arsenates

Summary

Summary: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.

Top Publications

  1. Hughes M, Edwards B, Herbin Davis K, Saunders J, Styblo M, Thomas D. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotype affects steady-state distribution and clearance of arsenic in arsenate-treated mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2010;249:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered retention and tissue tropism of arsenic in As3mt knockout mice could affect the toxic or carcinogenic effects associated with exposure to this metalloid or its methylated metabolites...
  2. Niegel C, Matysik F. Analytical methods for the determination of arsenosugars--a review of recent trends and developments. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;657:83-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The typical experimental approaches for sample pre-treatment, extraction, separation and detection are discussed. Current possibilities and limitations of modern instrumental techniques are pointed out...
  3. Bin Sayeed M, Ratan M, Hossen F, Hassan F, Faisal M, Kadir M. Arsenosugar induced blood and brain oxidative stress, DNA damage and neurobehavioral impairments. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This might be responsible for the dysfunction of cognitive and motor functions. However, further investigation is suggested for deciphering the biomolecular mechanism...
  4. Pinyayev T, Kohan M, Herbin Davis K, Creed J, Thomas D. Preabsorptive metabolism of sodium arsenate by anaerobic microbiota of mouse cecum forms a variety of methylated and thiolated arsenicals. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011;24:475-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolism of ingested arsenate to oxy- and thio-arsenicals before absorption across the gastrointestinal barrier could affect bioavailability, systemic distribution, and resulting toxicity...
  5. Calatayud M, Gimeno J, Velez D, Devesa V, Montoro R. Characterization of the intestinal absorption of arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid using the Caco-2 cell line. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained constitute the basis for future research on the mechanisms involved in the intestinal absorption of arsenic and its species, a decisive step in relation to their toxic action...
  6. Feldmann J, Krupp E. Critical review or scientific opinion paper: arsenosugars--a class of benign arsenic species or justification for developing partly speciated arsenic fractionation in foodstuffs?. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;399:1735-41 pubmed publisher
  7. Matia González A, Rodríguez Gabriel M. Slt2 MAPK pathway is essential for cell integrity in the presence of arsenate. Yeast. 2011;28:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results support the idea that cellular exposure to arsenate results in induction of cellular signalling pathways different from those induced under arsenite treatment...
  8. Chen W, Chi Y, Taylor N, Lambers H, Finnegan P. Disruption of ptLPD1 or ptLPD2, genes that encode isoforms of the plastidial lipoamide dehydrogenase, confers arsenate hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the ptLPD isoforms are critical in vivo determinants of arsenite-mediated arsenic sensitivity in Arabidopsis and possible strategic targets for increasing arsenic tolerance...
  9. Wang N, Li Y, Deng X, Miao A, Ji R, Yang L. Toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics of arsenate in two freshwater green algae under different phosphate regimes. Water Res. 2013;47:2497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Both phenomena imply that algae especially the sensitive species could make physiological adjustments to alleviate the adverse effects of arsenate. Overall, our findings will facilitate the application of algae in arsenate remediation...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Wolfe Simon F, Switzer Blum J, Kulp T, Gordon G, Hoeft S, Pett Ridge J, et al. A bacterium that can grow by using arsenic instead of phosphorus. Science. 2011;332:1163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show evidence for arsenate in macromolecules that normally contain phosphate, most notably nucleic acids and proteins. Exchange of one of the major bio-elements may have profound evolutionary and geochemical importance...
  2. Nemeti B, Regonesi M, Tortora P, Gregus Z. Polynucleotide phosphorylase and mitochondrial ATP synthase mediate reduction of arsenate to the more toxic arsenite by forming arsenylated analogues of ADP and ATP. Toxicol Sci. 2010;117:270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, whereas PNPase promotes reduction of AsV by incorporating it into AMP-AsV, the mitochondrial ATP synthase facilitates AsV reduction by forming ADP-AsV; then GSH can easily reduce these arsenylated nucleotides to AsIII...
  3. Kissel J. Arsenic on the hands of children. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:A364; author reply A364-5 pubmed
  4. Gresser M. ADP-arsenate. Formation by submitochondrial particles under phosphorylating conditions. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:5981-3 pubmed
    ..The glucose 6-arsenate thus formed hydrolyzes, at pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C, under the conditions used, with a rate constant of 5.5 X 10(-4) s-1 and is a substrate for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase...
  5. Wester R, Hui X, Barbadillo S, Maibach H, Lowney Y, Schoof R, et al. In vivo percutaneous absorption of arsenic from water and CCA-treated wood residue. Toxicol Sci. 2004;79:287-95 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the results show that arsenic is poorly absorbed from CCA-treated wood residues (i.e., does not result in urinary arsenic excretion above background levels). ..
  6. Chirenje T, Ma L, Clark C, Reeves M. Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to pressure-treated decks, fences and poles. Environ Pollut. 2003;124:407-17 pubmed
    ..These results are helpful for CCA-treated wood product users to determine the safe use of these structures. ..
  7. Lewandowicz A, Schramm V. Transition state analysis for human and Plasmodium falciparum purine nucleoside phosphorylases. Biochemistry. 2004;43:1458-68 pubmed
    ..The large 5'-(3)H KIE reveals substantial distortion at the 5'-hydroxymethyl group which causes loosening of the C5'-H5' bonds during the reaction coordinate. ..
  8. Hughes M, Kenyon E, Edwards B, Mitchell C, Razo L, Thomas D. Accumulation and metabolism of arsenic in mice after repeated oral administration of arsenate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2003;191:202-10 pubmed
    ..A trimethylated metabolite was also detected in the liver. Tissue accumulation of arsenic after repeated po exposure to arsenate in the mouse corresponds to the known human target organs for iAs-induced carcinogenicity. ..
  9. Gregus Z, Nemeti B. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase as a cytosolic arsenate reductase. Toxicol Sci. 2002;70:13-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, PNP appears to be responsible for the AsV reductase activity of rat liver cytosol in the presence of DTT. Further research should clarify the mechanism and the in vivo significance of PNP-catalyzed reduction of AsV to AsIII. ..
  10. Roberts S, Munson J, Lowney Y, Ruby M. Relative oral bioavailability of arsenic from contaminated soils measured in the cynomolgus monkey. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:281-8 pubmed
  11. Raml R, Raber G, Rumpler A, Bauernhofer T, Goessler W, Francesconi K. Individual variability in the human metabolism of an arsenic-containing carbohydrate, 2',3'-dihydroxypropyl 5-deoxy-5-dimethylarsinoyl-beta-D-riboside, a naturally occurring arsenical in seafood. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:1534-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The large variability in the way individuals metabolize arsenosugars has implications for risk assessment of arsenic intake from seafood. ..
  12. Zartarian V, Xue J, Ozkaynak H, Dang W, Glen G, Smith L, et al. A probabilistic arsenic exposure assessment for children who contact CCA-treated playsets and decks, Part 1: Model methodology, variability results, and model evaluation. Risk Anal. 2006;26:515-31 pubmed
    ..SHEDS-Wood estimates are typically consistent with, or within the range of, other CCA exposure models. ..
  13. Yuan C, Lu X, Oro N, Wang Z, Xia Y, Wade T, et al. Arsenic speciation analysis in human saliva. Clin Chem. 2008;54:163-71 pubmed
    ..Determination of arsenic species in saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure and studying arsenic metabolism. Arsenic speciation in saliva has not been reported previously...
  14. Pickering I, Gumaelius L, Harris H, Prince R, Hirsch G, Banks J, et al. Localizing the biochemical transformations of arsenate in a hyperaccumulating fern. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:5010-4 pubmed
    ..This study provides important insights into arsenic hyperaccumulation, which may prove useful for phytoremediating arsenic-contaminated sites, and demonstrates the strengths of XAS imaging for distinguishing highly localized species. ..
  15. Stilwell D, Toner M, Sawhney B. Dislodgeable copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated wood surfaces. Sci Total Environ. 2003;312:123-31 pubmed
    ..0+/-0.4 for As dislodged over time. Apparently, on installations constructed with CCA-treated wood, arsenic may remain available for a number of years. ..
  16. Almela C, Laparra J, Velez D, Barbera R, Farre R, Montoro R. Arsenosugars in raw and cooked edible seaweed: characterization and bioaccessibility. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:7344-51 pubmed
    ..In all of the seaweeds analyzed, arsenosugar bioaccessibility was high (>80%) and did not vary as a result of cooking. Arsenosugar degradation as a result of in vitro digestion was not observed. ..
  17. McCarty K, Chen Y, Quamruzzaman Q, Rahman M, Mahiuddin G, Hsueh Y, et al. Arsenic methylation, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 polymorphisms, and skin lesions. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:341-5 pubmed
    ..The interaction between GSTT1 wildtype and secondary methylation ratio modifies risk of skin lesions among arsenic-exposed individuals. ..
  18. Gentry P, Covington T, Mann S, Shipp A, Yager J, Clewell H. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of arsenic in the mouse. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2004;67:43-71 pubmed
  19. Dhankher O, Li Y, Rosen B, Shi J, Salt D, Senecoff J, et al. Engineering tolerance and hyperaccumulation of arsenic in plants by combining arsenate reductase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. Nat Biotechnol. 2002;20:1140-5 pubmed
    ..This arsenic remediation strategy should be applicable to a wide variety of plant species. ..
  20. Kwon E, Zhang H, Wang Z, Jhangri G, Lu X, Fok N, et al. Arsenic on the hands of children after playing in playgrounds. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:1375-80 pubmed
    ..The maximum amount of arsenic on children's hands from the entire group of study participants was < 4 microg, which is lower than the average daily intake of arsenic from water and food. ..
  21. Nemeti B, Gregus Z. Mechanism of thiol-supported arsenate reduction mediated by phosphorolytic-arsenolytic enzymes: I. The role of arsenolysis. Toxicol Sci. 2009;110:270-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis is evaluated in the adjoining paper. ..
  22. Hingston J, Collins C, Murphy R, Lester J. Leaching of chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives: a review. Environ Pollut. 2001;111:53-66 pubmed
    ..It is concluded from the literature that insufficient data exists regarding these effects to allow accurate quantification of leaching rates, and also highlights the need for standardised leaching protocols...
  23. Balasoiu C, Zagury G, Deschenes L. Partitioning and speciation of chromium, copper, and arsenic in CCA-contaminated soils: influence of soil composition. Sci Total Environ. 2001;280:239-55 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, in organic soils, arsenite was found in significant proportions (average value of 29% in highly organic soils). This indicates that some reduction of arsenate to arsenite occurred since the original species in CCA is As(V)...
  24. Xu X, McGrath S, Zhao F. Rapid reduction of arsenate in the medium mediated by plant roots. New Phytol. 2007;176:590-9 pubmed
    ..Tomato and rice roots rapidly reduce arsenate to arsenite, some of which is actively effluxed to the medium. The study reveals a new aspect of As metabolism in plants...
  25. Quaghebeur M, Rengel Z. The distribution of arsenate and arsenite in shoots and roots of Holcus lanatus is influenced by arsenic tolerance and arsenate and phosphate supply. Plant Physiol. 2003;132:1600-9 pubmed
    ..Although the reduction capacity was limited, the reduction was closely regulated by As influx for all treatments. The results therefore provide a new understanding about As metabolism in H. lanatus...
  26. Hughes M, Kenyon E, Edwards B, Mitchell C, Thomas D. Strain-dependent disposition of inorganic arsenic in the mouse. Toxicology. 1999;137:95-108 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of the role of phenotype in the disposition and toxicity of iAs would reduce the uncertainty in arsenic risk assessment...
  27. Francesconi K, Tanggaar R, McKenzie C, Goessler W. Arsenic metabolites in human urine after ingestion of an arsenosugar. Clin Chem. 2002;48:92-101 pubmed
    ..Arsenic-containing carbohydrates (arsenosugars) are common constituents of marine algae, including those species used as human food. The toxicology of these compounds has not been fully evaluated...
  28. Blum J, Han S, Lanoil B, Saltikov C, Witte B, Tabita F, et al. Ecophysiology of "Halarsenatibacter silvermanii" strain SLAS-1T, gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultative chemoautotrophic arsenate respirer from salt-saturated Searles Lake, California. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:1950-60 pubmed publisher
  29. Bleeker P, Hakvoort H, Bliek M, Souer E, Schat H. Enhanced arsenate reduction by a CDC25-like tyrosine phosphatase explains increased phytochelatin accumulation in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Plant J. 2006;45:917-29 pubmed
    ..It is argued that, next to decreased uptake, enhanced expression of HlASR might act as an additional determinant of As(V) hypertolerance and As transport in H. lanatus...
  30. Raml R, Goessler W, Traar P, Ochi T, Francesconi K. Novel thioarsenic metabolites in human urine after ingestion of an arsenosugar, 2',3'-dihydroxypropyl 5-deoxy-5-dimethylarsinoyl-beta-D-riboside. Chem Res Toxicol. 2005;18:1444-50 pubmed
    ..Cytotoxicity testing of the major metabolites DMA, oxo-DMAE, thio-DMAE, oxo-DMAA, and thio-DMAA showed that they were nontoxic even at 10 mM, except for DMA, which showed some toxic effects at 1 mM...
  31. Ji G, Silver S. Regulation and expression of the arsenic resistance operon from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:3684-94 pubmed
    ..Partial deletion of 56 bp from the 3' end of the arsC gene resulted in loss of resistance to arsenate; the determinant retained arsenite and antimonite resistances...
  32. Hartley Whitaker J, Ainsworth G, Vooijs R, Ten Bookum W, Schat H, Meharg A. Phytochelatins are involved in differential arsenate tolerance in Holcus lanatus. Plant Physiol. 2001;126:299-306 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that arsenate tolerance in H. lanatus requires both adaptive suppression of the high-affinity phosphate uptake system and constitutive phytochelatin production...
  33. Kenyon E, Hughes M, Adair B, Highfill J, Crecelius E, Clewell H, et al. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic and its methylated metabolites in C57BL6 mice following subchronic exposure to arsenate in drinking water. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;232:448-55 pubmed publisher
  34. Hemond H, Solo Gabriele H. Children's exposure to arsenic from CCA-treated wooden decks and playground structures. Risk Anal. 2004;24:51-64 pubmed
  35. Gregus Z, Roos G, Geerlings P, Nemeti B. Mechanism of thiol-supported arsenate reduction mediated by phosphorolytic-arsenolytic enzymes: II. Enzymatic formation of arsenylated products susceptible for reduction to arsenite by thiols. Toxicol Sci. 2009;110:282-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of this view, reactivity studies using conceptual density functional theory reactivity descriptors (local softness, nucleofugality) indicate that reduction by thiols of the arsenylated metabolites is favored over AsV...
  36. Ellis D, Gumaelius L, Indriolo E, Pickering I, Banks J, Salt D. A novel arsenate reductase from the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:1544-54 pubmed
    ..The unusual active site of PvACR2 and the arsenate reductase activities of cell-free extracts correlate with the ability of P. vittata to hyperaccumulate arsenite, suggesting that PvACR2 may play an important role in this process...
  37. El Masri H, Kenyon E. Development of a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for inorganic arsenic and its mono- and di-methylated metabolites. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2008;35:31-68 pubmed
    ..Recently published urinary excretion data, not previously used in model development, are also used to evaluate model predictions...
  38. Francesconi K, Kuehnelt D. Determination of arsenic species: a critical review of methods and applications, 2000-2003. Analyst. 2004;129:373-95 pubmed
    ..We review recent research in the field of arsenic speciation analysis with the emphasis on significant advances, novel applications and current uncertainties...
  39. Kertulis Tartar G, Ma L, Tu C, Chirenje T. Phytoremediation of an arsenic-contaminated site using Pteris vittata L.: a two-year study. Int J Phytoremediation. 2006;8:311-22 pubmed
    ..However, better agronomic practices are needed to enhance plant growth and arsenic uptake to obtain maximum soil arsenic removal and to minimize remediation time...
  40. Rubinos D, Barral M, Ruiz B, Ruiz M, Rial M, Alvarez M, et al. Phosphate and arsenate retention in sediments of the Anllóns river (northwest Spain). Water Sci Technol. 2003;48:159-66 pubmed
    ..The results obtained provide a first estimate of the sorption behavior and availability of the phosphate and arsenate anions in the sediments of the Anllóns river...
  41. Hansen H, Raab A, Francesconi K, Feldmann I. Metabolism of arsenic by sheep chronically exposed to arsenosugars as a normal part of their diet. 1. Quantitative intake, uptake, and excretion. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:845-51 pubmed
  42. Rossi M, Somji S, Garrett S, Sens M, Nath J, Sens D. Expression of hsp 27, hsp 60, hsc 70, and hsp 70 stress response genes in cultured human urothelial cells (UROtsa) exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of sodium arsenite. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:1225-32 pubmed
  43. Hollibaugh J, Budinoff C, Hollibaugh R, Ransom B, Bano N. Sulfide oxidation coupled to arsenate reduction by a diverse microbial community in a soda lake. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2043-9 pubmed
    ..A realgar-like As/S mineral was formed in some experiments...
  44. Nico P, Fendorf S, Lowney Y, Holm S, Ruby M. Chemical structure of arsenic and chromium in CCA-treated wood: implications of environmental weathering. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:5253-60 pubmed
    ..Long-term stability of the As/Cr cluster is suggested by its persistence from the new wood through the aged wood and the dislodgeable residue...
  45. Zagury G, Samson R, Deschênes L. Occurrence of metals in soil and ground water near chromated copper arsenate-treated utility poles. J Environ Qual. 2003;32:507-14 pubmed
    ..000 mg L(-1) and <0.05 mg L(-1), respectively and Cr(VI) was <0.02 mg L(-1). One sample contained an As concentration >0.025 mg L(-1) but bioassays showed that, overall, ground water had a low ecotoxic potential...
  46. Williams P, Islam M, Adomako E, Raab A, Hossain S, Zhu Y, et al. Increase in rice grain arsenic for regions of Bangladesh irrigating paddies with elevated arsenic in groundwaters. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:4903-8 pubmed
    ..Daily consumption of rice with a total arsenic level of 0.08 microg As g(-1) would be equivalent to a drinking water arsenic level of 10 microg L(-1)...
  47. Raab A, Schat H, Meharg A, Feldmann J. Uptake, translocation and transformation of arsenate and arsenite in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): formation of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes during exposure to high arsenic concentrations. New Phytol. 2005;168:551-8 pubmed
    ..annuus...
  48. Lin T, Wu J. Adsorption of arsenite and arsenate within activated alumina grains: equilibrium and kinetics. Water Res. 2001;35:2049-57 pubmed
    ..The agreement among the models and experimental data indicated that the adsorption and diffusion of arsenate and arsenite can be simulated by the proposed model...
  49. Styblo M, Del Razo L, Vega L, Germolec D, LeCluyse E, Hamilton G, et al. Comparative toxicity of trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals in rat and human cells. Arch Toxicol. 2000;74:289-99 pubmed
  50. Kobayashi I, Fujiwara S, Shimogawara K, Sakuma C, Shida Y, Kaise T, et al. High intracellular phosphorus contents exhibit a correlation with arsenate resistance in chlamydomonas mutants. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:489-96 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the intracellular level of P is one of the important factors of arsenate resistance...
  51. Ji G, Silver S. Reduction of arsenate to arsenite by the ArsC protein of the arsenic resistance operon of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9474-8 pubmed
    ..Purified ArsC protein coupled in vitro with thioredoxin plus dithiothreitol (but not 2-mercaptoethanol or reduced glutathione) to reduce arsenate to arsenite...
  52. Saltikov C, Cifuentes A, Venkateswaran K, Newman D. The ars detoxification system is advantageous but not required for As(V) respiration by the genetically tractable Shewanella species strain ANA-3. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:2800-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ArsB and ArsC may be useful for As(V)-respiring bacteria in environments where As concentrations are high, but that neither is required for respiration...
  53. Lee D, Chen A, Schroeder J. ars1, an Arabidopsis mutant exhibiting increased tolerance to arsenate and increased phosphate uptake. Plant J. 2003;35:637-46 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that arsenate tolerance in ars1 could be due to a new mechanism mediated by increased phosphate uptake in ars1. Models discussing how increased phosphate uptake could contribute to arsenate tolerance are discussed...
  54. Gregus Z, Gyurasics A, Csanaky I. Biliary and urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic: monomethylarsonous acid as a major biliary metabolite in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2000;56:18-25 pubmed
    ..Identification of MMAsIII is signified by the fact that this metabolite is more toxic than AsIII and AsV and thus formation of MMAsIII represents toxification of inorganic arsenic...
  55. van Kranenburg R, Golic N, Bongers R, Leer R, de Vos W, Siezen R, et al. Functional analysis of three plasmids from Lactobacillus plantarum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:1223-30 pubmed
    ..Plasmid pWCFS103 was demonstrated to be a conjugative plasmid, as it could be transferred to L. plantarum NC8. It confers arsenate and arsenite resistance, which can be used as selective markers...
  56. Lebow S, Williams R, Lebow P. Effect of simulated rainfall and weathering on release of preservative elements from CCA treated wood. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37:4077-82 pubmed
    ..This effect may be a result of increased surface area during weathering as well as loss of fibers caused by UV-induced surface erosion...
  57. Santini J, Streimann I, vanden Hoven R. Bacillus macyae sp. nov., an arsenate-respiring bacterium isolated from an Australian gold mine. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:2241-4 pubmed
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is JMM-4(T) (=DSM 16346(T)=JCM 12340(T))...
  58. Rathinasabapathi B, Wu S, Sundaram S, Rivoal J, Srivastava M, Ma L. Arsenic resistance in Pteris vittata L.: identification of a cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase based on cDNA expression cloning in Escherichia coli. Plant Mol Biol. 2006;62:845-57 pubmed
    ..coli TPI. Excised frond tissue infiltrated with arsenate reduced arsenate significantly more under light than dark. This research highlights a novel role for P. vittata cTPI in arsenate reduction...
  59. Bauer M, Blodau C. Mobilization of arsenic by dissolved organic matter from iron oxides, soils and sediments. Sci Total Environ. 2006;354:179-90 pubmed
    ..The results of this study demonstrate that sorption of DOM has a strong potential to mobilize arsenic from soils and sediments...
  60. Malasarn D, Saltikov C, Campbell K, Santini J, Hering J, Newman D. arrA is a reliable marker for As(V) respiration. Science. 2004;306:455 pubmed
    ..The expression of arrA thus can be used to monitor sites in which As(V)-respiring bacteria may be controlling arsenic geochemistry...
  61. Gregus Z, Nemeti B. The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase works as an arsenate reductase in human red blood cells and rat liver cytosol. Toxicol Sci. 2005;85:859-69 pubmed
    ..Although GAPDH is exclusively responsible for reduction of AsV in human erythrocytes, its role in AsV reduction in vivo remains to be determined...
  62. Sato T, Kobayashi Y. The ars operon in the skin element of Bacillus subtilis confers resistance to arsenate and arsenite. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1655-61 pubmed
    ..4 kb was induced by arsenate and that the ars promoter contains sequences that resemble the -10 and -35 regions of promoters that are recognized by E sigmaA...
  63. Requejo R, Tena M. Proteome analysis of maize roots reveals that oxidative stress is a main contributing factor to plant arsenic toxicity. Phytochemistry. 2005;66:1519-28 pubmed
    ..ATP synthase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, cytochrome P450 and guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta subunit). These findings strongly suggest that the induction of oxidative stress is a main process underlying arsenic toxicity in plants...
  64. Saltikov C, Wildman R, Newman D. Expression dynamics of arsenic respiration and detoxification in Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:7390-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that the two As(V) reductase systems in ANA-3 respond to different amounts and types of inorganic arsenic...
  65. Conklin S, Ackerman A, Fricke M, Creed P, Creed J, Kohan M, et al. In vitro biotransformation of an arsenosugar by mouse anaerobic cecal microflora and cecal tissue as examined using IC-ICP-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Analyst. 2006;131:648-55 pubmed
    ..This biotransformation may affect the subsequent absorption, metabolism, and disposition of arsenic present in arsenosugars...
  66. Duan G, Zhou Y, Tong Y, Mukhopadhyay R, Rosen B, Zhu Y. A CDC25 homologue from rice functions as an arsenate reductase. New Phytol. 2007;174:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In planta expression of OsACR2.1 increased dramatically after exposure to arsenate. OsACR2.2 was observed only in roots following arsenate exposure, and its expression was less than OsACR2.1...
  67. Oremland R, Stolz J. The ecology of arsenic. Science. 2003;300:939-44 pubmed
    ..Here we review what is known about arsenic-metabolizing bacteria and their potential impact on speciation and mobilization of arsenic in nature...
  68. Nemeti B, Gregus Z. Glutathione-dependent reduction of arsenate by glycogen phosphorylase a reaction coupled to glycogenolysis. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:36-43 pubmed
    ..While its in vivo significance remains to be tested, further characterization of the GP-catalyzed As(V) reduction is presented in the adjoining paper...
  69. Andrewes P, DeMarini D, Funasaka K, Wallace K, Lai V, Sun H, et al. Do arsenosugars pose a risk to human health? The comparative toxicities of a trivalent and pentavalent arsenosugar. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:4140-8 pubmed
  70. Simeonova P, Wang S, Toriuma W, Kommineni V, Matheson J, Unimye N, et al. Arsenic mediates cell proliferation and gene expression in the bladder epithelium: association with activating protein-1 transactivation. Cancer Res. 2000;60:3445-53 pubmed
    ..The proliferation-enhancing effect of arsenic on uroepithelial cells likely contributes to its ability to cause cancer...
  71. Mao C, Cook W, Zhou M, Federov A, Almo S, Ealick S. Calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase complexed with substrates and substrate analogues. Biochemistry. 1998;37:7135-46 pubmed
    ..In contrast to human PNP, only one phosphate binding site was observed. Although binary complexes were observed for nucleoside, purine base, or phosphate, ribose 1-phosphate binding occurs only in the presence of purine base...
  72. Kulp T, Han S, Saltikov C, Lanoil B, Zargar K, Oremland R. Effects of imposed salinity gradients on dissimilatory arsenate reduction, sulfate reduction, and other microbial processes in sediments from two California soda lakes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5130-7 pubmed
    ..Experiments with borate-amended Mono Lake slurries suggest that the notably high (0.46 molal) concentration of borate in the Searles Lake brine was responsible for the exclusion of sulfate reducers from that ecosystem...