amyl nitrite


Summary: A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.

Top Publications

  1. Greig L, Leslie S, Gibb F, Tan S, Newby D, Webb D. Comparative effects of glyceryl trinitrate and amyl nitrite on pulse wave reflection and augmentation index. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;59:265-70 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two short-acting nitrates, GTN and amyl nitrite, which have differing pharmacodynamic profiles...
  2. Hidaka Y, Ichikawa S, Koyano J, Urao M, Yasuo T, Kimura H, et al. Substance use and sexual behaviours of Japanese men who have sex with men: a nationwide internet survey conducted in Japan. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:239 pubmed
    ..This Internet survey explored the extent of substance use and its association with sexual risk behaviours among Japanese MSM...
  3. Colfax G, Coates T, Husnik M, Huang Y, Buchbinder S, Koblin B, et al. Longitudinal patterns of methamphetamine, popper (amyl nitrite), and cocaine use and high-risk sexual behavior among a cohort of san francisco men who have sex with men. J Urban Health. 2005;82:i62-70 pubmed
    ..quot; HIV prevention interventions should target MSM who report either light or heavy use of methamphetamines, poppers, and sniffed cocaine. ..
  4. Modarai B, Kapadia Y, Kerins M, Terris J. Methylene blue: a treatment for severe methaemoglobinaemia secondary to misuse of amyl nitrite. Emerg Med J. 2002;19:270-1 pubmed
  5. Nelesen R, Shaw R, Ziegler M, Dimsdale J. Impedance cardiography-derived hemodynamic responses during baroreceptor testing with amyl nitrite and phenylephrine: a validity and reliability study. Psychophysiology. 1999;36:105-8 pubmed
    Baroreflex (BR) testing with phenylephrine (PE) and amyl nitrite (AN) provided an opportunity to evaluate the ability of impedance cardiography (IC) to track the rapid hemodynamic (HD) changes elicited by these drugs...
  6. Klimmek R, Krettek C, Werner H. Ferrihaemoglobin formation by amyl nitrite and sodium nitrite in different species in vivo and in vitro. Arch Toxicol. 1988;62:152-60 pubmed
    The ferrihaemoglobin (HbFe3+) formation by amyl nitrite (AN) or sodium nitrite (NaNO2) was studied in different species including man, in vivo and in vitro. In in vivo studies AN was administered intravenously (i.v.), intramuscularly (i.m...
  7. Krilis M, Thompson J, Atik A, Lusthaus J, Jankelowitz S. 'Popper'-induced vision loss. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2013;32:333-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Amyl nitrite 'poppers' are recreational drugs, which are a potent source of nitric oxide. The use of 'poppers' can cause psychoactive stimulation, reduced blood pressure, tachycardia and involuntary muscle relaxation...
  8. Suzuki J, Sakamoto T, Hada Y, Amano K, Takahashi H, Hasegawa I, et al. [Phonocardiographic and two-dimensional and pulsed Doppler echocardiographic studies of Still's murmurs]. J Cardiol. 1988;18:415-23 pubmed
    ..After the inhalation of amyl nitrite, Still's murmur was accentuated by 5.3 +/- 3...
  9. Audo I, El Sanharawi M, Vignal Clermont C, Villa A, Morin A, Conrath J, et al. Foveal damage in habitual poppers users. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129:703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated inhalation of poppers may be associated with prolonged bilateral vision loss due to the disruption of foveal cone outer segments. Retinal damage may progressively improve following drug discontinuation. ..

More Information


  1. Kikura Hanajiri R, Uchiyama N, Kawamura M, Ogata J, Goda Y. [Prevalence of new designer drugs and their legal status in Japan]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2013;133:31-40 pubmed
    ..Also, the prevalence and legal status of these substances in other countries will be presented. ..
  2. Sprague M, Garland E, Mollner A, Bloss C, Bean B, Weichman M, et al. Kinetics of n-butoxy and 2-pentoxy isomerization and detection of primary products by infrared cavity ringdown spectroscopy. J Phys Chem A. 2012;116:6327-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that reactions typically neglected in the analysis of alkoxy relative kinetics (decomposition, recombination with NO, and prompt isomerization) may need to be included to obtain accurate values of k(isom)/k(O(2)). ..
  3. Ramanathan V, Reigle T, Muralidhara S, Dallas C. Effects of acute inhalation exposure to isoamyl nitrite on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in male Sprague-Dawley rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998;55:345-58 pubmed
  4. Dax E, Adler W, Nagel J, Lange W, Jaffe J. Amyl nitrite alters human in vitro immune function. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1991;13:577-87 pubmed
    ..Cell proliferation following cell activation by PHA, ConA and PWM was unaffected by amyl nitrite inhalation...
  5. Pece A, Patelli F, Milani P, Pierro L. Transient visual loss after amyl Isobutyl nitrite abuse. Semin Ophthalmol. 2004;19:105-6 pubmed
    ..A progressive recovery was noted and at one month's follow-up VA was 20/25 in OU with very faint yellowish-white spots. The inhalation of drugs as "popper" may cause a visual loss by unclear mechanisms. ..
  6. Tack J, Demedts I, Dehondt G, Caenepeel P, Fischler B, Zandecki M, et al. Clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of acute-onset functional dyspepsia. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1738-47 pubmed
    ..Sumatriptan relaxed the stomach in controls and patients with UD but not in patients with presumed PD, whereas amyl nitrite relaxed the stomach in all subjects...
  7. Anselmino M, Orzan F, Bobbio M, Fontana V, Presbitero P, Carini G, et al. [Functional maneuvers for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies with and without left ventricular outflow obstruction]. Cardiologia. 1993;38:297-304 pubmed
    ..and aorta under basal conditions, after a ventricular premature beat, during the Valsalva manoeuvre, during amyl nitrite inhalation, and isoproterenol administration. the Valsalva manoeuvre increases significantly (p < 0...
  8. Uppu R, Pryor W. Synthesis of peroxynitrite in a two-phase system using isoamyl nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. Anal Biochem. 1996;236:242-9 pubmed
    ..7 % per day and should be used within 2-4 weeks. For short-term storage of about 1 week or less, these solutions can be stored at refrigerator temperatures (approximately 5 degrees C) where peroxynitrite has a half-life of about 7 days. ..
  9. Aagaard N. [Amyl nitrite poisoning]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1998;160:3740-1 pubmed
    ..Within one hour the condition of both patients had improved dramatically, and blood gas-samples had normalised. In cases of cyanosis with no obvious genesis, poisoning with amylnitrite should be considered. ..
  10. Sarvesvaran E, Fysh R, Bowen D. Amyl nitrite related deaths. Med Sci Law. 1992;32:267-9 pubmed
    Two cases of death associated with amyl nitrite are discussed. An attempt is made to highlight its noxious properties and the difficulty in attributing death to it when inhaled.
  11. Seage G, Mayer K, Horsburgh C, Holmberg S, Moon M, Lamb G. The relation between nitrite inhalants, unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135:1-11 pubmed
    ..0, 95% CI 2.5-32.1) used them. These findings have preventive public health implications and may add insight into our understanding of the mechanism by which HIV infection spread rapidly among homosexual men in the early 1980s. ..
  12. Mullens A, Young R, Dunne M, Norton G. The Amyl Nitrite Expectancy Questionnaire for Men who have Sex with Men (AEQ-MSM): a measure of substance-related beliefs. Subst Use Misuse. 2011;46:1642-50 pubmed publisher
    A measure of perceived reinforcement associated with amyl nitrite was developed and evaluated among gay and bisexual men. This is the first known expectancy measure to date for this drug class...
  13. Schaff H, Dearani J, Ommen S, Sorajja P, Nishimura R. Expanding the indications for septal myectomy in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: results of operation in patients with latent obstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;143:303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..symptomatic and had more severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction provoked by Valsalva maneuver or amyl nitrite inhalation during Doppler echocardiography or by stimulation with isoproterenol during catheterization...
  14. Hendricks S, Ross B, Colvard M, Cahill D, Shy K, Benedetti T. Amyl nitrite: use as a smooth muscle relaxant in difficult preterm cesarean section. Am J Perinatol. 1992;9:289-92 pubmed
    b>Amyl nitrite is a smooth muscle relaxant that has been used clinically to facilitate uterine relaxation in difficult deliveries...
  15. Forsyth R, Moulden A. Methaemoglobinaemia after ingestion of amyl nitrite. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66:152 pubmed
    ..The availability of these products, their poor labelling, and their intended presence in domestic bedrooms all serve to increase the hazard they pose to young children. ..
  16. Reszka K, Naghipur A, Lown J. Electron paramagnetic resonance and spin trapping study of radicals formed during reaction of aromatic amines with isoamyl nitrite under aprotic conditions. Free Radic Res Commun. 1990;10:47-56 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms of formation of these adducts (radical trapping versus nucleophilic addition to DMPO followed by oxidation) during treatment of the amines with isoamyl nitrite are discussed. ..
  17. Chalmers E. Volatile substance abuse. Med J Aust. 1991;154:269-74 pubmed
    ..The fact that users are typically young and that there is a real risk of sudden death associated with even initial use suggests that continuing research is needed to develop innovative approaches to the problem. ..
  18. Bauer J, Nolan T, Fung H. Vascular and hemodynamic differences between organic nitrates and nitrites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;280:326-31 pubmed
    ..These results show that organic nitrites and organic nitrates are not pharmacologically identical (in vitro or in vivo), and may suggest a therapeutic advantage for organic nitrites in the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases. ..
  19. Sheikh K, Pearce F, Kisslo J. Use of Doppler echocardiography and amyl nitrite inhalation to characterize left ventricular outflow obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Chest. 1990;97:389-95 pubmed
    ..Doppler echocardiograms combined with amyl nitrite (Amyl) inhalation were performed in 333 consecutive patients referred for suspected HCM to diagnose and ..
  20. Mehrabi H. Synthesis of alpha-oximinoketones under ultrasound irradiation. Ultrason Sonochem. 2008;15:279-82 pubmed
    ..Compared with conventional methods, the main advantages of the present procedure are milder conditions, shorter reaction time and higher yields. ..
  21. Dunkel V, Rogers Back A, Lawlor T, Harbell J, Cameron T. Mutagenicity of some alkyl nitrites used as recreational drugs. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1989;14:115-22 pubmed
    ..One chemical, n-amyl nitrite, was negative in the mouse lymphoma assay, while the other five chemicals, n-butyl, isobutyl, iso-amyl, sec-..
  22. Mego D, Johns J, Rubal B. Pharmacodynamic Doppler determination of mitral valve area in patients with significant aortic regurgitation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1993;6:142-8 pubmed
    ..We performed Doppler echocardiography at baseline and after inhalation of amyl nitrite in 10 patients with combined MS and AR (Group I) and in five patients with MS alone (Group II)...
  23. Rifkin R, Sharma S, Spraragen S, Claunch B, Shackford H, Patton R. Detection of coronary artery disease by vasodilator thallium imaging of the heart with amyl nitrite inhalation: a pilot study. Clin Cardiol. 1991;14:43-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore examined the feasibility of substituting amyl nitrite inhalation as an arteriolar vasodilator prior to thallium imaging...
  24. Hatfield L, Horvath K, Jacoby S, Simon Rosser B. Comparison of substance use and risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of urban, HIV-positive men who have sex with men. J Addict Dis. 2009;28:208-18 pubmed publisher
    ..e., amyl nitrite) (46%) use was reported among white MSM and crack/cocaine (38%) use was highest among African American MSM...
  25. Muehlschlegel J, Lobato E, Kirby D, Arnaoutakis G, Sidi A. Inhaled amyl nitrite effectively reverses acute catastrophic thromboxane-mediated pulmonary hypertension in pigs. Ann Card Anaesth. 2007;10:113-20 pubmed
    ..This pilot study examined the effectiveness of inhaled amyl nitrite as a selective pulmonary vasodilator. Nine adult swine were anaesthetized...
  26. Moody J, Bailey S, Rubal B. Subtle features of the hemodynamic response to amyl nitrite inhalation: new aspects of an old tool. Clin Cardiol. 1993;16:331-8 pubmed
    Although amyl nitrite inhalation (ANI) antedates all current short acting vasodilators as a clinically useful pharmacologic stressor, few clinicians are aware of the subtle hemodynamic actions of this agent...
  27. Sanders D, Kelley T, Larson D. The role of nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide in vascular smooth muscle control. Perfusion. 2000;15:97-104 pubmed
    ..The therapeutics included in this review are nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, amyl nitrite, and inhalation of NO...
  28. Ostrow D, Beltran E, Joseph J, DiFranceisco W, Wesch J, Chmiel J. Recreational drugs and sexual behavior in the Chicago MACS/CCS cohort of homosexually active men. Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)/Coping and Change Study. J Subst Abuse. 1993;5:311-25 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest an association between popper use and high-risk sexual behavior among members of the Chicago MACS/CCS cohort that has relevance to HIV prevention intervention efforts. ..
  29. Donoghue A. Alternative methods of administering amyl nitrite to victims of cyanide poisoning. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:147 pubmed
  30. Kishikawa N, Kondo N, Amponsaa Karikari A, Kodamatani H, Ohyama K, Nakashima K, et al. Rapid determination of isoamyl nitrite in pharmaceutical preparations by flow injection analysis with on-line UV irradiation and luminol chemiluminescence detection. Luminescence. 2014;29:8-12 pubmed publisher
    ..A linear standard curve was obtained up to 1.0 ?M of isoamyl nitrite with a detection limit (blank + 3SD) of 0.03 ?M. The method was successfully applied to determine isoamyl nitrite content in pharmaceutical preparations. ..
  31. Johnson W, Hall A, Rumack B. Cyanide poisoning successfully treated without 'therapeutic methemoglobin levels'. Am J Emerg Med. 1989;7:437-40 pubmed
    ..Because severe hypotension or excessive methemoglobinemia can be caused by the sodium nitrite component of the Lilly kit, only enough to produce an acceptable clinical response should be administered. ..
  32. Bills S, Duncan D. Drugs and sex: 'a survey of college students' beliefs. Percept Mot Skills. 1991;72:1293-4 pubmed
    ..Most of the myths examined were believed by a number of the 71 students surveyed. Users of alcohol (n = 62) and cocaine (n = 22) were more accurate in identifying effects than were nonusers. ..
  33. Nossaman V, Nossaman B, Kadowitz P. Nitrates and nitrites in the treatment of ischemic cardiac disease. Cardiol Rev. 2010;18:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We review what is presently known about the use of nitrates and nitrites including the historical, current, and potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action...
  34. Gocer F, Yaris E, Tuncer M. The action of amyl nitrite and isosorbide dinitrate on the contractility of sphincter of Oddi of guinea-pigs. Gen Pharmacol. 1994;25:995-9 pubmed
    ..2. Sodium nitroprusside, isosorbide dinitrate and amyl nitrite induced dose-dependent relaxations of Oddi's sphincter precontracted by potassium chloride (150 mM)...
  35. Lin C, Fang C, Lee C, Ko P, Chen W. Near-fatal methemoglobinemia after recreational inhalation of amyl nitrite aerosolized with a compressed gas blower. J Formos Med Assoc. 2005;104:856-9 pubmed
    ..We report a rare case of near-fatal methemoglobinemia after inhalation of amyl nitrite after aerosolizing the liquid using a compressed gas blower designed to clean photographic equipment that ..
  36. Uppu R. Synthesis of peroxynitrite using isoamyl nitrite and hydrogen peroxide in a homogeneous solvent system. Anal Biochem. 2006;354:165-8 pubmed
    ..The method as reported is amenable for large scale synthesis as it involves sequential mixing of solvents (water and IPA) to alkali followed by the addition of H2O2 and alkyl nitrite...
  37. Prestage G, Jin F, Kippax S, Zablotska I, Imrie J, Grulich A. Use of illicit drugs and erectile dysfunction medications and subsequent HIV infection among gay men in Sydney, Australia. J Sex Med. 2009;6:2311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..75, CI = 1.31-2.33, P < 0.001), although amyl nitrite was of borderline significance (HR = 1.26, CI = 0.98-1.62, P = 0.074)...
  38. Garcia M, Palac R, Malenka D, Terrell P, Plehn J. Color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity is a relatively preload-independent index of left ventricular filling. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1999;12:129-37 pubmed baseline, during Trendelenburg's position, inverse Trendelenburg's position, and after inhalation of amyl nitrite. LV end-diastolic volume decreased from 111 +/- 41 mL at baseline and 116 +/- 43 mL during Trendelenburg's ..
  39. Lembo N, Dell Italia L, Crawford M, O Rourke R. Bedside diagnosis of systolic murmurs. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:1572-8 pubmed
    ..percent sensitivity, 100 percent specificity), and by a decrease in their intensity during the inhalation of amyl nitrite (80 percent sensitivity, 90 percent specificity)...
  40. Malhotra R, Hughes G. Methaemoglobinaemia presenting with status epilepticus. J Accid Emerg Med. 1996;13:427-30 pubmed
    ..A diagnostic blood methaemoglobin level should be obtained. ..
  41. Lavon O, Bentur Y. Does amyl nitrite have a role in the management of pre-hospital mass casualty cyanide poisoning?. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48:477-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Amyl nitrite has been recommended as a cyanide antidote for several decades. Its antidotal properties were initially attributed to induction of methemoglobin and later to a nitric oxide mediated hemodynamic effect...
  42. Klimmek R, Krettek C. Effects of amyl nitrite on circulation, respiration and blood homoeostasis in cyanide poisoning. Arch Toxicol. 1988;62:161-6 pubmed
    The effects of intravenously (i.v.) administered or inhaled amyl nitrite (AN) were followed under chloralose anaesthesia in intact and cyanide-poisoned, spontaneously breathing beagles. The i.v. doses of AN were 0.03 and 0...
  43. Namera A. [Practical analysis of toxic substances useful for clinical toxicology--13--cyanides]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2005;18:87-90 pubmed
  44. Fledelius H. Irreversible blindness after amyl nitrite inhalation. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999;77:719-21 pubmed of blinding bilateral acute optic nerve disease in a 15-year-old male apparently induced by inhalation of amyl nitrite. Sequentially over four days he lost his four altitudinal visual hemifields, leaving atrophic discs and only 2/..
  45. Graves T, Mitchell S. Acute haemolytic anaemia after inhalation of amyl nitrite. J R Soc Med. 2003;96:594-5 pubmed
  46. Pajarón M, Claver G, Nogué S, Munne P. [Methemoglobinemia secondary to recreational consumption of poppers]. Med Clin (Barc). 2003;121:358 pubmed
  47. Ishimitsu T, Hiranuma Y, Sugishita Y, Ito I. [Is this mitral valve prolapse? A case of mitral regurgitation with early systolic murmur due to early systolic prolapse of the posterior leaflet]. J Cardiol Suppl. 1989;21:97-105, discussion 106-8 pubmed
    ..A characteristic early systolic crescendo murmur was recorded at the apex. By amyl nitrite inhalation, the early systolic murmur was attenuated and a late systolic murmur was evoked...
  48. Mearin F, Vasconez C, Zarate N, Malagelada J. Esophageal tone in patients with total aperistalsis: gastroesophageal reflux disease versus achalasia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000;279:G374-9 pubmed
    ..9 +/- 0.2 cm) (P < 0.05 for GERD vs. achalasia and healthy groups). Our results indicate that diseases that similarly impair phasic esophageal motility may affect esophageal tone differently...
  49. Barrueto F, Long H, Nelson L, Osterhoudt K. A 17-year-old with weakness. Pediatr Case Rev. 2003;3:55-9 pubmed
  50. Wu L, Schlenger W, Ringwalt C. Use of nitrite inhalants ("poppers") among American youth. J Adolesc Health. 2005;37:52-60 pubmed
    ..Adolescents who had used nitrite inhalants at least once in their lifetime tend to engage in delinquent activities and report co-occurring multiple drug abuse and mental health problems in the past year. ..
  51. Noack E, Feelisch M. Molecular mechanisms of nitrovasodilator bioactivation. Basic Res Cardiol. 1991;86 Suppl 2:37-50 pubmed
    ..Organic nitrites (such as amyl nitrite) require the preceding interaction with a mercapto group to form a S-nitrosothiol intermediate, from which ..
  52. Minitti M, Zhang Y, Rosenberg M, Brogaard R, Deb S, Sølling T, et al. Far-UV photochemical bond cleavage of n-amyl nitrite: bypassing a repulsive surface. J Phys Chem A. 2012;116:810-9 pubmed publisher
    We have investigated the deep-UV photoinduced, homolytic bond cleavage of amyl nitrite to form NO and pentoxy radicals...
  53. Ascher M, Sheppard H, Winkelstein W, Vittinghoff E. Does drug use cause AIDS?. Nature. 1993;362:103-4 pubmed
    ..A hypothesis identifying substance abuse as a main cause of AIDS has naturally excited much publicity. But such claims have no basis in fact. ..