calcium sulfate


Summary: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.

Top Publications

  1. Bramante C, Kato M, Assis G, Duarte M, Bernardineli N, Moraes I, et al. Biocompatibility and setting time of CPM-MTA and white Portland cement clinker with or without calcium sulfate. J Appl Oral Sci. 2013;21:32-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the biocompatibility and the setting time of Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA-CPM.
  2. Karr J, Lauretta J, Keriazes G. In vitro antimicrobial activity of calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite (Cerament Bone Void Filler) discs using heat-sensitive and non-heat-sensitive antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011;101:146-52 pubmed
    ..The calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite Cerament Bone Void Filler is a biocompatible, absorbable ceramic bone void filler that can ..
  3. Sukumar S, Drízhal I, Bukac J, Paulusová V, Pilathadka S. Surgical treatment of periodontal intrabony defects with calcium sulphate in combination with beta tricalcium phosphate--a 12-month retrospective clinical evaluation. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2010;53:229-34 pubmed
    ..The study results show that the treatment with a combination of beta tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulphate led to a significantly favorable clinical improvement in periodontal intrabony defects one year postoperatively...
  4. Thai V, Lee B. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010;21:1867-74 pubmed publisher
    ..HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated...
  5. Liu H, Liu X, Zhang L, Ai H, Cui F. Improvement on the performance of bone regeneration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate by adding mineralized collagen. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010;16:2075-84 pubmed publisher
    Comparative investigations of bone regeneration performance for calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO(4).(1/2)H(2)O; CSH) only and CSH with mineralized collagen are reported in this article...
  6. Jia W, Luo S, Zhang C, Wang J. In vitro and in vivo efficacies of teicoplanin-loaded calcium sulfate for treatment of chronic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:170-6 pubmed publisher
    The in vitro and in vivo therapeutic efficacies of teicoplanin-loaded calcium sulfate (TCS; 10% [wt] teicoplanin) were investigated in a rabbit model of chronic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) osteomyelitis...
  7. He X, Dziak R, Mao K, Genco R, Swihart M, Swithart M, et al. Integration of a novel injectable nano calcium sulfate/alginate scaffold and BMP2 gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration. Tissue Eng Part A. 2013;19:508-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used the osteoconductive and mechanical properties of nano-scale calcium sulfate (nCS) and the biocompatibility of alginate to develop the injectable nCS/alginate (nCS/A) paste, and ..
  8. Abramo A, Geijer M, Kopylov P, Tagil M. Osteotomy of distal radius fracture malunion using a fast remodeling bone substitute consisting of calcium sulphate and calcium phosphate. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;92:281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A more rigid fixation may improve the radiographic outcome with this kind of bone substitute...
  9. Park Y, Mohan K, Al Sanousi A, Almaghrabi B, Genco R, Swihart M, et al. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline calcium sulfate for use in osseous regeneration. Biomed Mater. 2011;6:055007 pubmed publisher
    Nanoparticles of calcium sulfate (nCS) have potential advantages as a ceramic matrix, scaffold and/or vehicle for delivering growth factors for osseous regeneration in a variety of clinical situations...

More Information


  1. Kutkut A, Andreana S, Kim H, Monaco E. Extraction socket preservation graft before implant placement with calcium sulfate hemihydrate and platelet-rich plasma: a clinical and histomorphometric study in humans. J Periodontol. 2012;83:401-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this investigation is to evaluate clinical and histologic outcome of using medical-grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate (MGCSH) mixed with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for extraction socket preservation graft before implant ..
  2. Sukumar S, Drízhal I, Paulusová V, Bukac J. Surgical treatment of periodontal intrabony defects with calcium sulphate in combination with beta-tricalcium phosphate: clinical observations two years post-surgery. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove). 2011;54:13-20 pubmed
    ..The study results show that the treatment with a combination of beta tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulphate led to a significantly favorable clinical improvement in periodontal intrabony defects 2 years after the surgery...
  3. Liu D, Lei W, Wu Z, Gao M, Wan S, Fu S, et al. Augmentation of pedicle screw stability with calcium sulfate cement in osteoporotic sheep: biomechanical and screw-bone interfacial evaluation. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2011;24:235-41 pubmed publisher
    Augmentation of pedicle screws with calcium sulfate cement (CSC) was performed in osteoporotic sheep. Biomechanical tests, micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis, and histological observation were performed.
  4. Cai S, Zhai Y, Xu G, Lu S, Zhou W, Ye X. Preparation and properties of calcium phosphate cements incorporated gelatin microspheres and calcium sulfate dihydrate as controlled local drug delivery system. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:2487-96 pubmed publisher used as the substitute of bone repairing and drug carriers, cross-linked gelatin microspheres (GMs) and calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD) powder were incorporated into calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) to induce macropores, ..
  5. Chen Z, Liu H, Liu X, Cui F. Injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair materials with regulable self-setting properties. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011;99:554-63 pubmed publisher
    An injectable and self-setting bone repair materials (nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/calcium sulfate hemihydrate, nHAC/CSH) was developed in this study...
  6. Ikarashi N, Ogiue N, Toyoda E, Kon R, Ishii M, Toda T, et al. Gypsum fibrosum and its major component CaSO4 increase cutaneous aquaporin-3 expression levels. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;139:409-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the effect of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO(4)), which is the main component of Byakkokaninjinto, on the cutaneous AQP3 expression level...
  7. Hu N, Chen Z, Liu X, Liu H, Lian X, Wang X, et al. Mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of injectable and self-setting calcium sulfate/nano-HA/collagen bone graft substitute. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012;12:119-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) was introduced into the mineralized collagen (nHAC) to prepare an injectable and self-setting in situ bone graft substitute...
  8. Hu G, Xiao L, Fu H, Bi D, Ma H, Tong P. Study on injectable and degradable cement of calcium sulphate and calcium phosphate for bone repair. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2010;21:627-34 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be concluded that the injectable CSPC had a significant clinical advantage over CPC, and might have potential to be applied in orthopedic, reconstructive and maxillofacial surgery, especially for minimally invasive techniques...
  9. Kim J, Oh J, Han I, Kim H, Chung S. Grafting using injectable calcium sulfate in bone tumor surgery: comparison with demineralized bone matrix-based grafting. Clin Orthop Surg. 2011;3:191-201 pubmed publisher
    Injectable calcium sulfate is a clinically proven osteoconductive biomaterial, and it is an injectable, resorbable and semi-structural bone graft material...
  10. Liu X, Wang X, Chen Z, Cui F, Liu H, Mao K, et al. Injectable bone cement based on mineralized collagen. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;94:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The cement was fabricated by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO(4).1/2H(2)O, CSH) into nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC)...
  11. Kloppmann W, Bromblet P, Vallet J, Vergès Belmin V, Rolland O, Guerrot C, et al. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: a hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S). Sci Total Environ. 2011;409:1658-69 pubmed publisher
  12. Mathijsen A. New method for application of plaster-of-Paris bandage. 1852. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;458:59-62 pubmed
  13. Gao P, Martin J. Volatile metabolites produced by three strains of Stachybotrys chartarum cultivated on rice and gypsum board. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2002;17:430-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings also indicate that volatiles produced by S. chartarum may represent a relatively small fraction of the total volatiles present in problem buildings where Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and other fungi usually coexist. ..
  14. Urban R, Turner T, Hall D, Infanger S, Cheema N, Lim T. Healing of large defects treated with calcium sulfate pellets containing demineralized bone matrix particles. Orthopedics. 2003;26:s581-5 pubmed
    b>Calcium sulfate (OsteoSet, Wright Medical Technology, Inc, Arlington, Tenn) and calcium sulfate/demineralized bone matrix (DBM) pellets (OsteoSet DBM, Wright Medical Technology, Inc) have been evaluated preclinically in a bilateral ..
  15. Aichelmann Reidy M, Heath C, Reynolds M. Clinical evaluation of calcium sulfate in combination with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft for the treatment of human intraosseous defects. J Periodontol. 2004;75:340-7 pubmed
    Medical-grade calcium sulfate (CS) is a biocompatible, bioabsorbable, and clinically versatile ceramic for use in bone repair...
  16. Clayer M. Injectable form of calcium sulphate as treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts. ANZ J Surg. 2008;78:366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Percutaneous treatment of ABC have rarely been reported and a poor response the usual outcome. This study investigated a new technique of percutaneous aspiration and injection of ABC using an aqueous solution of calcium sulphate...
  17. Gitelis S, Piasecki P, Turner T, Haggard W, Charters J, Urban R. Use of a calcium sulfate-based bone graft substitute for benign bone lesions. Orthopedics. 2001;24:162-6 pubmed
    Twenty-three patients with a benign bone lesion grafted with calcium sulfate, with and without demineralized bone matrix, were reviewed...
  18. Thomas M, Puleo D. Calcium sulfate: Properties and clinical applications. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2009;88:597-610 pubmed publisher
    b>Calcium sulfate (CS) has enjoyed a longer history of clinical use than most currently available biomaterials...
  19. Paolantonio M, Perinetti G, Dolci M, Perfetti G, Tete S, Sammartino G, et al. Surgical treatment of periodontal intrabony defects with calcium sulfate implant and barrier versus collagen barrier or open flap debridement alone: a 12-month randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1886-93 pubmed
    ..controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the clinical outcomes of guided tissue regeneration with calcium sulfate graft and membrane (CS) versus guided tissue regeneration with collagen membrane (CM) or open flap ..
  20. Dormans J, Sankar W, Moroz L, Erol B. Percutaneous intramedullary decompression, curettage, and grafting with medical-grade calcium sulfate pellets for unicameral bone cysts in children: a new minimally invasive technique. J Pediatr Orthop. 2005;25:804-11 pubmed
    ..with UBCs who underwent percutaneous intramedullary decompression, curettage, and grafting with medical-grade calcium sulfate (MGCS) pellets by the senior author (J.P.D...
  21. Bateman J, Intini G, Margarone J, Goodloe S, Bush P, Lynch S, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor enhancement of two alloplastic bone matrices. J Periodontol. 2005;76:1833-41 pubmed
    ..The aim of these studies was to treat beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB to enhance the osteogenic capabilities of these ..
  22. Orsini M, Orsini G, Benlloch D, Aranda J, Lazaro P, Sanz M, et al. Comparison of calcium sulfate and autogenous bone graft to bioabsorbable membranes plus autogenous bone graft in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects: a split-mouth study. J Periodontol. 2001;72:296-302 pubmed
    Current literature shows that calcium sulfate can be used in guided tissue regeneration. Its biocompatibility and resorbability give it significant advantages in the treatment of periodontal and endodontic defects...
  23. Deliberador T, Nagata M, Furlaneto F, Melo L, Okamoto T, Sundefeld M, et al. Autogenous bone graft with or without a calcium sulfate barrier in the treatment of Class II furcation defects: a histologic and histometric study in dogs. J Periodontol. 2006;77:780-9 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to histologically evaluate the healing of surgically created Class II furcation defects treated using an autogenous bone (AB) graft with or without a calcium sulfate (CS) barrier.
  24. Orsini M, Orsini G, Benlloch D, Aranda J, Sanz M. Long-term clinical results on the use of bone-replacement grafts in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects. Comparison of the use of autogenous bone graft plus calcium sulfate to autogenous bone graft covered with a bioabsorbable membrane. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1630-7 pubmed
    ..this investigation was to evaluate the results obtained with the combination of autogenous bone grafting plus calcium sulfate and to compare this outcome with the results obtained using autogenous bone grafting with a bioabsorbable ..
  25. Robinson D, Alk D, Sandbank J, Farber R, Halperin N. Inflammatory reactions associated with a calcium sulfate bone substitute. Ann Transplant. 1999;4:91-7 pubmed
    ..The current work describes some peculiar complications related to the use of calcium sulfate granules.
  26. Maragos P, Bissada N, Wang R, Cole B. Comparison of three methods using calcium sulfate as a graft/barrier material for the treatment of Class II mandibular molar furcation defects. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2002;22:493-501 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three methods using calcium sulfate as a graft/barrier for the treatment of Class II mandibular furcation defects...
  27. Crespi R, Capparè P, Gherlone E. Magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite compared to calcium sulfate in the healing of human extraction sockets: radiographic and histomorphometric evaluation at 3 months. J Periodontol. 2009;80:210-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare radiographic and histomorphometric results of magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite (MHA) and calcium sulfate (CS) grafts in fresh sockets after tooth extractions.
  28. Couri C, Maze G, Hinkson D, Collins B, Dawson D. Medical grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate versus expanded polytetrafluoroethylene in the treatment of mandibular class II furcations. J Periodontol. 2002;73:1352-9 pubmed
    ..The current trends in therapy encourage the use of a bioabsorbable barrier. The efficacy of the bioabsorbable barrier needs to be equal to, if not better than, the non-absorbable barrier...
  29. Urban R, Turner T, Hall D, Inoue N, Gitelis S. Increased bone formation using calcium sulfate-calcium phosphate composite graft. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;459:110-7 pubmed
    Calcium phosphates (CaPO4) and faster-resorbing calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are successfully employed as synthetic bone grafts for treatment of contained defects...
  30. Moore W, Graves S, Bain G. Synthetic bone graft substitutes. ANZ J Surg. 2001;71:354-61 pubmed
    ..The benefits of synthetic grafts include availability, sterility and reduced morbidity. The present article examines the relevance of synthetic bone graft substitutes, their mechanical properties and clinical application...
  31. Huan Z, Chang J. Self-setting properties and in vitro bioactivity of calcium sulfate hemihydrate-tricalcium silicate composite bone cements. Acta Biomater. 2007;3:952-60 pubmed
    Self-setting biomaterials are widely used for tissue repair and regeneration. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate has been used for many years as a self-setting biomaterial due to its good setting properties...
  32. Turner T, Urban R, Hall D, Infanger S, Gitelis S, Petersen D, et al. Osseous healing using injectable calcium sulfate-based putty for the delivery of demineralized bone matrix and cancellous bone chips. Orthopedics. 2003;26:s571-5 pubmed
    Three formulations of injectable calcium sulfate-based putties containing demineralized bone matrix (DBM), 50% DBM/50% cancellous bone (CB) chips, and 30% DBM/70% CB were studied in canines...
  33. Nuñez De González M, Keeton J, Acuff G, Ringer L, Lucia L. Effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid and lactates as postprocessing dipping solutions to control Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored vacuum packaged at 4.5 degrees C. J Food Prot. 2004;67:915-21 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid, potassium lactate, or lactic acid postprocessing dipping solutions to control ..
  34. Wee A. Comparison of impression materials for direct multi-implant impressions. J Prosthet Dent. 2000;83:323-31 pubmed
    ..Given that meticulous implant prosthodontic procedures are recommended to obtain the best possible intraoral fit, impression materials that are suitable for use with a direct impression technique warrant further investigation...
  35. Webb N, McCanless J, Courtney H, Bumgardner J, Haggard W. Daptomycin eluted from calcium sulfate appears effective against Staphylococcus. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1383-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined whether daptomycin eluted from calcium sulfate-a local delivery vehicle used for the treatment of osteomyelitis-retained activity against Gram-positive ..
  36. Melo L, Nagata M, Bosco A, Ribeiro L, Leite C. Bone healing in surgically created defects treated with either bioactive glass particles, a calcium sulfate barrier, or a combination of both materials. A histological and histometric study in rat tibias. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2005;16:683-91 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to histologically analyze the influence of bioactive glass and/or a calcium sulfate barrier on bone healing in surgically created defects in rat tibias.
  37. Kim C, Kim H, Chai J, Cho K, Moon I, Choi S, et al. Effect of a calcium sulfate implant with calcium sulfate barrier on periodontal healing in 3-wall intrabony defects in dogs. J Periodontol. 1998;69:982-8 pubmed evaluate outcome following surgical implantation of an allogeneic, freeze-dried demineralized bone matrix-calcium sulfate (DBM+CS) composite with a CS barrier in 3-wall intrabony periodontal defects in 4 dogs...
  38. Derincek A, Wu C, Mehbod A, Transfeldt E. Biomechanical comparison of anatomic trajectory pedicle screw versus injectable calcium sulfate graft-augmented pedicle screw for salvage in cadaveric thoracic bone. J Spinal Disord Tech. 2006;19:286-91 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, calcium sulfate bone grafts have a high potential for biologic incorporation and no thermal damage effect...
  39. Guarnieri R, Grassi R, Ripari M, Pecora G. Maxillary sinus augmentation using granular calcium sulfate (surgiplaster sinus): radiographic and histologic study at 2 years. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2006;26:79-85 pubmed
    ..the present investigation was to evaluate the radiographic and histologic results when granular medical-grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate was used as a grafting material in sinuses...
  40. Alexander D, Manson N, Mitchell M. Efficacy of calcium sulfate plus decompression bone in lumbar and lumbosacral spinal fusion: preliminary results in 40 patients. Can J Surg. 2001;44:262-6 pubmed
    To compare the efficacy of calcium sulfate pellets plus bone obtained from decompression with fresh autologous iliac crest bone in lumbar and lumbosacral spinal fusion with decompression.
  41. Urban R, Turner T, Hall D, Infanger S, Cheema N, Lim T, et al. Effects of altered crystalline structure and increased initial compressive strength of calcium sulfate bone graft substitute pellets on new bone formation. Orthopedics. 2004;27:s113-8 pubmed
    A new, modified calcium sulfate has been developed with a different crystalline structure and a compressive strength similar to many calcium phosphate materials, but with a resorption profile only slightly slower than conventional ..
  42. Tuzuner T, Sencan I, Ozdemir D, Alper M, Duman S, Yavuz T, et al. In vivo evaluation of teicoplanin- and calcium sulfate-loaded PMMA bone cement in preventing implant-related osteomyelitis in rats. J Chemother. 2006;18:628-33 pubmed
    ..The addition of calcium sulfate to teicoplanin-loaded PMMA bone cement appeared satisfactory as an antibiotic-carrying system for prophylaxis ..
  43. Rohmiller M, Schwalm D, Glattes R, Elalayli T, Spengler D. Evaluation of calcium sulfate paste for augmentation of lumbar pedicle screw pullout strength. Spine J. 2002;2:255-60 pubmed
    ..b>Calcium sulfate is an alternative to PMMA, because it lacks the exothermic reaction, is potentially osteoconductive and is ..
  44. Cho B, Park J, Baik B, Kim I. Clinical application of injectable calcium sulfate on early bony consolidation in distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of craniofacial microsomia. J Craniofac Surg. 2002;13:465-75; discussion 475-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this project was to study the effect of calcium sulfate on early bony consolidation in distraction osteogenesis. A total of eight patients with craniofacial microsomia were treated between April 2000 and February 2001...
  45. Perry A, Mahar A, Massie J, Arrieta N, Garfin S, Kim C. Biomechanical evaluation of kyphoplasty with calcium sulfate cement in a cadaveric osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture model. Spine J. 2005;5:489-93 pubmed
    ..PMMA has several disadvantages such as potential thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity. Calcium sulfate cement (CSC) is nontoxic, osteoconductive, and bioabsorbable.
  46. Stubbs D, Deakin M, Chapman Sheath P, Bruce W, Debes J, Gillies R, et al. In vivo evaluation of resorbable bone graft substitutes in a rabbit tibial defect model. Biomaterials. 2004;25:5037-44 pubmed
    b>Calcium sulfate as a bone graft substitute is rapidly resorbed in vivo releasing calcium ions but fails to provide long-term three-dimensional framework to support osteoconduction...
  47. Shi B, Zhou Y, Wang Y, Cheng X. Alveolar ridge preservation prior to implant placement with surgical-grade calcium sulfate and platelet-rich plasma: a pilot study in a canine model. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2007;22:656-65 pubmed
    To evaluate the combination of surgical-grade calcium sulfate (SGCS) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for alveolar ridge preservation prior to implant placement.
  48. Song H, Esfakur Rahman A, Lee B. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using chitosan and citric acid. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009;20:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..solution as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powders as the solid phase was prepared...
  49. Bibbo C, Patel D. The effect of demineralized bone matrix-calcium sulfate with vancomycin on calcaneal fracture healing and infection rates: a prospective study. Foot Ankle Int. 2006;27:487-93 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that human demineralized bone matrix (DBM) calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) might act as a reasonable alternative to autograft in calcaneal fractures...
  50. Chen W, Tsai T, Chen L, Niu C, Lai P, Fu T, et al. The fusion rate of calcium sulfate with local autograft bone compared with autologous iliac bone graft for instrumented short-segment spinal fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005;30:2293-7 pubmed
    ..A prospective study...
  51. Papanicolaou F, Antoniou S, Pashalidis I. Experimental and theoretical studies on physico-chemical parameters affecting the solubility of phosphogypsum. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:854-7 pubmed publisher
  52. Strocchi R, Orsini G, Iezzi G, Scarano A, Rubini C, Pecora G, et al. Bone regeneration with calcium sulfate: evidence for increased angiogenesis in rabbits. J Oral Implantol. 2002;28:273-8 pubmed
    ..b>Calcium sulfate (CS) is a well-tolerated, biodegradable, osteoconductive bone graft substitute and is a reasonable ..
  53. Richelsoph K, Webb N, Haggard W. Elution behavior of daptomycin-loaded calcium sulfate pellets: a preliminary study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;461:68-73 pubmed
    ..b>Calcium sulfate dihydrate as a delivery vehicle is readily resorbable, allows new bone formation, and can be combined with ..
  54. Cain W, Jalowayski A, Kleinman M, Lee N, Lee B, Ahn B, et al. Sensory and associated reactions to mineral dusts: sodium borate, calcium oxide, and calcium sulfate. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2004;1:222-36 pubmed
    ..of calcium oxide (1 to 5 mg/m(3)), sodium tetraborate pentahydrate [sodium borate] (5 to 40 mg/m(3)), and calcium sulfate (10 to 40 mg/m(3)); (2) examined correlates of the chemesthetic sensations; and (3) sought to illuminate the ..
  55. Kelly C, Wilkins R. Treatment of benign bone lesions with an injectable calcium sulfate-based bone graft substitute. Orthopedics. 2004;27:s131-5 pubmed
    ..b>Calcium sulfate has a long-standing history in the treatment of bone voids secondary to trauma, infection, or neoplastic ..
  56. Intini G, Andreana S, Margarone J, Bush P, Dziak R. Engineering a bioactive matrix by modifications of calcium sulfate. Tissue Eng. 2002;8:997-1008 pubmed
    ..was that a composite graft could be engineered by the absorption of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) onto calcium sulfate (CS)...
  57. Intini G, Andreana S, Intini F, Buhite R, Bobek L. Calcium sulfate and platelet-rich plasma make a novel osteoinductive biomaterial for bone regeneration. J Transl Med. 2007;5:13 pubmed
    ..Thus, we engineered CS-Platelet, a biomaterial based on the combination of Calcium Sulfate and Platelet-Rich Plasma in which Calcium Sulfate also acts as an activator of the platelets, therefore ..
  58. Yi X, Wang Y, Lu H, Li C, Zhu T. Augmentation of pedicle screw fixation strength using an injectable calcium sulfate cement: an in vivo study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33:2503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An in vivo landrace model of cement augmentation of pedicle screw was established, and axial pull-out tests and histological analysis were performed...
  59. Yu B, Han K, Ma H, Zhang C, Su J, Zhao J, et al. Treatment of tibial plateau fractures with high strength injectable calcium sulphate. Int Orthop. 2009;33:1127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of MIIGX3 in the treatment of tibial plateau fractures provides adequate intraoperative stability and improves the safety of early knee motion...
  60. Glazer P, Spencer U, Alkalay R, Schwardt J. In vivo evaluation of calcium sulfate as a bone graft substitute for lumbar spinal fusion. Spine J. 2001;1:395-401 pubmed
    ..Bone substitutes have been proposed to augment or replace autologous bone for spinal surgery. Calcium sulfate offers high porosity, osteoconductivity, and high resorption rate...
  61. Turner T, Urban R, Gitelis S, Haggard W, Richelsoph K. Resorption evaluation of a large bolus of calcium sulfate in a canine medullary defect. Orthopedics. 2003;26:s577-9 pubmed
    New bone formation and resorption of a calcium sulfate bone graft substitute implanted in five canines were evaluated in this study. Healing was assessed radiographically at 2, 6, and 13 weeks...
  62. Nilsson M, Fernandez E, Sarda S, Lidgren L, Planell J. Characterization of a novel calcium phosphate/sulphate bone cement. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002;61:600-7 pubmed
    ..Observations in environmental scanning electron microscopy confirmed the X-ray diffraction results. CSH-crystals (100 microm) were embedded in the HA-matrix permitting gradual porosity in the material when resorbed...
  63. De Leonardis D, Pecora G. Augmentation of the maxillary sinus with calcium sulfate: one-year clinical report from a prospective longitudinal study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1999;14:869-78 pubmed
    ..was to evaluate the clinical and histologic results of a sinus augmentation procedure performed using calcium sulfate as the grafting material. A group of 12 patients (15 sinuses) formed the pilot group...
  64. Hui T, Yongqing X, Tiane Z, Gang L, Yonggang Y, Muyao J, et al. Treatment of osteomyelitis by liposomal gentamicin-impregnated calcium sulfate. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129:1301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to develop a new drug-delivery system of antibiotics for treatment of chronic experimental osteomyelitis...