alum compounds


Summary: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.

Top Publications

  1. McKee A, Munks M, Macleod M, Fleenor C, Van Rooijen N, Kappler J, et al. Alum induces innate immune responses through macrophage and mast cell sensors, but these sensors are not required for alum to act as an adjuvant for specific immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183:4403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that activation of the inflammasome and the type 2 innate response orchestrated by macrophages and mast cells in vivo are not required for adjuvant effect of alum on endogenous T and B cell responses...
  2. Ueda Y, Cain D, Kuraoka M, Kondo M, Kelsoe G. IL-1R type I-dependent hemopoietic stem cell proliferation is necessary for inflammatory granulopoiesis and reactive neutrophilia. J Immunol. 2009;182:6477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IL-1 plays a necessary, but indirect, role in the support of alum-induced neutrophilias by expanding both pluripotent and myeloid progenitor compartments to accelerate granulopoiesis...
  3. Kool M, Petrilli V, De Smedt T, Rolaz A, Hammad H, van Nimwegen M, et al. Cutting edge: alum adjuvant stimulates inflammatory dendritic cells through activation of the NALP3 inflammasome. J Immunol. 2008;181:3755-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that, in addition to TLR stimulators, agonists of the NALP3 inflammasome should also be considered as vaccine adjuvants...
  4. Cain D, Sanders S, Cunningham M, Kelsoe G. Disparate adjuvant properties among three formulations of "alum". Vaccine. 2013;31:653-60 pubmed publisher
  5. Seubert A, Calabro S, Santini L, Galli B, Genovese A, Valentini S, et al. Adjuvanticity of the oil-in-water emulsion MF59 is independent of Nlrp3 inflammasome but requires the adaptor protein MyD88. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Because MF59 did not activate any of the Toll-like receptors in vitro, we propose that MF59 requires MyD88 for a Toll-like receptor-independent signaling pathway...
  6. Xu D, Wang X, Shen X, Gong G, Ren H, Guo L, et al. Results of a phase III clinical trial with an HBsAg-HBIG immunogenic complex therapeutic vaccine for chronic hepatitis B patients: experiences and findings. J Hepatol. 2013;59:450-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II B clinical trial of YIC has been reported previously, and herein we present the results of the phase III clinical trial of 450 patients...
  7. Wang H, Weller P. Pivotal advance: eosinophils mediate early alum adjuvant-elicited B cell priming and IgM production. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:817-21 pubmed publisher
  8. Marichal T, Ohata K, Bedoret D, Mesnil C, Sabatel C, Kobiyama K, et al. DNA released from dying host cells mediates aluminum adjuvant activity. Nat Med. 2011;17:996-1002 pubmed publisher
  9. Shah H, Devera T, Rampuria P, Lang G, Lang M. Type II NKT cells facilitate Alum-sensing and humoral immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:883-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This may have important consequences for understanding the mechanism of action of Alum-containing vaccines...

More Information


  1. Wang X, Yao X, Wan Y, Wang B, Xu J, Wen Y. Responses to multiple injections with alum alone compared to injections with alum adsorbed to proteins in mice. Immunol Lett. 2013;149:88-92 pubmed publisher
  2. McKee A, Burchill M, Munks M, Jin L, Kappler J, Friedman R, et al. Host DNA released in response to aluminum adjuvant enhances MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation and prolongs CD4 T-cell interactions with dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1122-31 pubmed publisher
  3. Lima H, Jacobson L, Goldberg M, Chandran K, Diaz Griffero F, Lisanti M, et al. Role of lysosome rupture in controlling Nlrp3 signaling and necrotic cell death. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1868-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The significant differences observed between lysosome-disrupting agents and pyroptosis inducers might explain the distinct immunologic responses associated with these compounds. ..
  4. Kool M, Soullie T, van Nimwegen M, Willart M, Muskens F, Jung S, et al. Alum adjuvant boosts adaptive immunity by inducing uric acid and activating inflammatory dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2008;205:869-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that alum adjuvant is immunogenic by exploiting "nature's adjuvant," the inflammatory DC through induction of the endogenous danger signal uric acid...
  5. Eisenbarth S, Colegio O, O Connor W, Sutterwala F, Flavell R. Crucial role for the Nalp3 inflammasome in the immunostimulatory properties of aluminium adjuvants. Nature. 2008;453:1122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to affect how we design effective, but safe, adjuvants in the future...
  6. Flach T, Ng G, Hari A, Desrosiers M, Zhang P, Ward S, et al. Alum interaction with dendritic cell membrane lipids is essential for its adjuvanticity. Nat Med. 2011;17:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore suggests an unexpected mechanism for how this crystalline structure interacts with the immune system and how the DC plasma membrane may behave as a general sensor for solid structures...
  7. Serre K, Mohr E, Gaspal F, Lane P, Bird R, Cunningham A, et al. IL-4 directs both CD4 and CD8 T cells to produce Th2 cytokines in vitro, but only CD4 T cells produce these cytokines in response to alum-precipitated protein in vivo. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1914-22 pubmed publisher
  8. Aimanianda V, Haensler J, Lacroix Desmazes S, Kaveri S, Bayry J. Novel cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction of immune responses by aluminum adjuvants. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30:287-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel cellular and molecular mechanisms of aluminum salts are likely to influence how we design effective and safe adjuvants in the future...
  9. Khodai T, Chappell D, Christy C, Cockle P, Eyles J, Hammond D, et al. Single and combination herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or monophosphoryl lipid A exhibit differential immunity that is not correlated to protection in animal models. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:1702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that difficulties in correlating immune responses to efficacy in animal models will act as a deterrent to researchers attempting to develop effective HSV vaccines...
  10. Hutchison S, Benson R, Gibson V, Pollock A, Garside P, Brewer J. Antigen depot is not required for alum adjuvanticity. FASEB J. 2012;26:1272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study clearly rules out a role for depot formation in alum adjuvant activity...
  11. Dabiri M, Baghbanzadeh M, Nikcheh M, Arzroomchilar E. Eco-friendly and efficient one-pot synthesis of alkyl- or aryl-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes in water. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:436-8 pubmed
    ..Several solvents were examined for this reaction; however, in terms of reaction yield and time, water was found to be the optimum solvent...
  12. Serre K, Mohr E, Toellner K, Cunningham A, Granjeaud S, Bird R, et al. Molecular differences between the divergent responses of ovalbumin-specific CD4 T cells to alum-precipitated ovalbumin compared to ovalbumin expressed by Salmonella. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3558-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, IL-17RB is strongly associated with OVA-specific CD4 T cells responding to alumOVA, suggesting that alum may promote Th2 immune response through a role for the IL-25/IL-17RB pathway...
  13. Mohr E, Cunningham A, Toellner K, Bobat S, Coughlan R, Bird R, et al. IFN-{gamma} produced by CD8 T cells induces T-bet-dependent and -independent class switching in B cells in responses to alum-precipitated protein vaccine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, T-bet dependence identifies distinct transcriptional pathways in B cells that regulate IFN-?-induced switching to different IgG isotypes...
  14. Spreafico R, Ricciardi Castagnoli P, Mortellaro A. The controversial relationship between NLRP3, alum, danger signals and the next-generation adjuvants. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:638-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Could this be the basis of a long-needed rationale in the design of adjuvants?..
  15. Lambrecht B, Kool M, Willart M, Hammad H. Mechanism of action of clinically approved adjuvants. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..How exactly these pathways interact remains to be determined...
  16. De Gregorio E, D Oro U, Wack A. Immunology of TLR-independent vaccine adjuvants. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight that the activation of DCs plays a central role in the mechanism of action of all classes of vaccine adjuvants but can occur by a multitude of different pathways and cellular interactions...
  17. Kutlubay R, Oguz E, Can B, Güven M, Sinik Z, Tuncay O. Vitamin E protection from testicular damage caused by intraperitoneal aluminium. Int J Toxicol. 2007;26:297-306 pubmed
    ..The associated biochemical parameters merit further investigation...
  18. Sugai T, Mori M, Nakazawa M, Ichino M, Naruto T, Kobayashi N, et al. A CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide as an efficient adjuvant counterbalancing the Th1/Th2 immune response in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. Vaccine. 2005;23:5450-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggested new applications of CpG-ODN as adjuvants in DPT vaccine...
  19. Kutlubay R, Oguz E, Abban G, Turgut S. Amelioration of aluminium-induced liver damage by vitamin E. Saudi Med J. 2007;28:197-200 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of aluminium sulphate on the microscopic morphology of the liver and on vitamin E amelioration of aluminium-induced liver damage...
  20. Nardin E, Oliveira G, Calvo Calle J, Wetzel K, Maier C, Birkett A, et al. Phase I testing of a malaria vaccine composed of hepatitis B virus core particles expressing Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite epitopes. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6519-27 pubmed
  21. Petrovsky N, Aguilar J. Vaccine adjuvants: current state and future trends. Immunol Cell Biol. 2004;82:488-96 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the state of the art in the adjuvant field, explores future directions of adjuvant development and finally examines some of the impediments and barriers to development and registration of new human adjuvants...
  22. Fritz J, Brunner S, Birnstiel M, Buschle M, Gabain A, Mattner F, et al. The artificial antimicrobial peptide KLKLLLLLKLK induces predominantly a TH2-type immune response to co-injected antigens. Vaccine. 2004;22:3274-84 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that KLKL5KLK enhances the association of antigen to antigen-presenting cells and forms a depot of antigen at the site of injection, making it an interesting adjuvant for novel vaccine design...
  23. Jordan M, Mills D, Kappler J, Marrack P, Cambier J. Promotion of B cell immune responses via an alum-induced myeloid cell population. Science. 2004;304:1808-10 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a key role for a previously unknown accessory myeloid cell population in the generation of humoral immune responses...
  24. Farina M, Lara F, Brandao R, Jacques R, Rocha J. Effects of aluminum sulfate on erythropoiesis in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2002;132:131-9 pubmed
    ..Renal and cerebral aluminum concentrations did not vary between groups. The present results indicate that exposure to aluminum sulfate promotes signs of anemia in rats as a consequence of alterations in iron status...
  25. Brewer J, Conacher M, Satoskar A, Bluethmann H, Alexander J. In interleukin-4-deficient mice, alum not only generates T helper 1 responses equivalent to freund's complete adjuvant, but continues to induce T helper 2 cytokine production. Eur J Immunol. 1996;26:2062-6 pubmed
    ..However, although production of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 was totally inhibited in IL-4-deficient mice inoculated with FCA/OVA, there was no significant difference in IL-5 production between the two strains when alum was used as adjuvant...
  26. Davis H, Weeratna R, Waldschmidt T, Tygrett L, Schorr J, Krieg A, et al. CpG DNA is a potent enhancer of specific immunity in mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. J Immunol. 1998;160:870-6 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that CpG ODN are promising new immune enhancers for vaccination applications...
  27. Lindblad E. Aluminium compounds for use in vaccines. Immunol Cell Biol. 2004;82:497-505 pubmed
  28. Kutlubay R, Oguz E, Guven C, Can B, Sinik Z, Tuncay O. Histological and ultrastructural evidence for protective effects on aluminium-induced kidney damage by intraperitoneal administration of alpha-tocopherol. Int J Toxicol. 2007;26:95-101 pubmed
    ..At the same time, the maintenance of a diet that is rich in vitamin E should be beneficial in the alleviation of Al toxicity...
  29. Nicholson K, Thompson C, Klap J, Wood J, Batham S, Newman R, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of whole-virus, alum-adjuvanted whole-virus, virosomal, and whole-virus intradermal influenza A/H9N2 vaccine formulations. Vaccine. 2009;28:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no vaccine formulation satisfied all European regulatory criteria for pandemic vaccines. ..
  30. Stevens D, Baker D, Cutroni E, Frey A, Pugh D, Lawless H. A direct comparison of the taste of electrical and chemical stimuli. Chem Senses. 2008;33:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Taste qualities evoked by electric stimuli may not be fully described by commonly used taste stimuli or their binary mixtures and appear most adequately described by a unique metallic taste. ..
  31. Ziewer S, Hübner M, Dubben B, Hoffmann W, Bain O, Martin C, et al. Immunization with L. sigmodontis microfilariae reduces peripheral microfilaraemia after challenge infection by inhibition of filarial embryogenesis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1558 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative treatment ways, i.e. other effective drugs or vaccines...
  32. Beach E, Eckelman M, Cui Z, Brentner L, Zimmerman J. Preferential technological and life cycle environmental performance of chitosan flocculation for harvesting of the green algae Neochloris oleoabundans. Bioresour Technol. 2012;121:445-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in the overall context of biofuel production from algal biomass. ..
  33. Antonopoulou G, Kirkou A, Stasinakis A. Quantitative and qualitative greywater characterization in Greek households and investigation of their treatment using physicochemical methods. Sci Total Environ. 2013;454-455:426-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of coagulation, sand filtration and GAC adsorption resulted to average concentrations of COD and TSS equal to 28 ± 11 and 11 ± 3 mg L(-1), respectively, in treated greywater. ..
  34. Maves R, Oré R, Porter K, Kochel T. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a psoralen-inactivated dengue-1 virus vaccine candidate in Aotus nancymaae monkeys. Vaccine. 2011;29:2691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..67 days/animal among controls to 0.71 days/animal among vaccinated monkeys (p=0.051). Psoralen-inactivated DENV1 is immunogenic in Aotus nancymaae with a trend towards a reduction in days of viremia following experimental challenge. ..
  35. Myschik J, McBurney W, Rades T, Hook S. Immunostimulatory lipid implants containing Quil-A and DC-cholesterol. Int J Pharm. 2008;363:91-8 pubmed publisher
  36. Hirata Koizumi M, Fujii S, Ono A, Hirose A, Imai T, Ogawa K, et al. Evaluation of the reproductive and developmental toxicity of aluminium ammonium sulfate in a two-generation study in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:1948-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the aluminium content in the basal diet, the total ingested dose of aluminium from drinking water and food in this 500 ppm group was calculated to be 5.35 mgAl/kgbw/day. ..
  37. Wen Y, Shi Y. Alum: an old dog with new tricks. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e25 pubmed publisher
    ..With increasing threats of emerging microbes, originating from natural or man-made sources, that pose significant health concerns at the population scale, the potential use of alum as a 'first-aid' vaccine is also discussed. ..
  38. Kumar M, Sudeep A, Arankalle V. Evaluation of recombinant E2 protein-based and whole-virus inactivated candidate vaccines against chikungunya virus. Vaccine. 2012;30:6142-9 pubmed publisher
    ..With the re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in an explosive form and in the absence of a commercially available vaccine, we aimed to develop candidate vaccines employing recombinant E2 protein or chemically inactivated whole virus...
  39. Green S. Clinical development of TLR agonists as adjuvants: "post-alum adjuvant" candidates may reach beyond their intended purpose. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83:813-4; author reply 814 pubmed publisher
  40. Birjandi N, Younesi H, Bahramifar N, Ghafari S, Zinatizadeh A, Sethupathi S. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation treatment on paper-recycling wastewater: Application of response surface methodology. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2013;48:1573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The best coagulant and flocculants were alum and chemfloc 3876 at dose of 41 and 7.52 mg/L, respectively, correspondingly at pH of 6.85. These conditions gave 91.30% COD and 95.82% turbidity removals and 12 mL/g SVI. ..
  41. Liang Y, Jun M, Liu W. Enhanced removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from water in alum coagulation by ferrate(VI) pretreatment. Water Environ Res. 2007;79:2420-6 pubmed
    ..Satisfactory removal of cadmium could be expected by ferrate pretreatment combined with adjusting the pH of the water. ..
  42. Chuang Y, Wang T, Jen H, Yu A, Chiang B. ?-Galactosylceramide-induced airway eosinophilia is mediated through the activation of NKT cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:4687-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it remains to be determined whether the activation of iNKT cells would be applicable in therapeutics for human diseases. ..
  43. Malecki Brown L, White J, Reddy K. Soil biogeochemical characteristics influenced by alum application in a municipal wastewater treatment wetland. J Environ Qual. 2007;36:1904-13 pubmed
    ..Microbial activity was also suppressed in the surface soil of alum-treated mesocosms. This research suggests alum may significantly affect the biogeochemistry of treatment wetlands and needs further investigation. ..
  44. Foglio E, Buffoli B, Exley C, Rezzani R, Rodella L. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:1055-66 pubmed publisher
  45. Han J, Wui S, Park S, Lee N, Kim K, Cho Y, et al. Comparison of the immune responses to the CIA06-adjuvanted human papillomavirus L1 VLP vaccine with those against the licensed HPV vaccine Cervarix™ in mice. Vaccine. 2012;30:4127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these data, we concluded that CIA06B may have potential as an adjuvant in a potent prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection. ..
  46. Oguz E, Enli Y, Sahin B, Gönen C, Turgut G. Aluminium sulphate exposure increases oxidative stress and suppresses brain development in Ross broiler chicks. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18:BR103-8 pubmed
    ..Exposure to Al during chick embryonic development results in increased oxidative stress in the brain that is accompanied by neuronal degeneration. ..
  47. Huber V, McCullers J. Vaccines against pandemic influenza: what can be done before the next pandemic?. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:S113-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a prepandemic vaccine strategy that involves the stockpiling of both potential antigens and proven adjuvants may represent the best approach to deal with this looming threat. ..
  48. Kuroda E, Coban C, Ishii K. Particulate adjuvant and innate immunity: past achievements, present findings, and future prospects. Int Rev Immunol. 2013;32:209-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, recent advances in particulate adjuvant research from the standpoint of innate immune responses are discussed. ..
  49. Droppo I, Exall K, Stafford K. Effects of chemical amendments on aquatic floc structure, settling and strength. Water Res. 2008;42:169-79 pubmed
    ..By improving our understanding of how these amendments may influence floc properties and behaviours, more effective management tools may be developed for the remediation and control of high-turbidity aquatic environments. ..
  50. Garulli B, Stillitano M, Barnaba V, Castrucci M. Primary CD8+ T-cell response to soluble ovalbumin is improved by chloroquine treatment in vivo. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that chloroquine treatment improves the cross-presentation capacity of DCs and thus the size of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells during vaccination. ..
  51. Gherardi R, Authier F. Macrophagic myofasciitis: characterization and pathophysiology. Lupus. 2012;21:184-9 pubmed publisher
  52. Zhu F, Wang H, Fang H, Yang J, Lin X, Liang X, et al. A novel influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in various age groups. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Lesser immune responses were seen after a single dose of vaccine in younger and older subjects. ( number, NCT00975572). ..
  53. Kluczka J, Zołotajkin M, Ciba J, Staroń M. Assessment of aluminum bioavailability in alum sludge for agricultural utilization. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:422 pubmed publisher
  54. Haiying Z, Hongtao H, Yi Z, Donghui C, Jingyu Q. Advanced treatment of the output-stream of biological leachate treatment by appropriate combination of coagulation/flocculation and oxidation. Waste Manag Res. 2012;30:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, pre-oxidation with NaClO followed by coagulation with PFS was recommended for removal of biologically-treated substances from the biologically-treated or stabilized leachate...
  55. Gonzalvo V, Polo A, Serrallach F, Gutiérrez A, Peyri E. Clinical study of the effectiveness of the "water of the 3 sulfates" on balanitis and balanoposthitis. Actas Urol Esp. 2015;39:118-21 pubmed publisher our study, the "water of the 3 sulfates" is significantly more effective than saline solution for removing exudates in acute balanitis and balanoposthitis. Tolerability was excellent in both treatments. ..
  56. Goh Y, Harris J, Roddick F. Reducing the effect of cyanobacteria in the microfiltration of secondary effluent. Water Sci Technol. 2010;62:1682-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Pre-treatment by DAF or 1.5 ?m filtration following alum coagulation enhanced the flux rate and permeate volume but exposed the membrane to internal irreversible fouling...
  57. Babatunde A, Zhao Y. Phosphorus removal in laboratory-scale unvegetated vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland systems using alum sludge as main substrate. Water Sci Technol. 2009;60:483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that the novel use of dewatered alum sludge can bring about high P removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland systems...
  58. Sachdeva H, Dwivedi D, Saroj R. Alum catalyzed simple, efficient, and green synthesis of 2-[3-amino-5-methyl-5-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,5-dihydro-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]propanoic acid derivatives in aqueous media. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:716389 pubmed publisher
    ..Synthesized compounds have been characterized by FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and (1)HNMR spectroscopy...
  59. Yang Z, Gao B, Yue Q, Wang Y. Effect of pH on the coagulation performance of Al-based coagulants and residual aluminum speciation during the treatment of humic acid-kaolin synthetic water. J Hazard Mater. 2010;178:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, PAC could effectively reduce the concentration of dissolved monomeric Al and its residual aluminum ratio was the least among the three coagulants and varied little at an initial pH between 7.0 and 9.0...
  60. Diemert S, Wang W, Andrews R, Li X. Removal of halo-benzoquinone (emerging disinfection by-product) precursor material from three surface waters using coagulation. Water Res. 2013;47:1773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..78, p < 0.001); this may be due to co-removal of biopolymers with HBQ precursors during coagulation. These results indicate that coagulation processes can be effective for reduction, but not elimination, of HBQ precursors...
  61. Behrouzi A, Bouzari S, Siadat S, Oloomi M, Davari M, Mazaheri H. Evaluation of the immunogenic property of NT H. influenzae protein D with Neisseria meningitidis OMV in BALB/c. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2016;10:1345-1351 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest an important role for OMV as an adjuvant and show how it could potentially be used when conjugated to H. influenzae PD or other safe subunit vaccine candidates. ..
  62. Kim S, Park S, Kim H, Cho Y, Kim K, Kim Y, et al. Enhancement of the immune responses of mice to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen by CIA07 combined with alum. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:1385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest the potential of CIA07 in combination with alum as an adjuvant for the development of a potent anthrax vaccine...
  63. Israeli E, Agmon Levin N, Blank M, Shoenfeld Y. Macrophagic myofaciitis a vaccine (alum) autoimmune-related disease. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2011;41:163-8 pubmed publisher
  64. Schmidt C, White C, Ibrahim A, Filler S, Fu Y, Yeaman M, et al. NDV-3, a recombinant alum-adjuvanted vaccine for Candida and Staphylococcus aureus, is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2012;30:7594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..A memory T-cell response was also noted for IFN-? in almost all subjects and for IL-17A in the majority of subjects. These data support the continued investigation of NDV-3 as a vaccine candidate against Candida and S. aureus infections...
  65. Wang X, Zeng G, Zhu J. Treatment of jean-wash wastewater by combined coagulation, hydrolysis/acidification and Fenton oxidation. J Hazard Mater. 2008;153:810-6 pubmed
    ..The result indicated that the combined procedure could offer an attractive solution for JWW treatment with considerable synergistic advantages...
  66. Bernstein D, Farley N, Bravo F, Earwood J, McNeal M, Fairman J, et al. The adjuvant CLDC increases protection of a herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D vaccine in guinea pigs. Vaccine. 2010;28:3748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..CLDC enhanced protection compared to MPL/Alum and is the first vaccine to reduce recurrent virus shedding, a key to decreasing the spread of HSV-2...
  67. Gupta R, Goswami D, Singh R, Surolia A, Panda A. Soybean agglutinin coated PLA particles entrapping candidate vaccines induces enhanced primary and sustained secondary antibody response from single point immunization. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;45:282-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved primary and sustained secondary antibody response from single point immunization of antigen entrapped soybean agglutinin coated particles was attributed to the N-linked glycan mediated targeting of polymer particles to DCs...
  68. Mizutani N, Nabe T, Yoshino S. Exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes and allergen promotes early- and late-phase increases in airway resistance in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:2133-40 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the risk of exposure to a combination of MWCNT with antigen...
  69. Liu T, Chen Z, Yu W, Shen J, Gregory J. Effect of two-stage coagulant addition on coagulation-ultrafiltration process for treatment of humic-rich water. Water Res. 2011;45:4260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As a simple and efficient approach, two-stage coagulant addition strategy could have great practical significance in coagulation-membrane processes...
  70. Sukias J, Craggs R. Digestion of wastewater pond microalgae and potential inhibition by alum and ammoniacal-N. Water Sci Technol. 2011;63:835-40 pubmed publisher
  71. Alfonso S, Diaz R, de la Torre A, Santiesteban E, Aguirre F, Pérez K, et al. 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine in non-small cell lung cancer: experience in stage IIIb/IV patients. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007;6:1847-52 pubmed
    ..50 months from starting vaccination. In contrast, the median survival time calculated for patients who started vaccination with progressive disease and/or a PS2 was 6.50 months...
  72. Scott N, Lambert M, Gorman S, McGlade J, Hart P. Differences in control by UV radiation of inflammatory airways disease in naïve and allergen pre-sensitised mice. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2011;10:1894-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The second, associated with administration to pre-sensitised mice, is weaker and is detected when the mice are sensitised with lower levels of allergen and adjuvant...
  73. DeLaune P, Moore P. 17?-estradiol in runoff as affected by various poultry litter application strategies. Sci Total Environ. 2013;444:26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Management practices such as alum amendment and application timing can significantly reduce the risk of 17?-estradiol losses in the environment...
  74. Kushwaha J, Chandra Srivastava V, Mall I. Treatment of dairy wastewater by inorganic coagulants: Parametric and disposal studies. Water Res. 2010;44:5867-74 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 66.5 and 63.8% COD removal efficiency in 30 min. Heating values of the sludge generated by the coagulants PAC, FeSO(4) and KAl(SO(4))(2)·12H(2)O were found to be 20.7, 29.6 and 17.3 MJ/kg, respectively...
  75. Abe T, Hachiro Y, Kunimoto M. Combined aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid sclerosing therapy and anal encirclement using an elastic artificial ligament for rectal prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum. 2014;57:653-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid is a sclerosant used for sclerosing therapy in the treatment of hemorrhoids, and a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament is a new anal-encircling material for the management of rectal prolapse...
  76. van der Put R, Kim T, Guerreiro C, Thouron F, Hoogerhout P, Sansonetti P, et al. A Synthetic Carbohydrate Conjugate Vaccine Candidate against Shigellosis: Improved Bioconjugation and Impact of Alum on Immunogenicity. Bioconjug Chem. 2016;27:883-92 pubmed publisher
    ..flexneri 2a antibody response sustained for more than one year. ..
  77. Liang Y, Ma S, Yang Z, Liu L, Wang L, Wang J, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel formalin-inactivated and alum-adjuvanted candidate subunit vaccine for mumps. Vaccine. 2008;26:4276-83 pubmed publisher