aluminum hydroxide

Summary

Summary: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.

Top Publications

  1. Hem S, HogenEsch H. Relationship between physical and chemical properties of aluminum-containing adjuvants and immunopotentiation. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:685-98 pubmed
    ..The structure and properties of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, aluminum phosphate adjuvant and alum-precipitated adjuvants are presented in this review...
  2. Noe S, Green M, HogenEsch H, Hem S. Mechanism of immunopotentiation by aluminum-containing adjuvants elucidated by the relationship between antigen retention at the inoculation site and the immune response. Vaccine. 2010;28:3588-94 pubmed publisher
    ..111)In-labeled alpha casein (IDCAS) antigen was formulated into four vaccines: IDCAS adsorbed onto either aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (AH) or aluminum phosphate adjuvant (AP); non-adsorbed IDCAS with phosphate-treated AP (PTAP); and ..
  3. Wagner L, Verma A, Meade B, Reiter K, Narum D, Brady R, et al. Structural and immunological analysis of anthrax recombinant protective antigen adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that storage of rPA-Alhydrogel formulations can lead to structural alteration of the protein and loss of the ability to elicit toxin-neutralizing antibodies...
  4. Seppälä U, Francese S, Turillazzi S, Moneti G, Clench M, Barber D. In situ imaging of honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom components from aqueous and aluminum hydroxide-adsorbed venom immunotherapy preparations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:1314-1320.e3 pubmed publisher
    Treatment with aqueous and aluminum hydroxide (Al[OH](3))-adsorbed purified honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom (HBV) preparations can reduce the incidence of side effects associated with venom immunotherapy.
  5. Chang H, Li X, Teng Y, Liang Y, Peng B, Fang F, et al. Comparison of adjuvant efficacy of chitosan and aluminum hydroxide for intraperitoneally administered inactivated influenza H5N1 vaccine. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..immunity in mice provided by chitosan-adjuvanted inactivated H5N1 vaccine was compared with that from an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted one...
  6. Ouattara A, Mu J, Takala Harrison S, Saye R, Sagara I, Dicko A, et al. Lack of allele-specific efficacy of a bivalent AMA1 malaria vaccine. Malar J. 2010;9:175 pubmed publisher
  7. Sow P, Watson Jones D, Kiviat N, Changalucha J, Mbaye K, Brown J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: a randomized trial in 10-25-year-old HIV-Seronegative African girls and young women. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1753-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Cervical cancer is a major public health problem for women in sub-Saharan Africa. Availability of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could have an important public health impact...
  8. Shaw C, Petrik M. Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103:1555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The most likely culprit appears to be aluminum hydroxide. In an initial series of experiments, we examined the potential toxicity of aluminum hydroxide in male, ..
  9. Ugozzoli M, Laera D, Nuti S, Skibinski D, Bufali S, Sammicheli C, et al. Flow cytometry: an alternative method for direct quantification of antigens adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Anal Biochem. 2011;418:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..two Neisseria meningitidis vaccine antigens, in mono- and multivalent formulations, while still adsorbed on aluminum hydroxide (AH) suspension. The antibody-based method is specific and sensitive...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Wheeler C, Castellsague X, Garland S, Szarewski A, Paavonen J, Naud P, et al. Cross-protective efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:100-10 pubmed publisher
  2. Verdijk P, Rots N, van Oijen M, Oberste M, Boog C, Okayasu H, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated poliovirus vaccine based on Sabin strains with and without aluminum hydroxide: a phase I trial in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2013;31:5531-6 pubmed publisher
  3. Chen L, Xu M, Wang Z, Chen B, Du W, Su C, et al. The development and preliminary evaluation of a new Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine comprising Ag85b, HspX and CFP-10:ESAT-6 fusion protein with CpG DNA and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;59:42-52 pubmed publisher
    ..combined with another fusion protein CFP-10:ESAT-6 (C/E) (Ag), then mixed with the adjuvants CpG DNA and aluminum hydroxide and used to vaccinate mice and guinea pigs challenged with Mtb (H37Rv)...
  4. BEGUE R, Sadowska Krowicka H. Protective efficacy of recombinant urease B and aluminum hydroxide against Helicobacter pylori infection in a mouse model. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2010;60:142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..BALB/c mice received either rUreB (40 ?g) plus CpG (10 ?g) intranasally, rUreB (50 ?g) plus 3% aluminum hydroxide (50 ?L) intramuscularly or rUreB (25 ?g) plus Freund's adjuvant (25 ?L) subcutaneously, three times (weeks 0,..
  5. Kwiatek M, Roman S, Fareeduddin A, Pandolfino J, Kahrilas P. An alginate-antacid formulation (Gaviscon Double Action Liquid) can eliminate or displace the postprandial 'acid pocket' in symptomatic GERD patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;34:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..By creating a low density gel 'raft' that floats on top of gastric contents, alginate-antacid formulations may neutralise the 'acid pocket'...
  6. Luo Z, Shi H, Zhang H, Li M, Zhao Y, Zhang J, et al. Plasmid DNA containing multiple CpG motifs triggers a strong immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen when combined with incomplete Freund's adjuvant but not aluminum hydroxide. Mol Med Rep. 2012;6:1309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, the combination of plasmid DNA containing 16 additional CpG ODNs (pv-16CpG) and aluminum hydroxide (AL) or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) was used as an adjuvant for a hepatitis B surface ..
  7. Xiao Y, Zeng Y, Alexander E, Mehta S, Joshi S, Buchman G, et al. Adsorption of recombinant poxvirus L1-protein to aluminum hydroxide/CpG vaccine adjuvants enhances immune responses and protection of mice from vaccinia virus challenge. Vaccine. 2013;31:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that designing vaccine formulation conditions to maximize antigen-adjuvant interactions is a key factor in smallpox subunit-vaccine immunogenicity and protection...
  8. McCluskie M, Pryde D, Gervais D, Stead D, Zhang N, Benoit M, et al. Enhancing immunogenicity of a 3'aminomethylnicotine-DT-conjugate anti-nicotine vaccine with CpG adjuvant in mice and non-human primates. Int Immunopharmacol. 2013;16:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated CpG (TLR9 agonist) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) adjuvants with a model anti-nicotine antigen comprising trans-3'aminomethylnicotine (3'AmNic) ..
  9. Duncan C, Sheehy S, Ewer K, Douglas A, Collins K, Halstead F, et al. Impact on malaria parasite multiplication rates in infected volunteers of the protein-in-adjuvant vaccine AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22271 pubmed publisher
    ..ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT00984763]. ..
  10. Ganvir V, Das K. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using aluminum hydroxide coated rice husk ash. J Hazard Mater. 2011;185:1287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..cost effective defluoridation method that is based on surface modification of rice husk ash (RHA) by coating aluminum hydroxide. RHA is obtained by burning rice/paddy husk which is an abundantly available and is an inexpensive raw ..
  11. Couette M, Boisse M, Maison P, Brugieres P, Cesaro P, Chevalier X, et al. Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide is associated with chronic cognitive dysfunction. J Inorg Biochem. 2009;103:1571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..MMF) is an emerging condition, characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization...
  12. Guven E, Duus K, Laursen I, Højrup P, Houen G. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant differentially activates the three complement pathways with major involvement of the alternative pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74445 pubmed publisher
    ..Complement activation was time dependent and inhibited by chelation with EDTA but not EGTA+Mg(2+). We thus confirm that Al(OH)3 activates the complement system and show that the alternative pathway is of major importance. ..
  13. Didierlaurent A, Morel S, Lockman L, Giannini S, Bisteau M, Carlsen H, et al. AS04, an aluminum salt- and TLR4 agonist-based adjuvant system, induces a transient localized innate immune response leading to enhanced adaptive immunity. J Immunol. 2009;183:6186-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The transient and confined nature of these responses provides further supporting evidence for the favorable safety profile of AS04 adjuvanted vaccines...
  14. Gadermaier E, Flicker S, Aberer W, Egger C, Reider N, Focke M, et al. Analysis of the antibody responses induced by subcutaneous injection immunotherapy with birch and Fagales pollen extracts adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;151:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we analyze the epitope specificities of antibody responses induced by SCIT with allergen extracts from pollen of trees belonging to the order Fagales (birch, alder, hazel) adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide.
  15. Lehtinen M, Paavonen J, Wheeler C, Jaisamrarn U, Garland S, Castellsague X, et al. Overall efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against grade 3 or greater cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: 4-year end-of-study analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13:89-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We report vaccine efficacy against CIN3+ and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in the end-of-study analysis of PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults)...
  16. Calabro S, Tortoli M, Baudner B, Pacitto A, Cortese M, O Hagan D, et al. Vaccine adjuvants alum and MF59 induce rapid recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes that participate in antigen transport to draining lymph nodes. Vaccine. 2011;29:1812-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will reveal whether other single cell types are crucial or whether the different recruited cell populations are redundant with overlapping functions...
  17. Keitel W, Dekker C, Mink C, Campbell J, Edwards K, Patel S, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of inactivated, Vero cell culture-derived whole virus influenza A/H5N1 vaccine given alone or with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2009;27:6642-8 pubmed publisher
    ..immunogenicity of a Vero cell culture-grown inactivated whole virus influenza A/H5N1 vaccine with or without aluminum hydroxide adjuvant [Al(OH)(3)] in healthy young adults...
  18. Sagara I, Ellis R, Dicko A, Niambele M, Kamate B, Guindo O, et al. A randomized and controlled Phase 1 study of the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel + CPG 7909 vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in semi-immune Malian adults. Vaccine. 2009;27:7292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). This is the first use of the novel adjuvant CPG 7909 in a malaria-exposed population. ..
  19. Veilly E, Roques J, Jodin Caumon M, Humbert B, Drot R, Simoni E. Uranyl interaction with the hydrated (001) basal face of gibbsite: a combined theoretical and spectroscopic study. J Chem Phys. 2008;129:244704 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculated U-O(surface) bond lengths range between 2.1-2.2 and 2.6-2.7 A for the nonprotonated and protonated surface O atoms, respectively...
  20. Mullen G, Giersing B, Ajose Popoola O, Davis H, Kothe C, Zhou H, et al. Enhancement of functional antibody responses to AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel, a Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine, with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Vaccine. 2006;24:2497-505 pubmed
    ..These promising preclinical results have recently led to the start of a Phase 1 trial in the US. ..
  21. Chang H, Korshin G, Wang Z, Zachara J. Adsorption of uranyl on gibbsite: A time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy study. Environ Sci Technol. 2006;40:1244-9 pubmed
  22. Li H, Willingham S, Ting J, Re F. Cutting edge: inflammasome activation by alum and alum's adjuvant effect are mediated by NLRP3. J Immunol. 2008;181:17-21 pubmed
  23. Seubert A, Monaci E, Pizza M, O Hagan D, Wack A. The adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and MF59 induce monocyte and granulocyte chemoattractants and enhance monocyte differentiation toward dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2008;180:5402-12 pubmed
    b>Aluminum hydroxide (alum) and the oil-in-water emulsion MF59 are widely used, safe and effective adjuvants, yet their mechanism of action is poorly understood...
  24. Verdier F, Burnett R, Michelet Habchi C, Moretto P, Fievet Groyne F, Sauzeat E. Aluminium assay and evaluation of the local reaction at several time points after intramuscular administration of aluminium containing vaccines in the Cynomolgus monkey. Vaccine. 2005;23:1359-67 pubmed
  25. Mandel K, Daggy B, Brodie D, Jacoby H. Review article: alginate-raft formulations in the treatment of heartburn and acid reflux. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:669-90 pubmed
    ..Their unique non-systemic mechanism of action provides rapid and long-duration relief of heartburn and acid reflux symptoms...
  26. Wittayanukulluk A, Jiang D, Regnier F, Hem S. Effect of microenvironment pH of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on the chemical stability of adsorbed antigen. Vaccine. 2004;22:1172-6 pubmed
    The rate of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) when adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was significantly slower than the rate of hydrolysis of a solution of G1P at the same pH...
  27. De Gregorio E, Tritto E, Rappuoli R. Alum adjuvanticity: unraveling a century old mystery. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2068-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, these three studies reported conflicting results on the requirement of the Nlrp3 inflammasome complex for alum adjuvant effects in vivo. This commentary attempts to resolve some of these discrepancies...
  28. Brewer J, Conacher M, Hunter C, Mohrs M, Brombacher F, Alexander J. Aluminium hydroxide adjuvant initiates strong antigen-specific Th2 responses in the absence of IL-4- or IL-13-mediated signaling. J Immunol. 1999;163:6448-54 pubmed
    ..We conclude that alum adjuvants can induce IL-4 production and Th2 responses independently of IL-4 or IL-13, negating the requirement for an early source of IL-4 in the Th2 response induced by this adjuvant...
  29. Roestenberg M, Remarque E, de Jonge E, Hermsen R, Blythman H, Leroy O, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 malaria vaccine adjuvanted with Alhydrogel, Montanide ISA 720 or AS02. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3960 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a candidate vaccine antigen expressed by merozoites and sporozoites. It plays a key role in red blood cell and hepatocyte invasion that can be blocked by antibodies...
  30. Hansen B, Belfast M, Soung G, Song L, Egan P, Capen R, et al. Effect of the strength of adsorption of hepatitis B surface antigen to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant on the immune response. Vaccine. 2009;27:888-92 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is known to adsorb to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (AH) by ligand exchange between its accessible phosphate groups and surface hydroxyl groups of the adjuvant...
  31. Ulanova M, Tarkowski A, Hahn Zoric M, Hanson L. The Common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide up-regulates accessory properties of human monocytes via an interleukin-4-dependent mechanism. Infect Immun. 2001;69:1151-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study we assessed the direct in vitro effect of aluminum hydroxide on human peripheral blood monocytes, specifically with regard to its impact on the phenotype and functional ..
  32. Shi Y, HogenEsch H, Regnier F, Hem S. Detoxification of endotoxin by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Vaccine. 2001;19:1747-52 pubmed
    ..4 and 25 degrees C revealed that aluminum hydroxide adjuvant has a greater adsorption capacity (283 microg/mg Al) and adsorption coefficient (1...
  33. Gottwein J, Blanchard T, Targoni O, Eisenberg J, Zagorski B, Redline R, et al. Protective anti-Helicobacter immunity is induced with aluminum hydroxide or complete Freund's adjuvant by systemic immunization. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:308-14 pubmed
    ..adjuvant approved for human use, the efficacy of vaccination with Helicobacter antigen in combination with aluminum hydroxide (AlOH) was evaluated in a murine model of Helicobacter infection...
  34. Near K, Stowers A, Jankovic D, Kaslow D. Improved immunogenicity and efficacy of the recombinant 19-kilodalton merozoite surface protein 1 by the addition of oligodeoxynucleotide and aluminum hydroxide gel in a murine malaria vaccine model. Infect Immun. 2002;70:692-701 pubmed
    ..immunity can be achieved when MSP1(19) is emulsified in Freund adjuvant but not when it is adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide gel (alum)...
  35. Dicko A, Sagara I, Ellis R, Miura K, Guindo O, Kamate B, et al. Phase 1 study of a combination AMA1 blood stage malaria vaccine in Malian children. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1563 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in young children in a malaria endemic area...
  36. Casey W. Large aqueous aluminum hydroxide molecules. Chem Rev. 2006;106:1-16 pubmed
  37. Katopodis K, Andrikos E, Gouva C, Bairaktari E, Nikolopoulos P, Takouli L, et al. Sevelamer hydrochloride versus aluminum hydroxide: effect on serum phosphorus and lipids in CAPD patients. Perit Dial Int. 2006;26:320-7 pubmed
    ..b>Aluminum hydroxide (AH) and calcium carbonate, the most commonly used phosphorus binders, have serious disadvantages, such as ..
  38. Larsen S, Hansen J, Hansen E, Clausen P, Nielsen G. Airway inflammation and adjuvant effect after repeated airborne exposures to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and ovalbumin in BALB/c mice. Toxicology. 2007;235:119-29 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, studies in mice have demonstrated an adjuvant effect from DEHP after parenteral administration with the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA)...
  39. Mullen G, Ellis R, Miura K, Malkin E, Nolan C, Hay M, et al. Phase 1 trial of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel plus CPG 7909: an asexual blood-stage vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2940 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first reported use in humans of an investigational vaccine, AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel, with the novel adjuvant CPG 7909...
  40. Park C, Jung S, Bak J, Lee S, Rhee D. Comparison of the rabbit pyrogen test and Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for endotoxin in hepatitis B vaccines and the effect of aluminum hydroxide. Biologicals. 2005;33:145-51 pubmed
    ..have been used to detect endotoxins in vaccines, but interactions between the endotoxins and proteins or aluminum hydroxide can interfere with the results...
  41. Wolschin F, Wienkoop S, Weckwerth W. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins and peptides from complex mixtures using metal oxide/hydroxide affinity chromatography (MOAC). Proteomics. 2005;5:4389-97 pubmed
    ..thaliana leaf proteins were confirmed with Pro-Q diamond stain. Several of the phosphoprotein candidates that were identified by MS are known to be phosphorylated in vivo in other plant species...
  42. Garçon N, Chomez P, Van Mechelen M. GlaxoSmithKline Adjuvant Systems in vaccines: concepts, achievements and perspectives. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:723-39 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the promising clinical results strongly support the concept of Adjuvant Systems and allow for further development of new vaccines, best adapted to the target population and the immune mechanisms of protection...
  43. Lin L, Ibrahim A, Avanesian V, Edwards J, Fu Y, Baquir B, et al. Considerable differences in vaccine immunogenicities and efficacies related to the diluent used for aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:582-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that although more rAls3p-N was bound by aluminum hydroxide diluted in saline than by aluminum hydroxide diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), its immunogenicity ..
  44. Franchi L, Nunez G. The Nlrp3 inflammasome is critical for aluminium hydroxide-mediated IL-1beta secretion but dispensable for adjuvant activity. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2085-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Aluminum hydroxide (alum) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines, but the immune mechanisms that are activated by alum remain poorly understood...
  45. Crompton P, Mircetic M, Weiss G, Baughman A, Huang C, Topham D, et al. The TLR9 ligand CpG promotes the acquisition of Plasmodium falciparum-specific memory B cells in malaria-naive individuals. J Immunol. 2009;182:3318-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide important insights into the human MBC response, which can inform the development of vaccines against malaria and other pathogens that disrupt immunological memory. ..
  46. Clausi A, Merkley S, Carpenter J, Randolph T. Inhibition of aggregation of aluminum hydroxide adjuvant during freezing and drying. J Pharm Sci. 2008;97:2049-61 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examine the aggregation behavior of Alhydrogel, a commercial aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying...
  47. Li H, Nookala S, Re F. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvants activate caspase-1 and induce IL-1beta and IL-18 release. J Immunol. 2007;178:5271-6 pubmed
    b>Aluminum hydroxide (Alum) is the only adjuvant approved for routine use in humans, although the basis for its adjuvanticity remains poorly understood...
  48. Kimura K, Hirako M, Iwata H, Aoki M, Kawaguchi M, Seki M. Successful superovulation of cattle by a single administration of FSH in aluminum hydroxide gel. Theriogenology. 2007;68:633-9 pubmed
    ..8, 12.6+/-5.1, 6.8+/-1.9, 7.6+/-1.8, 11.4+/-2.5), and transferable embryos (11.4+/-3.9, 10.4+/-5.8, 6.6+/-2.1, 4.8+/-1.4, 10.4+/-2.6). In conclusion, a single i.m. treatment of 30 mg pFSH in 5 mL Al-gel effectively induced SOV in cattle...
  49. Sun J, Song X, Hu S. Ginsenoside Rg1 and aluminum hydroxide synergistically promote immune responses to ovalbumin in BALB/c mice. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:303-7 pubmed
    The combined adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) on immune responses to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice was investigated. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously (s.c...
  50. Ellis R, Mullen G, Pierce M, Martin L, Miura K, Fay M, et al. A Phase 1 study of the blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel with CPG 7909, using two different formulations and dosing intervals. Vaccine. 2009;27:4104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..037, 95% CI 1.03, 4.28). In vitro growth inhibition followed the antibody level: median inhibition was 51% (0,1 month interval) versus 85% (0,2 month interval) in antibody from samples taken 2 weeks post-second vaccination (p=0.056). ..
  51. bin Hussein M, Zainal Z, Yahaya A, Foo D. Controlled release of a plant growth regulator, alpha-naphthaleneacetate from the lamella of Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide nanocomposite. J Control Release. 2002;82:417-27 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of release has been interpreted on the basis of the ion-exchange process between the NAA anion intercalated in the lamella host and nitrate or hydroxyl anions in the aqueous solution...
  52. Clausen S, Bergqvist M, Poulsen L, Poulsen O, Nielsen G. Development of sensitisation or tolerance following repeated OVA inhalation in BALB/cJ mice. Dose-dependency and modulation by the Al(OH)3 adjuvant. Toxicology. 2003;184:51-68 pubmed
    ..Overall, this study showed that airborne Al(OH)(3) was able to counteract tolerance and increase specific IgE and IgG1 production...
  53. Tengvall P, Askendal A, Lundstrom I. Studies on protein adsorption and activation of complement on hydrated aluminium surfaces in vitro. Biomaterials. 1998;19:935-40 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, and in spite of increasing deposition of C3 to the surface with time, the combined ellipsometry and ELISA results gave no unequivocal proof of activation of complement by hydrated aluminium...
  54. Deurloo D, van Esch B, Hofstra C, Nijkamp F, van Oosterhout A. CTLA4-IgG reverses asthma manifestations in a mild but not in a more "severe" ongoing murine model. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;25:751-60 pubmed
    ..In a more "severe" ongoing model, induced by sensitization to OVA emulsified in aluminum hydroxide, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and stronger inflammatory responses, mCTLA4-IgG was ..
  55. Iyer S, HogenEsch H, Hem S. Relationship between the degree of antigen adsorption to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant in interstitial fluid and antibody production. Vaccine. 2003;21:1219-23 pubmed
    ..in mice to model vaccines containing ovalbumin, alpha casein or dephosphorylated alpha casein adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was studied...
  56. Muller U. Venom immunotherapy: aqueous vs aluminium hydroxide adsorbed extracts. Allergy. 2004;59:577-8 pubmed
  57. Rueff F, Wolf H, Schnitker J, Ring J, Przybilla B. Specific immunotherapy in honeybee venom allergy: a comparative study using aqueous and aluminium hydroxide adsorbed preparations. Allergy. 2004;59:589-95 pubmed
    ..For the immunotherapy of Hymenoptera venom allergy various preparations and treatment protocols are in use. However, controlled studies making direct comparisons of the efficacy and safety of different regimens are rare...
  58. Langermans J, Schmidt A, Vervenne R, Birkett A, Calvo Calle J, Hensmann M, et al. Effect of adjuvant on reactogenicity and long-term immunogenicity of the malaria Vaccine ICC-1132 in macaques. Vaccine. 2005;23:4935-43 pubmed
    ..Such measures also reduced peak titres and longevity of antibodies against CS, demonstrating the delicate balance between immunogenicity and reactogenicity of new vaccine formulations...
  59. Mora M, Jiménez Sanchidrián C, Ruiz J. Heterogeneous Suzuki cross-coupling reactions over palladium/hydrotalcite catalysts. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006;302:568-75 pubmed
    ..In fact, the catalyst provided conversion and selectivity results surpassing those of existing heterogeneous phase catalysts and most homogeneous phase catalysts for the same purpose...
  60. Sagara I, Dicko A, Ellis R, Fay M, Diawara S, Assadou M, et al. A randomized controlled phase 2 trial of the blood stage AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel malaria vaccine in children in Mali. Vaccine. 2009;27:3090-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5 g/dL, in the direction of lower hemoglobin in the children who received AMA1-C1, although these differences were not significant after correction for multiple tests. These differences were not seen in the second year of transmission. ..
  61. Spellberg B, Ibrahim A, Yeaman M, Lin L, Fu Y, Avanesian V, et al. The antifungal vaccine derived from the recombinant N terminus of Als3p protects mice against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4574-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The rAls3p-N vaccine was effective against S. aureus when combined with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. However, the vaccine did not improve the survival of mice infected with other bacterial pathogens...