roxarsone

Summary

Summary: An arsenic derivative which has anticoccidial action and promotes growth in animals.

Top Publications

  1. Stolz J, Perera E, Kilonzo B, Kail B, Crable B, Fisher E, et al. Biotransformation of 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzene arsonic acid (roxarsone) and release of inorganic arsenic by Clostridium species. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:818-23 pubmed
    The extensive use of 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzene arsonic acid (roxarsone) in the production of broiler chickens can lead to increased soil arsenic concentration and arsenic contaminated dust...
  2. Basu P, Ghosh R, Grove L, Klei L, Barchowsky A. Angiogenic potential of 3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsonic acid (roxarsone). Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:520-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsonic acid) is an arsenic compound widely used in the poultry industry as a feed additive to prevent coccidiosis, stimulate growth, and to improve tissue pigmentation...
  3. Chapman H, Johnson Z. Use of antibiotics and roxarsone in broiler chickens in the USA: analysis for the years 1995 to 2000. Poult Sci. 2002;81:356-64 pubmed
    ..1% of broiler production units, but by 2000, ANT use had declined to 64.8, 66.9, and 48.1% respectively. Roxarsone (ROX) was used in the starter and grower feeds by 69.8 and 73.9% of production units...
  4. Bednar A, Garbarino J, Ferrer I, Rutherford D, Wershaw R, Ranville J, et al. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates. Sci Total Environ. 2003;302:237-45 pubmed
    ..b>Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial ..
  5. Garbarino J, Bednar A, Rutherford D, Beyer R, Wershaw R. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. I. Degradation of roxarsone during composting. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:1509-14 pubmed
    b>Roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound that is used extensively in the feed of broiler poultry to control coccidial intestinal parasites, improve feed efficiency, and promote rapid growth...
  6. Laster C, Hoerr F, Bilgili S, Kincaid S. Effects of dietary roxarsone supplementation, lighting program, and season on the incidence of leg abnormalities in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 1999;78:197-203 pubmed
    ..2 factorial experiments were designed to test the effects of four diets, differing in anticoccidial programs and roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) content, and two lighting programs on the incidence of leg abnormalities ..
  7. Rutherford D, Bednar A, Garbarino J, Needham R, Staver K, Wershaw R. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:1515-20 pubmed
    ..Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column. ..
  8. Silbergeld E, Nachman K. The environmental and public health risks associated with arsenical use in animal feeds. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1140:346-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This continued expansion of arsenical drug use may likely increase the burden of global human arsenic exposure and risk. ..
  9. Hu J, Tong Z, Hu Z, Chen G, Chen T. Adsorption of roxarsone from aqueous solution by multi-walled carbon nanotubes. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2012;377:355-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound serving as a common feeding additive in poultry industry, brings about potential risk of the toxic inorganic arsenate contamination in ambient environment...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Li C, Wang X, Li N, Wu C. Microarray analysis revealed that immunity-associated genes are primarily regulated by roxarsone in promoting broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) growth. Poult Sci. 2012;91:3184-90 pubmed publisher
    Addition of roxarsone can significantly improve the growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Nevertheless, this application will lead to the contamination of the environment as well as animal products...
  2. Yao L, Huang L, He Z, Zhou C, Li G. Occurrence of arsenic impurities in organoarsenics and animal feeds. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:320-4 pubmed publisher
    Organoarsenics are widely used as excellent feed additives in animal production in the world. Roxarsone (ROX) and arsanilic acid (ASA) are two organoarsenics permitted to be used in China...
  3. Nachman K, Baron P, Raber G, Francesconi K, Navas Acien A, Love D. Roxarsone, inorganic arsenic, and other arsenic species in chicken: a U.S.-based market basket sample. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:818-24 pubmed publisher
    ..7 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0) or organic (GM = 0.6 µg/kg; 95% CI: 0.5, 0.8) samples. Roxarsone was detected in 20 of 40 conventional samples, 1 of 13 antibiotic-free samples, and none of the 25 organic ..
  4. Waldroup P, Hellwig H, Johnson Z, Krueger W, Moore R, Charles O, et al. Response of broiler chickens to dietary supplementation with roxarsone and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in diets containing narasin. Poult Sci. 1988;67:103-7 pubmed
    Six trials were conducted at different locations to examine the response of broiler chickens to roxarsone and bacitracin in the form of bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) in the presence of the anticoccidal narasin...
  5. Chen K, Chiout P. Oral treatment of mule ducks with arsenicals for inducing fatty liver. Poult Sci. 2001;80:295-301 pubmed
    ..Different levels of roxarsone were administrated: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg/d, respectively, in Trial 1...
  6. Zhang Y, Ying J, Chen J, Hu C. Assessing the genotoxic potentials of roxarsone in V79 cells using the alkaline Comet assay and micronucleus test. Mutat Res. 2012;741:65-9 pubmed publisher
    Until recently, knowledge about the genotoxicity of roxarsone in vitro or in vivo was limited. This study assessed the genotoxicity of roxarsone in an in vitro system...
  7. Izat A, Tidwell N, Thomas R, Reiber M, Adams M, Colberg M, et al. Effects of a buffered propionic acid in diets on the performance of broiler chickens and on microflora of the intestine and carcass. Poult Sci. 1990;69:818-26 pubmed
    ..There was a significant interaction between the Salmonella dosage and the time of feeding BPA on dressing percentage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  8. Sierra Alvarez R, Cortinas I, Yenal U, Field J. Methanogenic inhibition by arsenic compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:5688-91 pubmed
    ..1 and 15.0 microM, respectively, whereas pentavalent species were generally nontoxic. The nitrophenylarsonate derivate, roxarsone, displayed moderate toxicity.
  9. Chapman H, Marsler P, LaVorgna M. The effects of salinomycin and roxarsone on the performance of broilers when included in the feed for four, five, or six weeks and infected with Eimeria species during the starter or grower phase of production. Poult Sci. 2004;83:761-4 pubmed
    ..Immunity to Eimeria tenella had developed by 8 wk in birds medicated for 4, 5, or 6 wk if infected at 18 d of age. Immunity did not develop in those birds medicated for 6 wk when infected at 35 d. ..
  10. Chen W, Huang C. Surface adsorption of organoarsenic roxarsone and arsanilic acid on iron and aluminum oxides. J Hazard Mater. 2012;227-228:378-85 pubmed publisher
    Aromatic organoarsenicals roxarsone (ROX) and p-arsanilic acid (ASA) are common feed additives for livestock and could be released into the environment via animal manure and agricultural runoff...
  11. Zhu J, Cui W, Liu X, Ying J, Hu C, Zhang Y. In vitro and ex vivo angiogenic effects of roxarsone on rat endothelial cells. Toxicol Lett. 2013;223:175-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone, a feed additive, is being used worldwide to promote animal growth. However, the potential effect of roxarsone on angiogenesis has not been extensively characterized...
  12. Chen K, Wu C, Chiou P. Effect of roxarsone inclusion in the diet on the performance and hepatic lipid metabolism of laying Tsaiya duck. Br Poult Sci. 2000;41:363-9 pubmed
    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) inclusion in the diet on the performance, liver function and lipid metabolism in the liver of laying Brown Tsaiya ducks. 2...
  13. Chapman H, Fitzcoy S. Effect of roxarsone and bacitracin methylene disalicylate on the development of immunity to Eimeria in broilers given a live coccidiosis vaccine. Poult Sci. 1996;75:1488-92 pubmed
    ..at 3 d of age with a live coccidiosis vaccine were observed irrespective of whether they had been given roxarsone, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, or both drugs in the feed...
  14. Berger H, Sharkey D, Gale G. Evaluation of the efficacy of maduramacin ammonium in combination with roxarsone and avoparcin in caged broiler chickens. Br Poult Sci. 1988;29:435-8 pubmed
    1. The anticoccidial activity of maduramicin ammonium (5 mg/kg food) administered alone or with roxarsone (50 mg/kg food) and/or avoparcin (10 mg/kg food) was evaluated in battery-reared broilers artificially challenged with recent field ..
  15. Waldroup P, Izat A, Primo R, Twining P, Herbert J, Trammell J, et al. The effect of zinc bacitracin and roxarsone on performance of broiler chickens when fed in combination with narasin. Poult Sci. 1990;69:898-901 pubmed
    ..at various locations to determine the response of broiler chickens to combinations of zinc bacitracin and roxarsone when fed in the presence of narasin...
  16. Armbrust K, Burns M, Crossan A, Fischhoff D, Hammond L, Johnston J, et al. Perspectives on communicating risks of chemicals. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:4676-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The case studies included risks of agricultural biotechnology, an organoarsenical (Roxarsone) in animal feed, petroleum spill-derived contamination of seafood, role of biomonitoring and other exposure ..
  17. Arroyo Abad U, Elizalde González M, Hidalgo Moreno C, Mattusch J, Wennrich R. Retention of phenylarsenicals in soils derived from volcanic materials. J Hazard Mater. 2011;186:1328-34 pubmed publisher
    Sorption of phenylarsenicals including 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (roxarsone), an animal feed additive widely used for growth stimulation, on soils was investigated in batch systems...
  18. Rizwan ul Haq M, Zhenling Z, Yongxue S, Wenguang X. Evaluation of glutathione s-transferase as toxicity indicator for roxarsone and arsanilic acid in Eisenia fetida. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:731-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Roxarsone and arsanilic acid, which have been exhaustively used as animal and poultry feed additives, pose a threat to the ..
  19. Andra S, Makris K, Quazi S, Sarkar D, Datta R, Bach S. Organocopper complexes during roxarsone degradation in wastewater lagoons. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010;17:1167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..work documented the partial transformation of organoarsenicals, such as, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) to the more toxic inorganic arsenate [As(V)] and 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA)...
  20. Sierra Alvarez R, Cortinas I, Field J. Methanogenic inhibition by roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid) and related aromatic arsenic compounds. J Hazard Mater. 2010;175:352-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenylarsonic acid) and p-arsanilic acid (4-aminophenylarsonic acid) are feed additives widely used in the broiler and swine industry...
  21. Oguntona T. Studies on the response of guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) to antibiotics. Br Poult Sci. 1988;29:683-7 pubmed
    1. The response of growing male guinea fowls to dietary supplements of oxytetracycline, Roxarsone and zinc bacitracin were investigated. 2...
  22. Gregory D, Vanhooser S, Stair E. Light and electron microscopic lesions in peripheral nerves of broiler chickens due to roxarsone and lasalocid toxicoses. Avian Dis. 1995;39:408-16 pubmed
    ..the light microscopic and ultrastructural lesions in peripheral nerves caused by feeding lasalocid and roxarsone to broiler chickens...
  23. Sapkota A, Price L, Silbergeld E, Schwab K. Arsenic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail poultry products. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:3069-71 pubmed
    ..S. poultry production. Susceptibilities to arsenite, arsenate, and the organoarsenical roxarsone were measured in 251 Campylobacter isolates from conventional and antimicrobial-free retail poultry products...
  24. Nachman K, Graham J, Price L, Silbergeld E. Arsenic: a roadblock to potential animal waste management solutions. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:1123-4 pubmed
    ..The removal of arsenic from animal feed is a critical step toward safe poultry waste management. ..
  25. Roerdink A, Aldstadt J. Sensitive method for the determination of roxarsone using solid-phase microextraction with multi-detector gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1057:177-83 pubmed
    ..optimization, and application of a novel method for the unequivocal identification and quantification of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, 3-NHPAA) at low microg L(-1) levels...
  26. Zhang Y, Wang Y, Lu Q, Xin W, Cui W, Zhu J. Organoarsenic Roxarsone Promotes Angiogenesis In Vivo. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;118:259-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone, an organoarsenic feed additive, is widely used worldwide to promote animal growth...
  27. Guo Q, Liu L, Hu Z, Chen G. Biological phosphorus removal inhibition by roxarsone in batch culture systems. Chemosphere. 2013;92:138-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone has been extensively used in the feed of animals, which is usually excreted unchanged in the manure and eventually enter into animal wastewater, challenging the biological phosphorus removal processes...
  28. Conklin S, Shockey N, Kubachka K, Howard K, Carson M. Development of an ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method to determine inorganic arsenic in liver from chickens treated with roxarsone. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:9394-404 pubmed
    b>Roxarsone, (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)arsonic acid, is an arsenic-containing compound that has been approved as a feed additive for poultry and swine since the 1940s; however, little information is available regarding residual arsenic ..
  29. Danforth H, Watkins K, Martin A, Dekich M. Evaluation of the efficacy of Eimeria maxima oocyst immunization with different strains of day-old broiler and roaster chickens. Avian Dis. 1997;41:792-801 pubmed
    ..anticoccidial shuttle diets (narasin and nicarbazin 90 grams/ton (g/t) in starter feed and narasin 72 g/t + roxarsone 45.4 g/t in grower feed; nicarbazin 113 g/t in starter feed and narasin 72 g/t + roxarsone 45...
  30. Pecelunas K, Danforth H, Schildknecht E, Davis S. Efficacy evaluation of lasalocid plus roxarsone combination medication with different geographic field strains of Eimeria acervulina. Avian Dis. 2000;44:1-7 pubmed
    Performance of broiler chickens medicated with lasalocid alone (at 125 ppm) or in combination with roxarsone (at 50 ppm) was evaluated in battery and floorpen trials after challenge with geographically different field strains of coccidia ..
  31. Joerger R, Hanning I, Ricke S. Presence of arsenic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky and other serovars isolated from poultry. Avian Dis. 2010;54:1178-82 pubmed
    ..It remains to be determined if these arsenic-resistance determinants benefit Salmonella exposed to man-made arsenic-containing compounds in poultry environments. ..
  32. Beier R, Anderson P, Hume M, Poole T, Duke S, Crippen T, et al. Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2011;8:593-600 pubmed publisher
    ..disinfectants, and the organoarsenical growth promoter, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (3-NHPAA, roxarsone), and it's metabolites, NaAsO(2) (As(III)) and Na(2)HAsO(4) • 7H(2)O (As(V))...
  33. Konkel L. Organoarsenic Drugs over Time: The Pharmacokinetics of Roxarsone in Chicken Meat. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;124:A150 pubmed publisher
  34. Li C, Wang X, Wang G, Wu C, Li N. Genome-wide expression analysis of roxarsone-stimulated growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2011;6:264-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone is a commonly used additive in chicken (Gallus gallus) industry. However, little is known on the intrinsic molecular mechanism via which the growth performance of birds improves...
  35. Rosal C, Momplaisir G, Heithmar E. Roxarsone and transformation products in chicken manure: determination by capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Electrophoresis. 2005;26:1606-14 pubmed
    The determination of the animal feed additive roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) and six of its possible transformation products (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, ..
  36. Yao L, Huang L, Bai C, He Z, Zhou C. Soil calcium significantly promotes uptake of inorganic arsenic by garland chrysanthemum (ChrysanthemumL coronarium) fertilized with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:16429-16439 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed organoarsenic additive, occurs as itself and its metabolites in animal manure that is commonly land used as fertilizer. Soil property impacts arsenic (As) speciation and bioavailability...
  37. Izquierdo O, Parsons C, Baker D. Interactive effects of monensin, roxarsone, and copper in young chickens infected with Eimeria tenella or a combination of E: tenella and E. acervulina. Poult Sci. 1987;66:1934-40 pubmed
    Experiments were conducted with crossbred male chicks to evaluate the interactions among roxarsone (50 mg/kg), monensin (121 mg/kg), and copper sulfate (100 mg/kg) as treatments for experimental Eimeria tenella and E...
  38. Liu J, Yu H, Song H, Qiu J, Sun F, Li P, et al. Simultaneous determination of p-arsanilic acid and roxarsone in feed by liquid chromatography-hydride generation online coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry. J Environ Monit. 2008;10:975-8 pubmed publisher
    ..spectrometry (LC-HG-AFS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) and roxarsone in feed...
  39. Makris K, Salazar J, Quazi S, Andra S, Sarkar D, Bach S, et al. Controlling the fate of roxarsone and inorganic arsenic in poultry litter. J Environ Qual. 2008;37:963-71 pubmed publisher
    A growing body of literature reports 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (roxarsone) degradation in poultry litter (PL) to the more toxic inorganic arsenic (As)...
  40. Sapp R, Davidson S. Determination of Roxarsone in feeds using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J AOAC Int. 1993;76:956-61 pubmed
    A method is presented for detection and quantitation of Roxarsone in poultry feed by liquid chromatography. The drug is extracted by phosphate buffer and determined by solid phase extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography...
  41. Waldroup P, Hellwig H, Johnson Z, Fell R, Grant R, Damron B, et al. Response of broiler chickens to addition of bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone to diets containing halofuginone. Poult Sci. 1987;66:1640-3 pubmed
    ..over a 7-yr period to evaluate the response of broiler chickens to bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) and roxarsone in the presence of diets containing 3 ppm halofuginone/kg feed...
  42. Yao L, Li G, Dang Z, Yang B, He Z, Zhou C. Uptake and transport of roxarsone and its metabolites in water spinach as affected by phosphate supply. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:947-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone (ROX) is widely used as a feed additive in intensive animal production...
  43. Abdo K, Elwell M, Montgomery C, Thompson M, Thompson R, Prejean J. Toxic responses in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice given roxarsone in their diets for up to 13 weeks. Toxicol Lett. 1989;45:55-66 pubmed
    Thirteen-week toxicity studies were conducted in groups of 10 F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex fed roxarsone at 0, 50, 100, 200, 400, or 800 ppm in the diet...
  44. Rath N, Chapman H, Fitz Coy S, Balog J, Huff G, Huff W. Effects of roxarsone and monensin on digital flexoral tendons of broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 1998;77:523-8 pubmed
    b>Roxarsone and monensin are common poultry feed additives that are used alone or in combination with other drugs to improve growth and feed utilization in young birds...
  45. Olavarría Fullerton J, Wells S, Ortiz Rivera W, Sepaniak M, De Jesus M. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) characterization of trace organoarsenic antimicrobials using silver/polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposites. Appl Spectrosc. 2011;65:423-8 pubmed publisher
    Organoarsenic drugs such as roxarsone and 4-arsanilic acid are poultry feed additives widely used in US broilers to prevent coccidosis and to enhance growth and pigmentation...
  46. Fisher E, Dawson A, Polshyna G, Lisak J, Crable B, Perera E, et al. Transformation of inorganic and organic arsenic by Alkaliphilus oremlandii sp. nov. strain OhILAs. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1125:230-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A. oremlandii also transforms the organoarsenical 3-nitro-4-hydroxy benzene arsonic acid (roxarsone)...
  47. Wang L, Wang S, Chen W. Roxarsone desorption from the surface of goethite by competitive anions, phosphate and hydroxide ions: Significance of the presence of metal ions. Chemosphere. 2016;152:423-30 pubmed publisher
    Aromatic organoarsenical roxarsone (ROX) is a common additive for livestock feed...
  48. Mathers J, Clark S, Hausmann D, Tillman P, Benning V, Gordon S. Inhibition of resistance plasmid transfer in Escherichia coli by ionophores, chlortetracycline, bacitracin, and ionophore/antimicrobial combinations. Avian Dis. 2004;48:317-23 pubmed
    ..testing of ionophore compounds separately and in combination with bacitracin, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, roxarsone, tylosin, and virginiamycin at representative feed concentrations demonstrated 80.6% to >99...
  49. Brown T, Larsen C, Boyd D, Allen B. Ulcerative cholecystitis produced by 3-nitro-4-hydroxy-phenylarsonic acid toxicosis in turkey poults. Avian Dis. 1991;35:241-3 pubmed
    ..Turkeys 31 days old were given up to 0.004% 3-NITRO in their water for 6 days, but no gall bladder ulcers were present in these poults. The toxicity to turkeys of 3-NITRO in the water appears to be age-dependent. ..
  50. Huang L, Yao L, He Z, Zhou C, Li G, Yang B, et al. Uptake of arsenic species by turnip (Brassica rapa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with roxarsone and its metabolites in chicken manure. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2013;30:1546-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone is an organoarsenic feed additive that can be metabolised to other higher toxic arsenic (As) species in animal manure such as arsenate, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid ..
  51. Yao L, Huang L, He Z, Zhou C, Li G, Yang B, et al. External inorganic N source enhances the uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) amended with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites. J Hazard Mater. 2013;254-255:270-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed organoarsenic additive, is excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly applied with N fertilizer to meet the N demand of crop...
  52. Bafundo K, Schlegel B, Tonkinson L, Donovan D. Effect of narasin and roxarsone combinations on Eimeria tenella infections in floor pen-raised broilers. Poult Sci. 1989;68:1011-4 pubmed
    A series of four floor pen trials was conducted to evaluate the effects of narasin and roxarsone, both alone and in combination, on their capacity to control severe Eimeria tenella infections in broilers...
  53. Callait M, Granier C, Chauve C, Zenner L. In vitro activity of therapeutic drugs against Histomonas meleagridis (Smith, 1895). Poult Sci. 2002;81:1122-7 pubmed
    ..b>Roxarsone, an arsenical derivate similar to nitarsone (the only authorized drug in United States), is effective at high ..