ruthenium red

Summary

Summary: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.

Top Publications

  1. Sakurada T, Matsumura T, Moriyama T, Sakurada C, Ueno S, Sakurada S. Differential effects of intraplantar capsazepine and ruthenium red on capsaicin-induced desensitization in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;75:115-21 pubmed
    ..effects of intraplantar administration of capsazepine, a competitive vanilloid receptor antagonist, and ruthenium red, a noncompetitive antagonist, in the nociceptive licking/biting response induced by intraplantar injection of ..
  2. Griffiths E. Use of ruthenium red as an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in single rat cardiomyocytes. FEBS Lett. 2000;486:257-60 pubmed
    ..of interest in the role of mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] in energy production and cellular Ca(2+) signalling, ruthenium red (RR) is being increasingly used as an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake...
  3. Voets T, Prenen J, Vriens J, Watanabe H, Janssens A, Wissenbach U, et al. Molecular determinants of permeation through the cation channel TRPV4. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33704-10 pubmed
    ..TRPV4 is characterized by both inward and outward rectification, voltage-dependent block by Ruthenium Red, a moderate selectivity for divalent versus monovalent cations, and an Eisenman IV permeability sequence...
  4. Israelson A, Zaid H, Abu Hamad S, Nahon E, Shoshan Barmatz V. Mapping the ruthenium red-binding site of the voltage-dependent anion channel-1. Cell Calcium. 2008;43:196-204 pubmed
    We have previously shown that ruthenium red (RuR) binds to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in the outer mitochondrial membrane, decreasing channel conductance and protecting against apoptotic cell death...
  5. Xu X, Gordon E, Lin Z, Lozinskaya I, Chen Y, Thorneloe K. Functional TRPV4 channels and an absence of capsaicin-evoked currents in freshly-isolated, guinea-pig urothelial cells. Channels (Austin). 2009;3:156-60 pubmed
    ..activated urothelial currents with an EC(50) of 11 nM that were completely inhibited by the TRPV4 inhibitor ruthenium red (5 microM)...
  6. Doihara H, Nozawa K, Kawabata Shoda E, Kojima R, Yokoyama T, Ito H. TRPA1 agonists delay gastric emptying in rats through serotonergic pathways. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;380:353-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that TRPA1 agonists delay in vivo gastric emptying through serotonergic pathways...
  7. Macquaide N, Ramay H, Sobie E, Smith G. Differential sensitivity of Ca²+ wave and Ca²+ spark events to ruthenium red in isolated permeabilised rabbit cardiomyocytes. J Physiol. 2010;588:4731-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compares the ability of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker ruthenium red (RuR) to inhibit these two types of Ca²(+) release in permeabilised rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes...
  8. Gao X, Wu L, O Neil R. Temperature-modulated diversity of TRPV4 channel gating: activation by physical stresses and phorbol ester derivatives through protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:27129-37 pubmed
    ..b>Ruthenium red (1 microm) effectively blocked the channel activity by all stimuli...
  9. Myrdal S, Steyger P. TRPV1 regulators mediate gentamicin penetration of cultured kidney cells. Hear Res. 2005;204:170-82 pubmed
    ..b>Ruthenium Red blocked GTTR uptake in the presence or absence of these TRPV1-agonists and antagonists...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Watanabe H, Davis J, Smart D, Jerman J, Smith G, Hayes P, et al. Activation of TRPV4 channels (hVRL-2/mTRP12) by phorbol derivatives. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13569-77 pubmed
    ..b>Ruthenium Red at a concentration of 1 microm completely blocks inward currents at -80 mV but has a smaller effect on outward ..
  2. Michels G, Khan I, Endres Becker J, Rottlaender D, Herzig S, Ruhparwar A, et al. Regulation of the human cardiac mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by 2 different voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Circulation. 2009;119:2435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the identity and properties of these pathways are a matter of intense debate, and possible functional alterations in diseased states have remained elusive...
  3. Cheng J, Lai Y, Chen C, Cheng C, Chiou L. Magnesium chloride and ruthenium red attenuate the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:1472-9 pubmed
    ..Magnesium chloride, ruthenium red, and spermine have been shown to modulate [3H]gabapentin binding to this binding site in vitro...
  4. Yamada T, Ueda T, Ugawa S, Ishida Y, Imayasu M, Koyama S, et al. Functional expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 (TRPV3) in corneal epithelial cells: involvement in thermosensation and wound healing. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The response to carvacrol was inhibited by ruthenium red, a TRPV channel antagonist...
  5. Langhorst M, Schwarzmann N, Guse A. Ca2+ release via ryanodine receptors and Ca2+ entry: major mechanisms in NAADP-mediated Ca2+ signaling in T-lymphocytes. Cell Signal. 2004;16:1283-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, co-injection of the ryanodine receptor antagonist ruthenium red efficiently blocked NAADP induced Ca2+ signalling...
  6. Sprague J, Harrison C, Rowbotham D, Smart D, Lambert D. Temperature-dependent activation of recombinant rat vanilloid VR1 receptors expressed in HEK293 cells by capsaicin and anandamide. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;423:121-5 pubmed
    ..36 but the response to anandamide did not saturate. Responses to both agonists were sensitive to ruthenium red and capsazepine at all temperatures...
  7. Pottosin I, Dobrovinskaya O, Muniz J. Cooperative block of the plant endomembrane ion channel by ruthenium red. Biophys J. 1999;77:1973-9 pubmed
    Effects of ruthenium red (RR) on the slow Ca(2+)-activated Ca(2+)-permeable vacuolar channel have been studied by patch-clamp technique. Applied to the cytosolic side of isolated membrane patches, RR at concentrations of 0...
  8. Bae J, Park J, Kwon T. Ruthenium red, inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, inhibits curcumin-induced apoptosis via the prevention of intracellular Ca2+ depletion and cytochrome c release. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:1073-9 pubmed
    ..b>Ruthenium red, an inhibitor of mitochondrial uniporter, specifically inhibits curcumin-induced apoptosis in U937 cells...
  9. García Rivas G, Carvajal K, Correa F, Zazueta C. Ru360, a specific mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibitor, improves cardiac post-ischaemic functional recovery in rats in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;149:829-37 pubmed
    ..As mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload is a main inductor of mPTP opening, we examined the effect of Ru(360), a selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uptake system against myocardial damage induced by reperfusion in a rat model...
  10. Ruiz Meana M, Garcia Dorado D, Miro Casas E, Abellan A, Soler Soler J. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during simulated ischemia does not affect permeability transition pore opening upon simulated reperfusion. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;71:715-24 pubmed
    ..We investigated the ability of mitochondria to uptake Ca2+ during simulated ischemia (SI) and whether this uptake determines PTP opening and cell death upon simulated reperfusion (SR)...
  11. Moon C. An investigation of the effects of ruthenium red, nitric oxide and endothelin-1 on infrared receptor activity in a crotaline snake. Neuroscience. 2004;124:913-8 pubmed
    ..transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)1 agonist (capsaicin, CAP) and antagonist (capsazepine, CZP), and Ruthenium Red (RR), an antagonist of the TRPV family...
  12. Duzenli S, Bakuridze K, Gepdiremen A. The effects of ruthenium red, dantrolene and nimodipine, alone or in combination, in NMDA induced neurotoxicity of cerebellar granular cell culture of rats. Toxicol In Vitro. 2005;19:589-94 pubmed
    ..reticulum (ER) calcium release blocker dantrolene and the calcium transport blocker in mitochondria ruthenium red (RuR), in NMDA induced neurotoxicity, to observe the most suitable combination for neuroprotection in ..
  13. von Stockum S, Basso E, Petronilli V, Sabatelli P, Forte M, Bernardi P. Properties of Ca(2+) transport in mitochondria of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the presence of ruthenium red (RR)-sensitive Ca(2+) uptake, of RR-insensitive Ca(2+) release, and of Na(+)-stimulated Ca(2+) release in ..
  14. Kawahara K, Takase M, Yamauchi Y. Ruthenium red-induced transition from ventricular fibrillation to tachycardia in isolated rat hearts: possible involvement of changes in mitochondrial calcium uptake. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2003;12:311-21 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated whether perfusion of the heart with blockers of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter changed the macrodynamics of the heart between VT and VF...
  15. Lim R, Oleskevich S, Few A, Leao R, Walmsley B. Glycinergic mIPSCs in mouse and rat brainstem auditory nuclei: modulation by ruthenium red and the role of calcium stores. J Physiol. 2003;546:691-9 pubmed
    ..b>Ruthenium red (RuR), which was used to increase the frequency of mIPSCs, significantly changed the shape of most (90 %) ..
  16. Peier A, Reeve A, Andersson D, Moqrich A, Earley T, Hergarden A, et al. A heat-sensitive TRP channel expressed in keratinocytes. Science. 2002;296:2046-9 pubmed
    ..TRPV3 is specifically expressed in keratinocytes; hence, skin cells are capable of detecting heat via molecules similar to those in heat-sensing neurons...
  17. Hoenderop J, Vennekens R, Muller D, Prenen J, Droogmans G, Bindels R, et al. Function and expression of the epithelial Ca(2+) channel family: comparison of mammalian ECaC1 and 2. J Physiol. 2001;537:747-61 pubmed
    ..4. Ruthenium red is a potent blocker of ECaC activity...
  18. Waller L, Fox N, Fox K, Fox A, Price R. Ruthenium red staining for ultrastructural visualization of a glycoprotein layer surrounding the spore of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis. J Microbiol Methods. 2004;58:23-30 pubmed
    b>Ruthenium red is a polycationic stain used to visualize acid polysaccharides on the outer surface of cells...
  19. Shoshan Barmatz V, Israelson A, Brdiczka D, Sheu S. The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC): function in intracellular signalling, cell life and cell death. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12:2249-70 pubmed
    ..This review provides insights into the central role of VDAC in cell life and death and emphasizes its function in the regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and, thereby, its potential as a rational target for new therapeutics...
  20. Ciura S, Bourque C. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 is required for intrinsic osmoreception in organum vasculosum lamina terminalis neurons and for normal thirst responses to systemic hyperosmolality. J Neurosci. 2006;26:9069-75 pubmed
    ..from TRPV1 knock-out (TRPV1-/-) mice and that responses of wild type (WT) OVLT neurons could be blocked by ruthenium red, an inhibitor of TRPV channels...
  21. Santra M, Beuria T, Banerjee A, Panda D. Ruthenium red-induced bundling of bacterial cell division protein, FtsZ. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:25959-65 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that ruthenium red is able to modulate FtsZ assembly in vitro...
  22. Gepdiremen A, Buyukokuroglu M, Duzenli S. Dantrolene exerts protective activity in double and triple combination with nimodipine, ruthenium red and basilene blue in bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in cell culture of rats. Int J Neurosci. 2009;119:1602-14 pubmed
    In the present study, dantrolene, nimodipine, basilen blue, and ruthenium red were tested in experimental bilirubin toxicity in cortical cell culture of rats. Neurotoxicity was induced by 10(-4) M bilirubin...
  23. Kessel D, Castelli M, Reiners J. Ruthenium red-mediated suppression of Bcl-2 loss and Ca(2+) release initiated by photodamage to the endoplasmic reticulum: scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Cell Death Differ. 2005;12:502-11 pubmed
    ..Moreover, neither reagent prevented the loss of Bcl-2. Ruthenium red (RR) devoid of Ru360 prevented Bcl-2 loss, release of Ca(2+) from the ER and the initiation of apoptosis...
  24. Smith J, Imagawa T, Ma J, Fill M, Campbell K, Coronado R. Purified ryanodine receptor from rabbit skeletal muscle is the calcium-release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum. J Gen Physiol. 1988;92:1-26 pubmed
    ..this identity: (a) activation of channels by micromolar Ca and millimolar ATP and inhibition by micromolar ruthenium red, (b) a main channel conductance of 110 +/- 10 pS in 54 mM trans Ca, (c) a long-term open state of lower ..
  25. Knoop S, de Groot H, Rauen U. Little evidence for a major role of Ca2+ in cold-induced injury of liver cells. Cryobiology. 2008;56:103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..e. by the addition of Ruthenium Red, an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, or by inhibiting Bax translocation to the mitochondria, did ..
  26. Kichko T, Reeh P. TRPV1 controls acid- and heat-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release and sensitization by bradykinin in the isolated mouse trachea. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1896-904 pubmed publisher
    ..The TRPV1 antagonists ruthenium red and N-(4-t-butylphenyl)-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl) tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carboxamide were ineffective on the ..
  27. Oehler B, Scholze A, Schaefer M, Hill K. TRPA1 is functionally expressed in melanoma cells but is not critical for impaired proliferation caused by allyl isothiocyanate or cinnamaldehyde. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012;385:555-63 pubmed publisher
  28. Klinger A, Pichette B, Sobolewski P, Eckmann D. Mechanotransductional basis of endothelial cell response to intravascular bubbles. Integr Biol (Camb). 2011;3:1033-42 pubmed publisher
    ..activated channel inhibitor, gadolinium, and the transient receptor potential vanilliod family inhibitor, ruthenium red. No bubble induced calcium upsurge occurs if the cells are pretreated with an inhibitor of actin ..
  29. Anisuzzaman -, Islam M, Alim M, Tsuji N. Longistatin, an EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein from vector tick: identification, purification, and characterization. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;963:127-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Both recombinant and endogenous forms of longistatin can be stained with rutheninum red, demonstrating that longistatin is a Ca(2+)-binding protein. ..
  30. Andrade E, Ferreira J, Andre E, Calixto J. Contractile mechanisms coupled to TRPA1 receptor activation in rat urinary bladder. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:104-14 pubmed
    ..The TRP receptor antagonist ruthenium red (10-100 microM) inhibits capsaicin (0...
  31. Wu W, Zhou H, Bursian S, Link J, Pestka J. Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Transient Receptor Ankyrin-1 Mediate Emesis Induction by Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin). Toxicol Sci. 2017;155:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral pretreatment of the animals with the CaSR antagonist NPS-2143 or the TRP antagonist ruthenium red (RR), respectively, inhibited these responses...
  32. Angeles Sánchez Sampedro M, Fernández Tárrago J, Corchete P. Enhanced silymarin accumulation is related to calcium deprivation in cell suspension cultures of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. J Plant Physiol. 2005;162:1177-82 pubmed
    ..Several reagents known to block intracellular calcium movement, such as ruthenium red, thapsigargin and TMB-8 appreciably increased silymarin accumulation...
  33. Figdor D, Davies J. Cell surface structures of Actinomyces israelii. Aust Dent J. 1997;42:125-8 pubmed
    ..These structures may be important for the pathogenicity of A. israelii...
  34. Sipe W, Brierley S, Martin C, Phillis B, Cruz F, Grady E, et al. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 mediates protease activated receptor 2-induced sensitization of colonic afferent nerves and visceral hyperalgesia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G1288-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These responses require the presence of functional TRPV4. Therefore, TRPV4 is required for PAR(2)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and excitation of colonic afferent neurons. ..
  35. Parra T, Benites J, Ruiz L, Sepúlveda B, Simirgiotis M, Areche C. Gastroprotective activity of ent-beyerene derivatives in mice: Effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25:2813-7 pubmed publisher
    ..effect elicited by 6 (50 mg/kg) was reversed by Indomethacin but not by N-ethylmaleimide, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or ruthenium red, which suggests that prostaglandins are involved in the mode of gastroprotective action of 6.
  36. dela Paz N, Frangos J. Yoda1-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 does not require Piezo1 activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:220-225 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the Piezo1 antagonists, gadolinium and ruthenium red, but not GsMTx4, effectively blocks Yoda1-induced Akt activation...
  37. Ikeda M, Maruyama Y. Inhibitory effects of ruthenium red on inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-induced responses in rat megakaryocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;61:7-13 pubmed
    The effects of ruthenium red (RR) on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))-induced responses were studied in rat bone marrow megakaryocytes with the patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique in combination with fura-2 microfluorometry...
  38. Ullmer C, Boddeke H, Schmuck K, Lubbert H. 5-HT2B receptor-mediated calcium release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 1996;117:1081-8 pubmed
    ..response, the 5-HT response was sensitive to micromolar concentrations of ryanodine and, to a lesser extent, ruthenium red. This implies that 5-HT2B receptors trigger calcium release from a ryanodine-sensitive calcium pool. 7...
  39. Ohki G, Miyoshi T, Murata M, Ishibashi K, Imai M, Suzuki M. A calcium-activated cation current by an alternatively spliced form of Trp3 in the heart. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:39055-60 pubmed
    ..The currents were not inhibited by flufenamate ruthenium red but nonspecifically by 2 mm Gd(3+)...
  40. Tsubokawa D, Hatta T, Kikuchi T, Maeda H, Mikami F, Alim M, et al. Venestatin, a Ca++-binding protein from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis, is involved in the larval migration process. Int J Parasitol. 2017;47:501-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Canonical two EF-hand domains and a signal peptide are present in venestatin. A gel mobility shift assay and Ruthenium red staining indicated that the recombinant venestatin possesses binding ability with Ca++ ions...
  41. Yun D, Lee D. Silibinin triggers yeast apoptosis related to mitochondrial Ca2+ influx in Candida albicans. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;80:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we investigated the significance of mitochondrial Ca2+ in apoptosis by employing 20mM ruthenium red (RR)...
  42. Sheu S, Sharma V. Rapid report: a novel technique for quantitative measurement of free Ca2+ concentration in rat heart mitochondria. J Physiol. 1999;518 ( Pt 2):577-84 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it clearly shows that cardiac mitochondria can modify the shape of thapsigargin-induced cytosolic Ca2+ pulses in Xenopus oocytes. ..
  43. Morita T, Fujiwara A, Ueki H, Kanagawa A. Stimulatory release of hepatic lipase activity from rat hepatocytes by ruthenium red. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000;23:549-54 pubmed
    b>Ruthenium Red (RuR; ruthenium oxychloride ammoniated) stimulated the release of hepatic lipase (HTGL) activity from primary cultured rat hepatocytes into medium in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
  44. Racay P. Effect of magnesium on calcium-induced depolarisation of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:136-45 pubmed
    ..Minor effect of Mg(2+) on Ca(2+)-induced depolarisation of DeltaPsi(m) was observed at the level of stimulation of DeltaPsi(m) generation and inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. ..
  45. Córdova M, Werner M, Silva M, Ruani A, Pizzolatti M, Santos A. Further antinociceptive effects of myricitrin in chemical models of overt nociception in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2011;495:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1-30.0)mg/kg and inhibition of 71±6% and 64±5%, respectively. Moreover, myricitrin (10-30 mg/kg, i.p.) and ruthenium red (3mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced the nociception induced by menthol (1.2 ?mol/paw i.pl...
  46. Raymond C, Redman S. Spatial segregation of neuronal calcium signals encodes different forms of LTP in rat hippocampus. J Physiol. 2006;570:97-111 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the selective induction of different forms of LTP is achieved via spatial segregation of functionally distinct calcium signals. ..
  47. Wang C, Saito M, Ogawa M, Yoshida S. Colony types and virulence traits of Legionella feeleii determined by exopolysaccharide materials. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2016;363: pubmed publisher
    ..Under the electron microscope, it was observed that WRLf secreted materials which could be stained with ruthenium red, which was absent in BTLf...
  48. Murphy T, Kanagarajah A, Toemoe S, Bertrand P, Grayson T, Britton F, et al. TRPV3 expression and vasodilator function in isolated uterine radial arteries from non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Vascul Pharmacol. 2016;83:66-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Carvacrol-induced dilation was reduced by the TRPV3-blockers isopentenyl pyrophosphate and ruthenium red, but not by the TRPA1 or TRPV4 inhibitors HC-030031 or HC-067047, respectively...
  49. Grzeda E, Schlicker E, Luczaj W, Harasim E, Baranowska Kuczko M, Malinowska B. Bi-directional CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in anaesthetized rats: role of the paraventricular nucleus. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;66:343-53 pubmed
    ..v. injection of the CB2 antagonist SR144528 or the vanilloid TRPV1 antagonist ruthenium red. In the presence of the peripherally restricted CB1 receptor antagonist AM6545, CP55940 given into the PVN ..
  50. Kumar B, Kumar A, Ghosh S, Pandey B, Mishra K, Hazra B. Diospyrin derivative, an anticancer quinonoid, regulates apoptosis at endoplasmic reticulum as well as mitochondria by modulating cytosolic calcium in human breast carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:903-9 pubmed publisher
    ..mitochondrial membrane potential and induce cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by either Bapta-AM or ruthenium red (an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter)...
  51. Goldenthal M, Ananthakrishnan R, Marin Garcia J. Nuclear-mitochondrial cross-talk in cardiomyocyte T3 signaling: a time-course analysis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;39:319-26 pubmed
    ..This model offer an opportunity to study the rapid timing of events involved in myocardial cell signaling, bioenergetics and growth dynamics in a timeframe not available with whole animal studies...
  52. Ganitkevich VYa -. Clearance of large Ca2+ loads in a single smooth muscle cell: examination of the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and intracellular pH. Cell Calcium. 1999;25:29-42 pubmed
    ..93 times slower than that in the absence of the inhibitor. Introduction of a polycation Ruthenium Red (RR) (20 microM), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, into a cell or collapsing a ..
  53. Chavez Crooker P, Garrido N, Ahearn G. Copper transport by lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreatic mitochondria. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:405-13 pubmed
    ..Addition of 500 micromol x l(-1) Ca2+ or 500 nmol x l(-1) Ruthenium Red abolished the non-saturable copper transport component, significantly (P<0...
  54. Duan L, Gan H, Golan D, Remold H. Critical role of mitochondrial damage in determining outcome of macrophage infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2002;169:5181-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Mphi infected with Mtb in presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor ruthenium red showed increased mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release and decreased MPT and antimycobacterial ..
  55. Maher M, Ao H, Banke T, Nasser N, Wu N, Breitenbucher J, et al. Activation of TRPA1 by farnesyl thiosalicylic acid. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:1225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..As a TRPA1 agonist with a potentially novel mechanism of action, farnesyl thiosalicylic acid may be useful in the study of TRPA1 channels...
  56. Fellner S, Parker L. Endothelin B receptor Ca2+ signaling in shark vascular smooth muscle: participation of inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3411-7 pubmed
    ..We employed three inhibitors of activation of the RyR, Ruthenium Red, 8-Br cADPR and high concentrations of ryanodine; these agents blocked the [Ca(2+)](i) response to ET(B)R ..
  57. Lokdarshi A, Conner W, McClintock C, Li T, Roberts D. Arabidopsis CML38, a Calcium Sensor That Localizes to Ribonucleoprotein Complexes under Hypoxia Stress. Plant Physiol. 2016;170:1046-59 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ruthenium Red treatment results in the loss of CML38 signal in cytosolic granules, suggesting that calcium is necessary for ..
  58. Chang W, Chen K, Chen L, Lai M, Lai Y. Mitochondrial calcium-mediated reactive oxygen species are essential for the rapid induction of the grp78 gene in 9L rat brain tumour cells. Cell Signal. 2003;15:57-64 pubmed
    ..bis(aminophenoxy)ethane N,N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), and an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter, ruthenium red (RR), while unaffected by cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MTP)..
  59. Qu L, Li Y, Pan X, Zhang P, LaMotte R, Ma C. Transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) is required for IgG immune complex-induced excitation of the rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ruthenium red (a general TRP channel blocker), BTP2 (a general TRPC channel inhibitor), and pyrazole-3 (a selective TRPC3 ..
  60. Petr J, Rozinek J, Vanourková Z, Jilek F. Cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of calcium-dependent ATPases, induces exit from metaphase I arrest in growing pig oocytes. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1999;11:235-46 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, a microinjection of procaine or a microinjection of ruthenium red, both inhibitors of ryanodine receptors, did not prevent the overcoming of the metaphase I block, induced by ..
  61. Mukherjee S, Das M, Sudhandiran G, Shaha C. Increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels through the activation of non-selective cation channels induced by oxidative stress causes mitochondrial depolarization leading to apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24717-27 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings show the importance of non-selective cation channels in regulating the response of L. donovani promastigotes to oxidative stress that triggers downstream signaling cascades leading to apoptosis-like death...
  62. Vitkov L, Krautgartner W, Hannig M. Bacterial internalization in periodontitis. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005;20:317-21 pubmed
    ..Bacterial invasion of host epithelial cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis; however, the exact mechanism of the invasion has not been investigated...
  63. Mistry A, Honda S, Hirose S. Structure, properties and enhanced expression of galactose-binding C-type lectins in mucous cells of gills from freshwater Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica). Biochem J. 2001;360:107-15 pubmed
    ..Using Ruthenium Red staining, the lectins were shown to bind Ca(2+) ions...
  64. Smith S, Leal A, Williams M, Murphy M, Mitchell J, Garry M. The TRPv1 receptor is a mediator of the exercise pressor reflex in rats. J Physiol. 2010;588:1179-89 pubmed publisher
    ..antagonists, capsazepine (Capz; 100 microg/100 microl), iodoresinaferatoxin (IRTX; 1 microg/100 microl), or Ruthenium Red (RR; 100 microg/100 microl)...
  65. Lopez J, Cordovez G, Linares N, Allen P. Cyclic ADP-ribose induces a larger than normal calcium release in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible skeletal muscle fibers. Pflugers Arch. 2000;440:236-42 pubmed
    ..or in the presence of L-type Ca2+ channel entry blockers, or intracellular microinjection of heparin or ruthenium red did not modify the effect of cADPR on [Ca2+]i...
  66. Carvalho A, Sharpe J, Rosenstock T, Teles A, Youle R, Smaili S. Bax affects intracellular Ca2+ stores and induces Ca2+ wave propagation. Cell Death Differ. 2004;11:1265-76 pubmed
    ..This was inhibited by cyclosporin A (5 microM) and Ruthenium Red (1 microg/ml), indicating the involvement of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport mechanisms...
  67. Fleming I, Rueben A, Popp R, Fisslthaler B, Schrodt S, Sander A, et al. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids regulate Trp channel dependent Ca2+ signaling and hyperpolarization in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:2612-8 pubmed
    ..Here we address the mechanisms by which cytochrome P450 (CYP)-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) contribute to this effect in native and cultured endothelial cells...
  68. Kopczyńska B. The contribution of VR1 and CB1 receptors and the role of the afferent vagal pathway in modelling of cardio-respiratory effects of anandamide in rats. Life Sci. 2007;80:1738-45 pubmed
    ..to the anandamide-induced response administrations of anandamide were preceded by nonselective VR1 antagonist ruthenium red or selective CB1 antagonist AM281. Anandamide evoked apnoea of mean duration of 4.84+/-0...
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    ..The preincubation of epileptic hippocampal slices with either BAPTA AM, ruthenium red or TPP+ increased the atractyloside sensitivity of glucose oxidation to about 1.4-fold (p<0.01)...
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    ..MUM3 and MUM5 may be involved in the regulation of mucilage composition, whereas MUM1 and MUM2 appear to play novel roles in post-synthesis cell wall modifications necessary for mucilage extrusion...
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    ..However, the studies reported here show that after inhibition of this pathway there is still substantial normoxic contraction, indicating the involvement of additional mechanisms...
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    ..over TASK-3 to physiological pH changes and the discriminating sensitivity of TASK-3 to the cationic dye ruthenium red. These features were clearly observed when the channels were expressed individually...
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    ..We have shown that the VR1 is expressed on sensory nerve endings of the heart. In the present study, we determined the role of VR1s in activation of cardiac spinal afferent nerves caused by myocardial ischemia...
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    ..Previous incubation of the cells with the chelating agent EGTA or with ruthenium red, an inhibitor of the uniporter mitochondrial Ca2+ transport, greatly reduced necrosis...
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    ..1% O2)-hypothermic Belzer storage solution. Cells were stored for 6 h, with or without 10 microM ruthenium red (mCa + 2 uniporter inhibitor) followed by rewarming in oxygenated media at 37 degrees C...
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    ..nerve activity caused by capsaicin in DSS-1 and DSS-8 was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ruthenium red, which is a nonselective inhibitor of TRP channels of unmyelinated C-fibers (nociceptors)...
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    ..Furthermore, Ruthenium red, a transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) inhibitor, could effectively block the shear stressinduced ..
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    ..The elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) were reduced by ruthenium red and procaine and it is therefore possible that they were mediated via ryanodine receptors.