
    There is accumulating evidence that strontium-containing biomaterials have positive effects on bone tissue repair...
  15. Lopa S, Mercuri D, Colombini A, De Conti G, Segatti F, Zagra L, et al. Orthopedic bioactive implants: Hydrogel enrichment of macroporous titanium for the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells and strontium. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013;101:3396-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these in vitro results, we envision the association of TT with strontium-enriched CMCA and BMSCs as a promising strategy to generate bioactive implants promoting bone neoformation at ..
  16. Pemmer B, Roschger A, Wastl A, Hofstaetter J, Wobrauschek P, Simon R, et al. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue. Bone. 2013;57:184-93 pubmed publisher
    ..in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone...
  17. Querido W, Farina M. Strontium ranelate increases the formation of bone-like mineralized nodules in osteoblast cell cultures and leads to Sr incorporation into the intact nodules. Cell Tissue Res. 2013;354:573-80 pubmed publisher
    We describe effects of strontium ranelate treatment on intact mineralized nodules produced in osteoblast cell cultures. We analyzed the matrix directly at the cell culture surfaces following treatment with 0.05 and 0.5 mM Sr(2+)...
  18. Thomsen A, Worm J, Jacobsen S, Stahlhut M, Latta M, Brauner Osborne H. Strontium is a biased agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma 6-23 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;343:638-49 pubmed publisher
    ..doing concentration-response experiments we focused on the ability of two well known CaSR agonists, calcium and strontium, to activate six different signaling entities: G(q/11) signaling, G(i/o) signaling, G(s) signaling, ..
  19. Tulliani J, Baroni C, Zavattaro L, Grignani C. Strontium-doped hematite as a possible humidity sensing material for soil water content determination. Sensors (Basel). 2013;13:12070-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The material was prepared by solid state reaction from commercial hematite and strontium carbonate heat treated at 900 °C...
  20. Yang F, Yang D, Tu J, Zheng Q, Cai L, Wang L. Strontium enhances osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and in vivo bone formation by activating Wnt/catenin signaling. Stem Cells. 2011;29:981-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Strontium ranelate is a newly approved drug that can reduce the risk of vertebral fracture, which is attributed to its dual function in increasing the bone formation and decreasing the bone resorption...
  21. Ni G, Yao Z, Huang G, Liu W, Lu W. The effect of strontium incorporation in hydroxyapatite on osteoblasts in vitro. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:961-7 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a series of strontium-substituted HA (Sr-HA) ceramics (0, 1, 5, and 10 mol% Sr substitution) on osteoblasts, thereby demonstrating whether strontium incorporation with HA would favor ..
  22. Pemmer B, Hofstaetter J, Meirer F, Smolek S, Wobrauschek P, Simon R, et al. Increased strontium uptake in trabecular bone of ovariectomized calcium-deficient rats treated with strontium ranelate or strontium chloride. J Synchrotron Radiat. 2011;18:835-41 pubmed publisher
    Based on clinical trials showing the efficacy to reduce vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, strontium ranelate (SrR) has been approved in several countries for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis...
  23. Peng S, Liu X, Huang S, Pan H, Zhen W, Zhou G, et al. Intervention timing of strontium treatment on estrogen depletion-induced osteoporosis in rats: bone microstructure and mechanics. J Orthop Res. 2014;32:477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effect of intervention timing of Sr treatment on trabecular bone microstructure and mechanics...
  24. Cipriano A, Zhao T, Johnson I, Guan R, Garcia S, Liu H. In vitro degradation of four magnesium-zinc-strontium alloys and their cytocompatibility with human embryonic stem cells. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2013;24:989-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Four magnesium-zinc-strontium (ZSr41) alloys were developed in this study...
  25. Sano Y, Kobayashi S, Shirai K, Takahata N, Matsumoto K, Watanabe T, et al. Past daily light cycle recorded in the strontium/calcium ratios of giant clam shells. Nat Commun. 2012;3:761 pubmed publisher
    ..This opens the possibility to develop the Sr/Ca ratio from a giant clam shell as an effective proxy for parameters of the daily light cycle...
  26. Qu K, Zhao C, Ren J, Qu X. Human telomeric G-quadruplex formation and highly selective fluorescence detection of toxic strontium ions. Mol Biosyst. 2012;8:779-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Strontium ions play important roles in biological systems. The inhalation of strontium can cause severe respiratory difficulties, anaphylactic reaction and extreme tachycardia...
  27. Chung C, Long H. Systematic strontium substitution in hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium via micro-arc treatment and their osteoblast/osteoclast responses. Acta Biomater. 2011;7:4081-7 pubmed publisher
    ..implants by adopting a micro-arc treatment (MAT) capable of replacing calcium (Ca) with different percentages of strontium (Sr) in order to fabricate strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp) coatings...
  28. Wu Y, Adeeb S, Duke M, Munoz Paniagua D, Doschak M. Compositional and material properties of rat bone after bisphosphonate and/or Strontium ranelate drug treatment. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16:52-64 pubmed
    We investigated elemental strontium and/or bisphosphonate drug incorporation upon the compositional and biomechanical properties of vertebral bone, in a rat model of Osteoporosis secondary to ovariectomy.
  29. Liu F, Zhang X, Yu X, Xu Y, Feng T, Ren D. In vitro study in stimulating the secretion of angiogenic growth factors of strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate for bone tissue engineering. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to determine the ability of strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) to induce angiogenesis via researching its effect on the mRNA expressions and ..
  30. Thormann U, Ray S, Sommer U, Elkhassawna T, Rehling T, Hundgeburth M, et al. Bone formation induced by strontium modified calcium phosphate cement in critical-size metaphyseal fracture defects in ovariectomized rats. Biomaterials. 2013;34:8589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..new bone formation in a critical-size metaphyseal defect in the femur of ovariectomized rats filled with a strontium modified calcium phosphate cement (SrCPC) compared to calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and empty defects...
  31. Cattani Lorente M, Rizzoli R, Ammann P. In vitro bone exposure to strontium improves bone material level properties. Acta Biomater. 2013;9:7005-13 pubmed publisher
    In rats treated with strontium ranelate, the ultimate load of intact bone is increased and associated with changes in microstructure and material level properties...
  32. Rizzoli R, Dawson Hughes B, Kaufman J, Fardellone P, Brandi M, Vellas B, et al. Correction of vitamin D insufficiency with combined strontium ranelate and vitamin D3 in osteoporotic patients. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;170:441-50 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral fixed-dose combination of strontium ranelate 2? g/vitamin D? 1000? IU daily vs strontium ranelate 2? g daily for correcting vitamin D insufficiency in osteoporosis.
  33. Zhao L, Wang H, Huo K, Zhang X, Wang W, Zhang Y, et al. The osteogenic activity of strontium loaded titania nanotube arrays on titanium substrates. Biomaterials. 2013;34:19-29 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Strontium (Sr) loaded nanotubular structures (NT-Sr) that allow controlled and long-term Sr release are expected to yield ..
  34. Roy M, Bose S. Osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic resorption of tricalcium phosphate: effect of strontium and magnesium doping. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012;100:2450-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of 1.0 wt % strontium (Sr) and 1...
  35. Fournier C, Perrier A, Thomas M, Laroche N, Dumas V, Rattner A, et al. Reduction by strontium of the bone marrow adiposity in mice and repression of the adipogenic commitment of multipotent C3H10T1/2 cells. Bone. 2012;50:499-509 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Strontium ranelate has been shown to promote osteoblastogenesis and prevent adipogenesis in long-term experiments using ..
  36. Ma B, Zhang Q, Wang G, Wu Z, Shaw J, Hu Y, et al. Synthesis and pharmacokinetics of strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate (Sr-FDP) as a potential anti-osteoporosis agent in intact and ovariectomized rats. J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105:563-8 pubmed publisher
    A novel strontium compound has been synthesized by the reaction of fructose-1,6-diphosphate with strontium (Sr-FDP). The compound was characterized and confirmed with elemental analyses and spectroscopic (IR, NMR) methods...
  37. Cox N, Rapatskiy L, Su J, Pantazis D, Sugiura M, Kulik L, et al. Effect of Ca2+/Sr2+ substitution on the electronic structure of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II: a combined multifrequency EPR, 55Mn-ENDOR, and DFT study of the S2 state. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:3635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Its location within the cuboidal structural unit, as opposed to the external 'dangler' position, may have important consequences for the mechanism of O-O bond formation...
  38. Park J, Kim Y, Jang J, Song H. Positive modulation of osteogenesis- and osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression with strontium-containing microstructured Ti implants in rabbit cancellous bone. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013;101:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..study investigated the in vivo osteoblast and osteoclast gene expression in the peri-implant bone tissue of the strontium (Sr)-incorporated microstructured Ti implants (SLA/Sr) in order to evaluate whether local Sr delivery to the ..
  39. Peng S, Liu X, Huang S, Li Z, Pan H, Zhen W, et al. The cross-talk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts in response to strontium treatment: involvement of osteoprotegerin. Bone. 2011;49:1290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that OPG plays an important role in the cross-talk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts in response to Sr treatment...
  40. Krejci M, Wasserman B, Finney L, McNulty I, Legnini D, Vogt S, et al. Selectivity in biomineralization of barium and strontium. J Struct Biol. 2011;176:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Engineering the sulfate concentration in the vacuole may thus be the most direct way to increase the Sr sequestered per cell, an important consideration in using desmids for phytoremediation of (90)Sr...
  41. Li Z, Peng S, Pan H, Tang B, Lam R, Lu W. Microarchitecture and nanomechanical properties of trabecular bone after strontium administration in osteoporotic goats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;145:39-46 pubmed publisher
    b>Strontium (Sr) ralenate is a new agent used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. As a bone-seeking element, 98% of Sr is deposited in the bone and teeth after oral ingestion...
  42. Sabareeswaran A, Basu B, Shenoy S, Jaffer Z, Saha N, Stamboulis A. Early osseointegration of a strontium containing glass ceramic in a rabbit model. Biomaterials. 2013;34:9278-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In the above perspective, the present study reports the in vivo biocompatibility and bone healing of the strontium (Sr)-stabilized bulk glass ceramics with the nominal composition of 4.5SiO2-3Al2O3-1...
  43. Bergamini P, Marchesi E, Pagnoni A, Lambertini E, Franceschetti T, Penolazzi L, et al. Synthesis, characterization of strontium-bile acid salts and their bioactivity vs. the anti-osteoporosis drug strontium ranelate. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103:891-7 pubmed publisher
    The strontium salts Sr(cholate)2, (Compound 1), Sr(dehydrocholate)2, (Compound 2) and Sr3(3-dehydrocholanoyliden-L-tartrate)2, (Compound 3) have been prepared and characterized...
  44. Ni G, Lu W, Xu B, Chiu K, Yang C, Li Z, et al. Interfacial behaviour of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite cement with cancellous and cortical bone. Biomaterials. 2006;27:5127-33 pubmed
    ..In this study, strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) cement, in which 10% calcium ions were substituted by strontium, was performed ..
  45. Ishida N, Sugiura M, Rappaport F, Lai T, Rutherford A, Boussac A. Biosynthetic exchange of bromide for chloride and strontium for calcium in the photosystem II oxygen-evolving enzymes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:13330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that Cl(-) is involved in the water oxidation mechanism. The possibility that Cl(-) is close to the active site is discussed in terms of recent structural models...
  46. Boyd D, Carroll G, Towler M, Freeman C, Farthing P, Brook I. Preliminary investigation of novel bone graft substitutes based on strontium-calcium-zinc-silicate glasses. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009;20:413-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a range of calcium-strontium-zinc-silicate glass based bone grafts and characterised their structure and physical properties, then evaluated ..
  47. Alegre D, Ribeiro C, Sousa C, Correia J, Silva L, de Almeida L. Possible benefits of strontium ranelate in complicated long bone fractures. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32:439-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this, little is known about the effect of osteoporosis drugs on bone healing in humans. Strontium ranelate is an osteoporosis agent that increases bone formation and reduces bone resorption and may therefore be ..
  48. Li Z, Lu W, Chiu P, Lam R, Xu B, Cheung K, et al. Strontium-calcium coadministration stimulates bone matrix osteogenic factor expression and new bone formation in a large animal model. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:758-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Strontium (Sr) has become increasingly attractive for use in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis by concomitantly inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation...
  49. Pan H, Li Z, Lam W, Wong J, Darvell B, Luk K, et al. Solubility of strontium-substituted apatite by solid titration. Acta Biomater. 2009;5:1678-85 pubmed publisher
    ..and fully substituted strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp). Solubility increased with increasing strontium content...
  50. Choi S, O Day P, Rivera N, Mueller K, Vairavamurthy M, Seraphin S, et al. Strontium speciation during reaction of kaolinite with simulated tank-waste leachate: bulk and microfocused EXAFS analysis. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:2608-14 pubmed
    Radioactive strontium (90Sr) is an important constituent of the complex wastes from past nuclear weapons production and has been stored in underground tanks at U.S. DOE sites (e.g., Hanford, WA)...
  51. Verberckmoes S, Behets G, Oste L, Bervoets A, Lamberts L, Drakopoulos M, et al. Effects of strontium on the physicochemical characteristics of hydroxyapatite. Calcif Tissue Int. 2004;75:405-15 pubmed
    In a previous experimental study using a chronic renal failure rat model, a dose-related multiphasic effect of strontium (Sr) on bone formation was found that could be reproduced in an in vitro set-up using primary rat osteoblasts...
  52. Brännvall M, Fredrik Pettersson B, Kirsebom L. The residue immediately upstream of the RNase P cleavage site is a positive determinant. Biochimie. 2002;84:693-703 pubmed
    ..e. in the leader and spacer regions of tRNA transcripts...
  53. Bekkers J, Clements J. Quantal amplitude and quantal variance of strontium-induced asynchronous EPSCs in rat dentate granule neurons. J Physiol. 1999;516 ( Pt 1):227-48 pubmed
    ..The large quantal variance obscures quantization of the amplitudes of evoked sEPSCs at this class of excitatory synapse...