rubidium

Summary

Summary: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.

Top Publications

  1. D Angelo P, Persson I. Structure of the hydrated and dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions in solution. Inorg Chem. 2004;43:3543-9 pubmed
    The structure of the hydrated and the dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions in solution has been determined by means of large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies...
  2. Elumalai R, Nagpal P, Reed J. A mutation in the Arabidopsis KT2/KUP2 potassium transporter gene affects shoot cell expansion. Plant Cell. 2002;14:119-31 pubmed
    ..coli mutant. A P(SHY3)::GUS fusion is expressed in growing portions of the plant. These results suggest that KT2/KUP2/SHY3 mediates K(+)-dependent cell expansion in growing tissues...
  3. Relman A. The physiological behavior of rubidium and cesium in relation to that of potassium. Yale J Biol Med. 1956;29:248-62 pubmed
  4. Fulgenzi F, Peralta M, Mangano S, Danna C, Vallejo A, Puigdomenech P, et al. The ionic environment controls the contribution of the barley HvHAK1 transporter to potassium acquisition. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It is shown that the yeast protein phosphatase PPZ1 as well as the halotolerance HAL4/HAL5 kinases negatively regulate the HvHAK1-mediated K+ transport...
  5. Marincola F, Virno A, Randazzo A, Lai A. Effect of rubidium and cesium ions on the dimeric quaduplex formed by the Oxytricha nova telomeric repeat oligonucleotide d(GGGGTTTTGGGG). Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2007;26:1129-32 pubmed
  6. Zhou Y, MacKinnon R. Ion binding affinity in the cavity of the KcsA potassium channel. Biochemistry. 2004;43:4978-82 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a fairly large (more negative than -100 mV) electrostatic potential inside the cavity, and they also imply the presence of a weak nonelectrostatic component to a cation's interaction with the cavity...
  7. Shin R, Schachtman D. Hydrogen peroxide mediates plant root cell response to nutrient deprivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8827-32 pubmed
    ..ROS production is an early root response to K(+) deficiency that modulates gene expression and physiological changes in the kinetics of K(+) uptake...
  8. Gierth M, Maser P, Schroeder J. The potassium transporter AtHAK5 functions in K(+) deprivation-induced high-affinity K(+) uptake and AKT1 K(+) channel contribution to K(+) uptake kinetics in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Physiol. 2005;137:1105-14 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate an in vivo function for AtHAK5 in the inducible high-affinity K(+) uptake system in Arabidopsis roots...
  9. Maciel de Freitas R, Gonçalves J, Lourenco de Oliveira R. Efficiency of rubidium marking in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): preliminary evaluation on persistence of egg labeling, survival, and fecundity of marked female. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:823-7 pubmed
    b>Rubidium chloride (RbCl) has been used for the study of vector biology and behavior, although the efficacy of marking, egg production, and survivorship of marked females have been poorly studied...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Thompson J, Begenisich T. External TEA block of shaker K+ channels is coupled to the movement of K+ ions within the selectivity filter. J Gen Physiol. 2003;122:239-46 pubmed
  2. Dürr K, Abe K, Tavraz N, Friedrich T. E2P state stabilization by the N-terminal tail of the H,K-ATPase beta-subunit is critical for efficient proton pumping under in vivo conditions. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20147-54 pubmed publisher
  3. Yang X, Yuan R, Chai Y, Zhuo Y, Mao L, Yuan S. Ru(bpy)3(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles labeling for a sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;25:1851-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This new strategy for preparation of the ECL immunosensor could be easily realized and has potential application in ultrasensitive bioassays...
  4. Mascari T, Stout R, Foil L. Laboratory evaluation of rubidium as a long-lasting marker for bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Med Entomol. 2012;49:227-30 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the trace element rubidium (Rb) as a long-lasting systemic biomarker for bloodfeeding females of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli...
  5. Kemmel V, Taleb O, Andriamampandry C, Aunis D, Maitre M. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor function determined by stimulation of rubidium and calcium movements from NCB-20 neurons. Neuroscience. 2003;116:1021-31 pubmed
    ..This process must at least partially trigger small conductance calcium activated channel activation leading to gamma-hydroxybutyrate-induced hyperpolarization...
  6. Dowd B, Forbush B. PASK (proline-alanine-rich STE20-related kinase), a regulatory kinase of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:27347-53 pubmed
    ..In cells preloaded with 32Pi, the phosphorylation of PASK, but not DNPASK, coincides with that of NKCC1 and increases 5.5 +/- 0.36-fold in low [Cl]e. These data conclusively link PASK with the phosphorylation and activation of NKCC1...
  7. Seebohm G, Sanguinetti M, Pusch M. Tight coupling of rubidium conductance and inactivation in human KCNQ1 potassium channels. J Physiol. 2003;552:369-78 pubmed
  8. Gill S, Gill R, Wicks D, Despotovski S, Liang D. Development of an HTS assay for Na+, K+-ATPase using nonradioactive rubidium ion uptake. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2004;2:535-42 pubmed
    A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed for the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase channel in order to study rubidium uptake as a measure of the functional activity and modulation of this exchanger...
  9. Zhou M, MacKinnon R. A mutant KcsA K(+) channel with altered conduction properties and selectivity filter ion distribution. J Mol Biol. 2004;338:839-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation does not affect the conduction of Rb(+). These results can be understood in the context of a conduction mechanism in which a pair of K ions switch between energetically balanced 1,3 and 2,4 configurations...
  10. Flatman P. Activation of ferret erythrocyte Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport by deoxygenation. J Physiol. 2005;563:421-31 pubmed
    ..They also indicate that more than one kinase and phosphatase are involved in cotransporter phosphorylation...
  11. Ahn S, Shin R, Schachtman D. Expression of KT/KUP genes in Arabidopsis and the role of root hairs in K+ uptake. Plant Physiol. 2004;134:1135-45 pubmed
    ..This suggests an important role for root hairs in K(+) uptake. The growth and rubidium (Rb(+)) uptake of two root hair mutants, trh1-1 (tiny root hairs) and rhd6 (root hair defective), were studied to ..
  12. Sorota S, Zhang X, Margulis M, Tucker K, Priestley T. Characterization of a hERG screen using the IonWorks HT: comparison to a hERG rubidium efflux screen. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2005;3:47-57 pubmed
    ..human ethera- go-go-related gene (hERG) patch clamp data and an alternative functional screen based on rubidium flux...
  13. Rubio F, Nieves Cordones M, Alemán F, Martinez V. Relative contribution of AtHAK5 and AtAKT1 to K+ uptake in the high-affinity range of concentrations. Physiol Plant. 2008;134:598-608 pubmed publisher
  14. Whiting N, Nikolaou P, Eschmann N, Goodson B, Barlow M. Interdependence of in-cell xenon density and temperature during Rb/129Xe spin-exchange optical pumping using VHG-narrowed laser diode arrays. J Magn Reson. 2011;208:298-304 pubmed publisher
  15. Zhang W, Zhang X, Wang H, Sharma A, Edwards A, Hughes B. Characterization of the R162W Kir7.1 mutation associated with snowflake vitreoretinopathy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the R162W mutation suppresses Kir7.1 channel activity, possibly by negatively impacting gating by membrane phosphadidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate...
  16. Thompson J, Begenisich T. Functional identification of ion binding sites at the internal end of the pore in Shaker K+ channels. J Physiol. 2003;549:107-20 pubmed
    ..These results provide information on the fine-structure of ion interactions with the inner end of the pore in K+ channels...
  17. Parret R, Paillet M, Huntzinger J, Nakabayashi D, Michel T, Tiberj A, et al. In situ Raman probing of graphene over a broad doping range upon rubidium vapor exposure. ACS Nano. 2013;7:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Raman scattering experiments on single-layer graphene (SLG) and Bernal bilayer graphene (BLG) during exposure to rubidium vapor. The G- and 2D-band evolutions with doping time are presented and analyzed...
  18. Leino M, Viel A, Zillich R. Electronically excited rubidium atom in helium clusters and films. II. Second excited state and absorption spectrum. J Chem Phys. 2011;134:024316 pubmed publisher
    Following our work on the study of helium droplets and film doped with one electronically excited rubidium atom Rb(?) ((2)P) [M. Leino, A. Viel, and R. E. Zillich, J. Chem. Phys...
  19. Sackin H, Nanazashvili M, Li H, Palmer L, Walters D. A conserved arginine near the filter of Kir1.1 controls Rb/K selectivity. Channels (Austin). 2010;4:203-14 pubmed
    ..1b causing a subtle change in the selectivity filter, perhaps by disruption of an intra-subunit salt bridge (R128-E118) near the filter...
  20. Wilkins E, Smith S, Roberts J, Benedict M. Rubidium marking of Anopheles mosquitoes detectable by field-capable X-ray spectrometry. Med Vet Entomol. 2007;21:196-203 pubmed
    ..stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles stephensi Liston larvae were cultured to pupation in water containing rubidium (Rb) Cl at concentrations up to 1000 p.p.m. Rb...
  21. Ruset I, Ketel S, Hersman F. Optical pumping system design for large production of hyperpolarized. Phys Rev Lett. 2006;96:053002 pubmed
    ..3 l/h Xe flow rate, and maximum magnetization output of 6 l/h at 22% polarization. Our findings regarding the polarization dependence on temperature, nitrogen partial pressure, and gas mixture flow velocity are also reported...
  22. Shi N, Ye S, Alam A, Chen L, Jiang Y. Atomic structure of a Na+- and K+-conducting channel. Nature. 2006;440:570-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the sequence of the NaK selectivity filter resembles that of a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel and its structure may represent that of a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel pore...
  23. Mart nez Cordero M, Mart nez V, Rubio F. Cloning and functional characterization of the high-affinity K+ transporter HAK1 of pepper. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;56:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 1.9 microM, respectively. Rb+ uptake was competitively inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NH and Cs+, and by millimolar concentrations of Na+...
  24. Ding S, Horn R. Tail end of the s6 segment: role in permeation in shaker potassium channels. J Gen Physiol. 2002;120:87-97 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that S6(T) residues have an influence on the conformation of the open activation gate, reflected in both the stability of the open state and the energy barriers it presents to ions...
  25. Zhou Y, MacKinnon R. The occupancy of ions in the K+ selectivity filter: charge balance and coupling of ion binding to a protein conformational change underlie high conduction rates. J Mol Biol. 2003;333:965-75 pubmed
    ..We conclude that electrostatic balance and coupling of ion binding to a protein conformational change underlie high conduction rates in the setting of high selectivity...
  26. Patz S, HERSMAN F, Muradian I, Hrovat M, Ruset I, Ketel S, et al. Hyperpolarized (129)Xe MRI: a viable functional lung imaging modality?. Eur J Radiol. 2007;64:335-44 pubmed
    ..We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output...
  27. Terstappen G. Functional analysis of native and recombinant ion channels using a high-capacity nonradioactive rubidium efflux assay. Anal Biochem. 1999;272:149-55 pubmed
    A nonradioactive cell-based rubidium (Rb(+)) efflux assay for functional analysis of native and recombinant ion channels has been developed...
  28. Perozo E, Cortes D, Cuello L. Structural rearrangements underlying K+-channel activation gating. Science. 1999;285:73-8 pubmed
    ..Although the extracellular residues flanking the selectivity filter remained immobile during gating, small movements were detected at the C-terminal end of the pore helix, with possible implications to the gating mechanism...
  29. Quintero F, Blatt M. A new family of K+ transporters from Arabidopsis that are conserved across phyla. FEBS Lett. 1997;415:206-11 pubmed
    ..These and additional results suggest that AtKT1 and AtKT2 belong to a superfamily of cation transporters that have been conserved through evolution...
  30. Lauf P, Adragna N. A thermodynamic study of electroneutral K-Cl cotransport in pH- and volume-clamped low K sheep erythrocytes with normal and low internal magnesium. J Gen Physiol. 1996;108:341-50 pubmed
    ..Thus, basal as well as low internal Mg-stimulated net K-Cl cotransport depends on the electrochemical potential gradient of KCl...
  31. Crider J, Yorio T, Sharif N, Griffin B. The effects of elevated glucose on Na+/K(+)-ATPase of cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells measured by a new nonradioactive rubidium uptake assay. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1997;13:337-52 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study suggest that hyperglycemia-induced loss of Na+/K(+)-ATPase function in RPE cells, which responds to aldose reductase inhibitor treatment, contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy...
  32. Gillen C, Brill S, Payne J, Forbush B. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the K-Cl cotransporter from rabbit, rat, and human. A new member of the cation-chloride cotransporter family. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:16237-44 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the KCC1 cDNAs encode a widely expressed K-Cl cotransporter with the characteristics of the K-Cl transporter that has been characterized in red cells...
  33. Shah N, Unlü T, Wegener H, Halling H, Zilles K, Appelt S. Measurement of rubidium and xenon absolute polarization at high temperatures as a means of improved production of hyperpolarized (129)Xe. NMR Biomed. 2000;13:214-9 pubmed
    We report on a rubidium-xenon (Rb-Xe) polarization unit for the continuous production of large quantities of hyperpolarized (129)Xe...
  34. Perez Cornejo P, Begenisich T. The multi-ion nature of the pore in Shaker K+ channels. Biophys J. 1994;66:1929-38 pubmed
    ..91; this increased to 1.3 at 40 mM Cs+. We show that a 4-barrier, 3-site permeation model can simulate these and many of the other known properties of ion permeation in Shaker channels...
  35. Flatman P, Creanor J. Regulation of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport by protein phosphorylation in ferret erythrocytes. J Physiol. 1999;517 ( Pt 3):699-708 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of the phosphatase is probably regulated by members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases...
  36. Kinclová O, Potier S, Sychrova H. The Candida albicans Na(+)/H(+) antiporter exports potassium and rubidium. FEBS Lett. 2001;504:11-5 pubmed
    ..A.36) but it transports besides toxic sodium and lithium also rubidium and potassium...
  37. Inagaki N, Gonoi T, Clement J, Namba N, Inazawa J, Gonzalez G, et al. Reconstitution of IKATP: an inward rectifier subunit plus the sulfonylurea receptor. Science. 1995;270:1166-70 pubmed
    ..Gene mapping data show that these two potassium channel subunit genes are clustered on human chromosome 11 at position 11p15.1...
  38. Nichols C, Shyng S, Nestorowicz A, Glaser B, Clement J, Gonzalez G, et al. Adenosine diphosphate as an intracellular regulator of insulin secretion. Science. 1996;272:1785-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, by binding to SUR NBF2 and antagonizing ATP inhibition of KATP++ channels, intracellular MgADP may regulate insulin secretion...
  39. Brooks D, Beaney R, Lammertsma A, Leenders K, Horlock P, Kensett M, et al. Quantitative measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability using rubidium-82 and positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1984;4:535-45 pubmed
  40. Polvani C, Blostein R. Protons as substitutes for sodium and potassium in the sodium pump reaction. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:16757-63 pubmed
    ..8. These ATP-dependent cardiac glycoside-sensitive proton movements indicate Na,K-ATPase mediated Na+/H+ exchange in the absence of extracellular K+ as well as H+/K+ exchange in the absence of cytoplasmic Na+...
  41. Quintero J, Molina R, Fournier J, Benlloch M, Ramos J. Glucose-induced activation of rubidium transport and water flux in sunflower root systems. J Exp Bot. 2001;52:99-104 pubmed
    ..cv. Sun-Gro 393) were used to study the effect of different sugars on rubidium and water fluxes...
  42. Kim E, Kwak J, Uozumi N, Schroeder J. AtKUP1: an Arabidopsis gene encoding high-affinity potassium transport activity. Plant Cell. 1998;10:51-62 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that plants contain multiple potassium transporters for high-affinity uptake and that the AtKUP family may provide important components of high- and low-affinity K+ nutrition and uptake into various plant cell types...
  43. Doyle D, Morais Cabral J, Pfuetzner R, Kuo A, Gulbis J, Cohen S, et al. The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity. Science. 1998;280:69-77 pubmed
    ..The architecture of the pore establishes the physical principles underlying selective K+ conduction...
  44. Yool A, Schwarz T. Alteration of ionic selectivity of a K+ channel by mutation of the H5 region. Nature. 1991;349:700-4 pubmed
    ..The mutations that substantially altered selectivity had little effect on the gating properties of the channel. We conclude that the H5 region is likely to line the pore of the K+ channel...
  45. Aqvist J, Luzhkov V. Ion permeation mechanism of the potassium channel. Nature. 2000;404:881-4 pubmed
    ..Other putative permeation pathways can be excluded because they would involve states that are too high in energy...
  46. Morais Cabral J, Zhou Y, MacKinnon R. Energetic optimization of ion conduction rate by the K+ selectivity filter. Nature. 2001;414:37-42 pubmed
    ..The energetic balance between these configurations is a clear example of evolutionary optimization of protein function...
  47. Pusch M, Bertorello L, Conti F. Gating and flickery block differentially affected by rubidium in homomeric KCNQ1 and heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 potassium channels. Biophys J. 2000;78:211-26 pubmed
    ..using the two-electrode voltage-clamp and the patch-clamp technique and high extracellular potassium (K) and rubidium (Rb) solutions...
  48. Thompson J, Begenisich T. Interaction between quaternary ammonium ions in the pore of potassium channels. Evidence against an electrostatic repulsion mechanism. J Gen Physiol. 2000;115:769-82 pubmed
    ..We found that these results can be simulated by a simple 4-barrier-3-site permeation model in which ions compete for available binding sites without long-range electrostatic interactions...
  49. Gill S, Gill R, Liang S. Validation of a Rb+ uptake assay for the mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes Na+, K+ ATPase. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2010;8:114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results on its pharmacology with digitoxin and ouabain, the 2 well-known cardioglycosides, imply that these cardiomyocytes can be used as a predictive model for the identification of modulators of Na+, K+ ATPase in HTS format...
  50. Sardesai N, Barron J, Rusling J. Carbon nanotube microwell array for sensitive electrochemiluminescent detection of cancer biomarker proteins. Anal Chem. 2011;83:6698-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Array determinations of PSA and IL-6 in patient serum were well-correlated with single-protein ELISAs. These microwell SWCNT immunoarrays provide a simple, sensitive approach to the detection of two or more proteins...
  51. Canavese C, Decostanzi E, Bergamo D, Sabbioni E, Stratta P. Rubidium, salami and depression. You cannot have everything in life. Blood Purif. 2008;26:311-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Depression may induce malnutrition, but, as a paradoxical hypothesis, malnutrition may induce depression. This relationship, of course, depends on how we define malnutrition...
  52. Rose E, Koo J, Antflick J, Ahmed S, Angers S, Hampson D. Glutamate transporter coupling to Na,K-ATPase. J Neurosci. 2009;29:8143-55 pubmed publisher
    ..of glutamate transporter and Na,K-ATPase activities was assessed using [(3)H]D-aspartate, [(3)H]L-glutamate, and rubidium-86 uptake into synaptosomes and cultured astrocytes...
  53. Cesare Marincola F, Denisov V, Halle B. Competitive Na(+) and Rb(+) binding in the minor groove of DNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:6739-50 pubmed
    ..At 4 degrees C, the mean residence time of groove-bound ions is 0.2 +/- 0.1 micros for Rb(+) and 10 ns to 100 micros for Na(+). A shorter correlation time of 2 ns is attributed to counterions bridging cross-strand phosphate groups...