cystine

Summary

Summary: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.

Top Publications

  1. Conrad M, Sato H. The oxidative stress-inducible cystine/glutamate antiporter, system x (c) (-) : cystine supplier and beyond. Amino Acids. 2012;42:231-46 pubmed publisher
    The oxidative stress-inducible cystine/glutamate exchange system, system x (c) (-) , transports one molecule of cystine, the oxidized form of ..
  2. Gowd K, Yarotskyy V, Elmslie K, Skalicky J, Olivera B, Bulaj G. Site-specific effects of diselenide bridges on the oxidative folding of a cystine knot peptide, omega-selenoconotoxin GVIA. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2741-52 pubmed publisher
    ..group of peptides derived from animals and plants contains the Cys pattern C-C-CC-C-C that forms the inhibitory cystine knot (ICK) or knottin motif...
  3. Sinha Hikim I, Shen R, Paul Lee W, Crum A, Vaziri N, Norris K. Effects of a novel cystine-based glutathione precursor on oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of three glutathione (GSH) precursors: N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), cystine as the physiological carrier of cysteine in GSH with added selenomethionine (F1), and NAC fortified with ..
  4. Pampliega O, Domercq M, Soria F, Villoslada P, Rodríguez Antigüedad A, Matute C. Increased expression of cystine/glutamate antiporter in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:63 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to glutamate transporters, levels of extracellular glutamate are controlled by cystine/glutamate antiporter x(c)?, an exchanger that provides intracellular cystine for production of glutathione, the ..
  5. Kau K, Madayag A, Mantsch J, Grier M, Abdulhameed O, Baker D. Blunted cystine-glutamate antiporter function in the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine-induced drug seeking. Neuroscience. 2008;155:530-7 pubmed publisher
    Repeated cocaine alters glutamate neurotransmission, in part, by reducing cystine-glutamate exchange via system xc-, which maintains glutamate levels and receptor stimulation in the extrasynaptic compartment...
  6. Lo R, Turner M, Barry D, Sreekumar R, Walsh T, Giffard P. Cystathionine gamma-lyase is a component of cystine-mediated oxidative defense in Lactobacillus reuteri BR11. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1827-37 pubmed publisher
    Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 possesses a novel mechanism of oxidative defense involving an abundant cystine ABC transporter encoded by the cyuABC gene cluster...
  7. Kocabora M, Ozbilen K, Altunsoy M, Ahishali B, Taskapili M. Clinicopathological features of ocular cystinosis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;36:778-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Transmission electron microscopy of the conjunctiva demonstrated pathognomonic intralysosomal cystine crystals inside fibroblasts and macrophages...
  8. Atkins H, Geier M, Prisciandaro L, Pattanaik A, Forder R, Turner M, et al. Effects of a Lactobacillus reuteri BR11 mutant deficient in the cystine-transport system in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reuteri BR11 (BR11) has recently been reported to reduce the severity of experimental IBD because of its probiotic properties possibly attributed to a mechanism of thiol production via its unique cysteine/cystine-transport system.
  9. Shukla K, Thomas A, Ferraris D, Hin N, Sattler R, Alt J, et al. Inhibition of xc? transporter-mediated cystine uptake by sulfasalazine analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:6184-7 pubmed publisher
    A series of sulfasalazine analogs were synthesized and tested for their ability to block cystine-glutamate antiporter system xc? using L-[(14)C]cystine as a substrate...

More Information

Publications62

  1. D Elia M, Patenaude J, Dupras C, Bernier J. Burn injury induces the expression of cystine/glutamate transporter (x(c)(-)) in mouse T cells. Immunol Lett. 2009;125:137-44 pubmed publisher
    System x(c)(-) transporter, formed by the association of CD98 and xCT proteins, regulates the import of cystine into cells and is poorly expressed in T lymphocytes...
  2. Langman C, Greenbaum L, Sarwal M, Grimm P, Niaudet P, Deschenes G, et al. A randomized controlled crossover trial with delayed-release cysteamine bitartrate in nephropathic cystinosis: effectiveness on white blood cell cystine levels and comparison of safety. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:1112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Cystagon efficacy requires strict lifelong dosing every 6 hours. Such a dosing schedule and Cystagon-associated side effects are often cited by patients as reasons for nonadherence...
  3. Ruggera L, Zanin M, Beltrami P, Zattoni F. Retrograde transureteral approach: a safe and efficient treatment for recurrent cystine renal stones. Urol Res. 2011;39:411-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we report our experience using ureterorenoscopy (URS) for the treatment of recurrent renal cystine stones...
  4. Takagi Y, Kurihara S, Higashi N, Morikawa S, Kase T, Maeda A, et al. Combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances immune functions and protects against influenza virus infection in aged mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:157-65 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have reported that combined administration of (L)-cystine and (L)-theanine enhances antigen-specific IgG production, partly through augmentation of GSH levels and T helper ..
  5. Iyer S, Ramirez A, Ritzenthaler J, Torres Gonzalez E, Roser Page S, Mora A, et al. Oxidation of extracellular cysteine/cystine redox state in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Cys and its disulfide, cystine (CySS), constitute the most abundant low-molecular weight thiol/disulfide redox couple in the plasma, and the Cys/..
  6. Tavares R, Coelho D, Macário M, Torres A, Quadrado M, Murta J. Evaluation of treatment with cysteamine eyedrops for cystinosis with confocal microscopy. Cornea. 2009;28:938-40 pubmed publisher
    ..1136% (new formulation, now stable at room temperature without the need for refrigeration for up to 2 months) for the treatment of cystine crystals in the cornea using slit lamp biomicroscopy and confocal microscopy.
  7. Jones D, Liang Y. Measuring the poise of thiol/disulfide couples in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;47:1329-38 pubmed publisher
    The reduction potentials (E(h)) for the redox couples GSH/GSSG and cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) in plasma are useful indicators of systemic oxidative stress and other medically relevant physiological states...
  8. Lo M, Ling V, Wang Y, Gout P. The xc- cystine/glutamate antiporter: a mediator of pancreatic cancer growth with a role in drug resistance. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:464-72 pubmed publisher
    The x(c)(-) cystine transporter enhances biosynthesis of glutathione, a tripeptide thiol important in drug resistance and cellular defense against oxidative stress, by enabling cellular uptake of cystine, a rate-limiting precursor...
  9. Go Y, Park H, Koval M, Orr M, Reed M, Liang Y, et al. A key role for mitochondria in endothelial signaling by plasma cysteine/cystine redox potential. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:275-83 pubmed publisher
    The redox potential of the plasma cysteine/cystine couple (E(h)CySS) is oxidized in association with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), including age, smoking, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and alcohol abuse...
  10. Kimura R, Levin A, Cochran F, Cochran J. Engineered cystine knot peptides that bind alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, and alpha5beta1 integrins with low-nanomolar affinity. Proteins. 2009;77:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data validate EETI-II as a scaffold for protein engineering, and highlight the development of unique integrin-binding peptides with potential for translational applications in cancer...
  11. Seib T, Patel S, Bridges R. Regulation of the system x(C)- cystine/glutamate exchanger by intracellular glutathione levels in rat astrocyte primary cultures. Glia. 2011;59:1387-401 pubmed publisher
    The system x(C)- (Sx(C)-) transporter functions to mediate the exchange of extracellular cystine (L-Cys(2)) and intracellular glutamate (L-Glu)...
  12. Go Y, Jones D. Cysteine/cystine redox signaling in cardiovascular disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:495-509 pubmed publisher
    ..The major thiol/disulfide redox couple in human plasma is cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide form, cystine (CySS)...
  13. Ralph D, Robinson S, Campbell M, Bishop G. Histidine, cystine, glutamine, and threonine collectively protect astrocytes from the toxicity of zinc. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:649-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes were accompanied by extensive cell death. Four amino acids (200 microM L-histidine, 201 microM L-cystine, 4mM L-glutamine, 798 microM L-threonine), which are a subset of the 15 present in Dulbecco's modified Eagle ..
  14. Simpson J, Nien C, Flynn K, Jester B, Cherqui S, JESTER J. Quantitative in vivo and ex vivo confocal microscopy analysis of corneal cystine crystals in the Ctns knockout mouse. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2212-20 pubmed
  15. Uno K, Takarada T, Nakamura Y, Fujita H, Hinoi E, Yoneda Y. A negative correlation between expression profiles of runt-related transcription factor-2 and cystine/glutamate antiporter xCT subunit in ovariectomized mouse bone. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;115:309-19 pubmed
    ..associated with the depletion of intracellular GSH after promoting the retrograde operation of the bidirectional cystine/Glu antiporter in undifferentiated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells...
  16. Pham A, Blower P, Alvarado O, Ravula R, Gout P, Huang Y. Pharmacogenomic approach reveals a role for the x(c)- cystine/glutamate antiporter in growth and celastrol resistance of glioma cell lines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:949-58 pubmed publisher
    The x(c)(-) cystine/glutamate antiporter has been implicated in GSH-based chemoresistance because it mediates cellular uptake of cystine/cysteine for sustenance of intracellular GSH levels...
  17. Olm E, Fernandes A, Hebert C, Rundlöf A, Larsen E, Danielsson O, et al. Extracellular thiol-assisted selenium uptake dependent on the x(c)- cystine transporter explains the cancer-specific cytotoxicity of selenite. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11400-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracellular reduction is mediated by cysteine, and the efficacy is determined by the uptake of cystine by the x(c)(-) antiporter and secretion of cysteine by multidrug resistance proteins, both of which are ..
  18. Iglesias D, El Kares R, Taranta A, Bellomo F, Emma F, Besouw M, et al. Stem cell microvesicles transfer cystinosin to human cystinotic cells and reduce cystine accumulation in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42840 pubmed publisher
    Cystinosis is a rare disease caused by homozygous mutations of the CTNS gene, encoding a cystine efflux channel in the lysosomal membrane...
  19. Sikora M, Cieplak M. Cystine plug and other novel mechanisms of large mechanical stability in dimeric proteins. Phys Rev Lett. 2012;109:208101 pubmed
    ..They come with distinct mechanical clamps: either shear-based, or involving a cystine slipknot, or due to dragging of a cystine plug through a cystine ring...
  20. Lewerenz J, Hewett S, Huang Y, Lambros M, Gout P, Kalivas P, et al. The cystine/glutamate antiporter system x(c)(-) in health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to novel therapeutic opportunities. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:522-55 pubmed publisher
    The antiporter system x(c)(-) imports the amino acid cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells with a 1:1 counter-transport of glutamate...
  21. Bridges R, Lutgen V, Lobner D, Baker D. Thinking outside the cleft to understand synaptic activity: contribution of the cystine-glutamate antiporter (System xc-) to normal and pathological glutamatergic signaling. Pharmacol Rev. 2012;64:780-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Also called a cystine-glutamate antiporter, system x(c)(-) typically functions by exchanging one molecule of extracellular cystine for ..
  22. Srivastava M, Sinha P, Clements V, Rodriguez P, Ostrand Rosenberg S. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit T-cell activation by depleting cystine and cysteine. Cancer Res. 2010;70:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that MDSCs also block T-cell activation by sequestering cystine and limiting the availability of cysteine...
  23. Jones D, Park Y, Gletsu Miller N, Liang Y, Yu T, Accardi C, et al. Dietary sulfur amino acid effects on fasting plasma cysteine/cystine redox potential in humans. Nutrition. 2011;27:199-205 pubmed publisher
    Oxidation of plasma cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) redox potential (E(h)CySS) has been associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in humans...
  24. Savaskan N, Seufert S, Hauke J, Tränkle C, Eyupoglu I, Hahnen E. Dissection of mitogenic and neurodegenerative actions of cystine and glutamate in malignant gliomas. Oncogene. 2011;30:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..release glutamate through the amino-acid antiporter system X(c)(-), a process that is mechanistically linked with cystine incorporation...
  25. Kakazu E, Ueno Y, Kondo Y, Inoue J, Ninomiya M, Kimura O, et al. Plasma L-cystine/L-glutamate imbalance increases tumor necrosis factor-alpha from CD14+ circulating monocytes in patients with advanced cirrhosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23402 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies reported that antigen-presenting cells take up L-Cystine (L-Cys) and secrete substantial amounts of L-Glutamate (L-Glu) via the transport system Xc- (4F2hc+xCT), and that ..
  26. Lothrop A, Ruggles E, Hondal R. No selenium required: reactions catalyzed by mammalian thioredoxin reductase that are independent of a selenocysteine residue. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..7 in the full-length mammalian enzyme (83-142 nM), but surprisingly the truncated enzyme showed much stronger inhibition (25 nM). This contrasts with auranofin, where the absence of Sec more strongly perturbed inhibition...
  27. Bridges R, Natale N, Patel S. System xc? cystine/glutamate antiporter: an update on molecular pharmacology and roles within the CNS. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:20-34 pubmed publisher
    System x(c)(-) is an amino acid antiporter that typically mediates the exchange of extracellular l-cystine and intracellular L-glutamate across the cellular plasma membrane...
  28. Johnson J, Strobel F, Reed M, Pohl J, Jones D. A rapid LC-FTMS method for the analysis of cysteine, cystine and cysteine/cystine steady-state redox potential in human plasma. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;396:43-8 pubmed publisher
    The steady-state redox potential of the cysteine/cystine couple in human plasma provides a measure of oxidative stress, yet available assays are limited by either specificity or speed of assay.
  29. Conibear A, Rosengren K, Daly N, Henriques S, Craik D. The cyclic cystine ladder in ?-defensins is important for structure and stability, but not antibacterial activity. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10830-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The cyclic cystine ladder motif, comprising a cyclic peptide backbone and three parallel disulfide bonds, is characteristic of ?-..
  30. Reinwarth M, Glotzbach B, Tomaszowski M, Fabritz S, Avrutina O, Kolmar H. Oxidative folding of peptides with cystine-knot architectures: kinetic studies and optimization of folding conditions. Chembiochem. 2013;14:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, cystine-knot peptides-commonly named "knottins"-make up a subclass with several thousand natural members...
  31. Onal B, Dogan C, Citgez S, Argun B, Onder A, Sever L, et al. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children with cystine stone: long-term outcomes from a single institution. J Urol. 2013;190:234-7 pubmed publisher
    We determined the effectiveness of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children with cystine stones and present the long-term outcomes.
  32. Bellia F, Pietropaolo A, Grasso G. Formation of insulin fragments by insulin-degrading enzyme: the role of zinc(II) and cystine bridges. J Mass Spectrom. 2013;48:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, the role of zinc(II) and cystine bridges in the degradation of insulin by IDE are investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass ..
  33. Pepłowski L, Sikora M, Nowak W, Cieplak M. Molecular jamming--the cystine slipknot mechanical clamp in all-atom simulations. J Chem Phys. 2011;134:085102 pubmed publisher
    ..Such high force peaks should be due to forcing of a slip-loop through a cystine ring, i.e., by generating a cystine slipknot. The survey has been performed in a simple coarse grained model...
  34. Rimer J, An Z, Zhu Z, Lee M, Goldfarb D, Wesson J, et al. Crystal growth inhibitors for the prevention of L-cystine kidney stones through molecular design. Science. 2010;330:337-341 pubmed publisher
    Crystallization of L-cystine is a critical step in the pathogenesis of cystine kidney stones. Treatments for this disease are somewhat effective but often lead to adverse side effects...
  35. Li X, Chen Z, Gao Y, Yan Y, Zhang F, Meng F, et al. Generation of the oxidized form protects human brain type creatine kinase against cystine-induced inactivation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2011;48:239-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystine accumulation in cystinotic patients has been reported to inhibit brain type creatine kinase (BBCK), an important thiol-containing enzyme in energy homeostasis...
  36. Barry C, Key T, Haddad R, Duncan R. Features of a spatially constrained cystine loop in the p10 FAST protein ectodomain define a new class of viral fusion peptides. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..conserved cysteine residues flanking the p10 HP form an essential intramolecular disulfide bond to create a cystine loop...
  37. Zhou P, Wu Y, Wei D, Li Q, Wang G, Zhang J, et al. Mouse cumulus-denuded oocytes restore developmental capacity completely when matured with optimal supplementation of cysteamine, cystine, and cumulus cells. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:759-68 pubmed publisher
    Our objectives were to study how cysteamine, cystine, and cumulus cells (CCs), as well as oocytes interact to increase oocyte intracellular glutathione (GSH) and thereby to establish an efficient in vitro maturation system for cumulus-..
  38. D Angelo J, Dehlink E, Platzer B, Dwyer P, Circu M, Garay J, et al. The cystine/glutamate antiporter regulates dendritic cell differentiation and antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2010;185:3217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutathione synthesis depends on the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which transports the rate-limiting precursor cystine into the cell in exchange for ..
  39. Iyer S, Acharya K. Tying the knot: the cystine signature and molecular-recognition processes of the vascular endothelial growth factor family of angiogenic cytokines. FEBS J. 2011;278:4304-22 pubmed publisher
    The cystine-knot motif, made up of three intertwined disulfide bridges, is a unique feature of several toxins, cyclotides and growth factors, and occurs in a variety of species, including fungi, insects, molluscs and mammals...
  40. Zhang W, Trachootham D, Liu J, Chen G, Pelicano H, Garcia Prieto C, et al. Stromal control of cystine metabolism promotes cancer cell survival in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:276-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary CLL cells from patients exhibit a limited ability to transport cystine for glutathione (GSH) synthesis owing to a low expression level of Xc-transporter...
  41. Kawada S, Kobayashi K, Ohtani M, Fukusaki C. Cystine and theanine supplementation restores high-intensity resistance exercise-induced attenuation of natural killer cell activity in well-trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:846-51 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the effects of supplementation with cystine, a dipeptide of cysteine, and theanine (CT), a precursor of glutamate, on immune variables during high-intensity resistance exercise...
  42. Elshorbagy A, Church C, Valdivia Garcia M, Smith A, Refsum H, Cox R. Dietary cystine level affects metabolic rate and glycaemic control in adult mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:332-40 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the body composition, metabolic rate and metabolic phenotype of mature C3H/HeH mice assigned to low-cystine (LC) or high-cystine (HC) diets for 12 weeks. Compared to LC mice, HC mice gained more weight (P=...
  43. Guan J, Lo M, Dockery P, Mahon S, Karp C, Buckley A, et al. The xc- cystine/glutamate antiporter as a potential therapeutic target for small-cell lung cancer: use of sulfasalazine. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64:463-72 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the xc- cystine transporter could be a useful therapeutic target for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  44. Miyagawa K, Hayashi Y, Kurihara S, Maeda A. Co-administration of l-cystine and l-theanine enhances efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly persons: nutritional status-dependent immunogenicity. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2008;8:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental studies demonstrate that co-administration of l-cystine and l-theanine enhanced antigen-specific production of immunoglobulin in aged mice infected with influenza virus...
  45. Park Y, Ziegler T, Gletsu Miller N, Liang Y, Yu T, Accardi C, et al. Postprandial cysteine/cystine redox potential in human plasma varies with meal content of sulfur amino acids. J Nutr. 2010;140:760-5 pubmed publisher
    ..study, we had 2 aims: to determine whether the SAA content of a meal affected postprandial plasma cysteine (Cys), cystine (CySS), or redox potential (E(h)CySS) in humans and whether SAA intake level (adequate or inadequate) in the days ..
  46. Whillier S, Raftos J, Chapman B, Kuchel P. Role of N-acetylcysteine and cystine in glutathione synthesis in human erythrocytes. Redox Rep. 2009;14:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Almost all plasma cysteine exists as cystine, its oxidized form. In vitro, extracellular cystine at 1...
  47. Iyer S, Jones D, Brigham K, Rojas M. Oxidation of plasma cysteine/cystine redox state in endotoxin-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;40:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Cysteine (Cys) and its disulfide Cystine (CySS) constitute the most abundant, low-molecular-weight thiol/disulfide redox couple in the plasma, and Cys ..
  48. Labbe A, Niaudet P, Loirat C, Charbit M, Guest G, Baudouin C. In vivo confocal microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography analysis of the cornea in nephropathic cystinosis. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:870-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the corneas of patients with nephropathic cystinosis using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)...
  49. Li H, Bowling J, Fronczek F, Hong J, Jabba S, Murray T, et al. Asteropsin A: an unusual cystine-crosslinked peptide from porifera enhances neuronal Ca2+ influx. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:2591-9 pubmed
    Herein we report the discovery of a cystine-crosslinked peptide from Porifera along with high-quality spatial details accompanied by the description of its unique effect on neuronal calcium influx.
  50. Soutourina O, Poupel O, Coppee J, Danchin A, Msadek T, Martin Verstraete I. CymR, the master regulator of cysteine metabolism in Staphylococcus aureus, controls host sulphur source utilization and plays a role in biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:194-211 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SA1850 is a new thiosulphate transporter and that TcyP and TcyABC are l-cystine transporters. CymR directly controls the use of sulphur sources of human origin such as taurine and homocysteine...
  51. Kothari H, Nayak R, Rao L, Pendurthi U. Cystine 186-cystine 209 disulfide bond is not essential for the procoagulant activity of tissue factor or for its de-encryption. Blood. 2010;115:4273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we critically evaluated the importance of cystine 186-cystine 209 (Cys186-Cys209) bond formation for TF procoagulant activity and its de-encryption...
  52. Smith J, Hill J, Little M, Nicholson G, King G, Alewood P. Unique scorpion toxin with a putative ancestral fold provides insight into evolution of the inhibitor cystine knot motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10478-83 pubmed publisher
    The three-disulfide inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif is a fold common to venom peptides from spiders, scorpions, and aquatic cone snails...
  53. Galat A. Common structural traits for cystine knot domain of the TGF? superfamily of proteins and three-fingered ectodomain of their cellular receptors. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:3437-51 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cystine-knot (CK) motif is a spatial feature of the TGF? superfamily of proteins whereas the extra-cellular domains (..