lithium carbonate


Summary: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.

Top Publications

  1. McQuillin A, Rizig M, Gurling H. A microarray gene expression study of the molecular pharmacology of lithium carbonate on mouse brain mRNA to understand the neurobiology of mood stabilization and treatment of bipolar affective disorder. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007;17:605-17 pubmed
    ..To understand how lithium produces changes in the brain, we studied brain mRNA from 10 mice after treatment with lithium and compared them with 10 untreated controls...
  2. Marangell L, Dennehy E, Wisniewski S, Bauer M, Miyahara S, Allen M, et al. Case-control analyses of the impact of pharmacotherapy on prospectively observed suicide attempts and completed suicides in bipolar disorder: findings from STEP-BD. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:916-22 pubmed
  3. Plenge U, Møller A. [Development of sustained vasodilatory shock and permanent loss of hearing after severe lithium carbonate poisoning]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2008;170:354 pubmed
    A case of severe lithium carbonate self-poisoning is described, presenting with sustained vasodilatory shock, DIC and neurologic manifestations...
  4. Young A, Hammond J. Lithium in mood disorders: increasing evidence base, declining use?. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191:474-6 pubmed
    ..Recent meta-analyses confirm the benefits of maintenance lithium treatment and show that it reduces suicide and suicidality. Psychiatrists should continue to utilise this efficacious treatment for bipolar disorder...
  5. Watase K, Gatchel J, Sun Y, Emamian E, Atkinson R, Richman R, et al. Lithium therapy improves neurological function and hippocampal dendritic arborization in a spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 mouse model. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e182 pubmed
  6. Campos de Sousa S, Guindalini C, Tondo L, Munro J, Osborne S, Floris G, et al. Nuclear receptor rev-erb-{alpha} circadian gene variants and lithium carbonate prophylaxis in bipolar affective disorder. J Biol Rhythms. 2010;25:132-7 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated whether polymorphisms in the Rev-erb- alpha gene are associated with the long-term efficacy of lithium carbonate therapy in bipolar affective disorder...
  7. Chio A, Borghero G, Calvo A, Capasso M, Caponnetto C, Corbo M, et al. Lithium carbonate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: lack of efficacy in a dose-finding trial. Neurology. 2010;75:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a multicenter trial with lithium carbonate to assess its tolerability, safety, and efficacy in patients with ALS, comparing 2 different target blood ..
  8. Frye M, Yatham L, Ketter T, Goldberg J, Suppes T, Calabrese J, et al. Depressive relapse during lithium treatment associated with increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone: results from two placebo-controlled bipolar I maintenance studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;120:10-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the relationship between depressive relapse and change in thyroid function in an exploratory post hoc analysis from a controlled maintenance evaluation of bipolar I disorder...
  9. Kessing L, Søndergård L, Kvist K, Andersen P. Adherence to lithium in naturalistic settings: results from a nationwide pharmacoepidemiological study. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9:730-6 pubmed
    ..To estimate adherence to lithium in a nationwide sample of all patients treated with lithium and to characterize adherence according to gender and age...

More Information


  1. Kulkarni J, Berk M, Fitzgerald P, de Castella A, Montgomery W, Kelin K, et al. The Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS): baseline findings of an Australian cohort study. J Affect Disord. 2008;107:135-44 pubmed
    ..The Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS) is a 2-year, observational study of participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder examining clinical, functional, and economic outcomes associated with naturalistic treatment...
  2. Li X, Chen X, Zhao K, Bai L, Zhang H, Zhou X. Therapeutic effects of valproate combined with lithium carbonate on MPTP-induced parkinsonism in mice: possible mediation through enhanced autophagy. Int J Neurosci. 2013;123:73-9 pubmed publisher
    In order to investigate the mechanisms and therapeutic effects of valproate combined with lithium carbonate on mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD), male C57BL/6 mice were injected into intraperitoneal with valproate (20 ?g/ml) ..
  3. Mamdani F, Sequeira A, Alda M, Grof P, Rouleau G, Turecki G. No association between the PREP gene and lithium responsive bipolar disorder. BMC Psychiatry. 2007;7:9 pubmed
  4. Jefferson J. A clinician's guide to monitoring kidney function in lithium-treated patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:1153-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This overview clarifies those practical aspects of monitoring that are often overlooked or misunderstood...
  5. Mattai A, Fung L, Bakalar J, Overman G, Tossell J, Miller R, et al. Adjunctive use of lithium carbonate for the management of neutropenia in clozapine-treated children. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:584-9 pubmed publisher
    ..records were reviewed for patients with COS who had been treated with the combination of clozapine and lithium carbonate. Seven patients were found to have been treated with both clozapine and lithium...
  6. Pizzasegola C, Caron I, Daleno C, Ronchi A, Minoia C, Carri M, et al. Treatment with lithium carbonate does not improve disease progression in two different strains of SOD1 mutant mice. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2009;10:221-8 pubmed publisher
    It has been shown that chronic treatment with lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)) in presymptomatic SOD1G93A transgenic male mice, a model of ALS, was able to remarkably increase their lifespan through the activation of autophagy and the ..
  7. Akin F, Yaylali G, Bastemir M. The use of lithium carbonate in the preparation for definitive therapy in hyperthyroid patients. Med Princ Pract. 2008;17:167-70 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effectiveness of lithium carbonate prior to thyroidectomy or radioiodide therapy in patients with thyrotoxicosis.
  8. Miller R, Moore D, Forshew D, Katz J, Barohn R, Valan M, et al. Phase II screening trial of lithium carbonate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: examining a more efficient trial design. Neurology. 2011;77:973-9 pubmed publisher
    To use a historical placebo control design to determine whether lithium carbonate slows progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
  9. Smith E, Søndergård L, Lopez A, Andersen P, Kessing L. Association between consistent purchase of anticonvulsants or lithium and suicide risk: a longitudinal cohort study from Denmark, 1995-2001. J Affect Disord. 2009;117:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior studies suggest anticonvulsants purchasers may be at greater risk of suicide than lithium purchasers...
  10. Baldessarini R, Tondo L, Davis P, Pompili M, Goodwin F, Hennen J. Decreased risk of suicides and attempts during long-term lithium treatment: a meta-analytic review. Bipolar Disord. 2006;8:625-39 pubmed
    ..To update and extend comparisons of rates of suicides and suicide attempts among patients with major affective disorders with versus without long-term lithium treatment...
  11. Geddes J, Goodwin G, Rendell J, Azorin J, Cipriani A, Ostacher M, et al. Lithium plus valproate combination therapy versus monotherapy for relapse prevention in bipolar I disorder (BALANCE): a randomised open-label trial. Lancet. 2010;375:385-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Lithium carbonate and valproate semisodium are both recommended as monotherapy for prevention of relapse in bipolar disorder, but are not individually fully effective in many patients...
  12. Shin J, Cho S, Lim H, Lee J, Lee Y, Noh J, et al. Concurrent administration of Neu2000 and lithium produces marked improvement of motor neuron survival, motor function, and mortality in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:965-75 pubmed
    ..Administration of lithium carbonate (Li(+)), a mood stabilizer that prevents apoptosis, blocked the apoptosis machinery without preventing ..
  13. Kennedy S, Segal Z, Cohen N, Levitan R, Gemar M, Bagby R. Lithium carbonate versus cognitive therapy as sequential combination treatment strategies in partial responders to antidepressant medication: an exploratory trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:439-44 pubmed
    ..Despite increasing evidence that full symptomatic remission is the optimal goal of antidepressant therapy, there have been few comparisons between disparate treatment approaches to achieve this goal...
  14. Prien R, Kupfer D, Mansky P, Small J, Tuason V, Voss C, et al. Drug therapy in the prevention of recurrences in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders. Report of the NIMH Collaborative Study Group comparing lithium carbonate, imipramine, and a lithium carbonate-imipramine combination. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984;41:1096-104 pubmed
    In a double-blind, long-term follow-up study, 117 bipolar patients received lithium carbonate, imipramine hydrochloride, or both and 150 unipolar patients received lithium carbonate, imipramine, both lithium carbonate and imipramine, or ..
  15. Kane J, Quitkin F, Rifkin A, Ramos Lorenzi J, Nayak D, Howard A. Lithium carbonate and imipramine in the prophylaxis of unipolar and bipolar II illness: a prospective, placebo-controlled comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:1065-9 pubmed
    ..remission for at least six months were randomly assigned on a double-blind basis to treatment regimens using lithium carbonate, imipramine hydrochloride, lithium carbonate plus imipramine, or placebo...
  16. Chen G, Masana M, Manji H. Lithium regulates PKC-mediated intracellular cross-talk and gene expression in the CNS in vivo. Bipolar Disord. 2000;2:217-36 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that the PKC signaling pathway and PKC-mediated gene expression may be important mediators of lithium's long-term therapeutic effects in a disorder as complex as BD...
  17. Emami J, Tavakoli N, Movahedian A. Formulation of sustained - release lithium carbonate matrix tablets: influence of hydrophilic materials on the release rate and in vitro-in vivo evaluation. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2004;7:338-44 pubmed
    Conventional lithium carbonate (LC) tablets not only produce rapid and relatively high peak blood levels resulting in adverse effects but also should be administered 3 to 4 times daily...
  18. Licht R, Vestergaard P, Rasmussen N, Jepsen K, Brodersen A, Hansen P. A lithium clinic for bipolar patients: 2-year outcome of the first 148 patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104:387-90 pubmed
    ..This paper describes the outcome for the first 148 patients referred to a lithium clinic...
  19. Ananth J, Johnson K, Levander E, Harry J. Diabetic ketoacidosis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and myocardial infarction in a patient taking risperidone and lithium carbonate. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:724 pubmed
  20. Breen G, Harwood A, Gregory K, Sinclair M, Collier D, St Clair D, et al. Two peptidase activities decrease in treated bipolar disorder not schizophrenic patients. Bipolar Disord. 2004;6:156-61 pubmed
    ..However, this association is complicated by the discovery in bovine plasma of a Z-Pro-prolinal-insensitive peptidase (ZIP), a novel enzyme that cleaves the same substrate as PO...
  21. Li X, Bijur G, Jope R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, mood stabilizers, and neuroprotection. Bipolar Disord. 2002;4:137-44 pubmed
  22. Chuang D, Chen R, Chalecka Franaszek E, Ren M, Hashimoto R, Senatorov V, et al. Neuroprotective effects of lithium in cultured cells and animal models of diseases. Bipolar Disord. 2002;4:129-36 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that lithium might have utility in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in addition to its common use for the treatment of bipolar depressive patients...
  23. Solomon D, Ryan C, Keitner G, Miller I, Shea M, Kazim A, et al. A pilot study of lithium carbonate plus divalproex sodium for the continuation and maintenance treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58:95-9 pubmed
    ..This pilot study compared the efficacy of lithium plus divalproex sodium with the efficacy of lithium alone for the continuation and maintenance treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder...
  24. Schumann C, Lenz G, Berghöfer A, Muller Oerlinghausen B. Non-adherence with long-term prophylaxis: a 6-year naturalistic follow-up study of affectively ill patients. Psychiatry Res. 1999;89:247-57 pubmed
    ..Our findings confirmed non-adherence as a major problem in the effectiveness of lithium prophylaxis. The authors recommend prospective investigations of attitudes and the impact of psychoeducation on long-term adherence...
  25. Wolf R, D Avino M, de Angelis F, Ruocco E, Lombardi M. Effects of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) on in-vitro-cultured normal human skin explants. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000;14:97-9 pubmed
    The early morphological changes induced by lithium carbonate, a well-known psoriasis-provoking drug, were studied on cultured skin...
  26. Larsen J, Porsdal V, Aarre T, Koponen H, Aarnio J, Kleivenes O. Mania in the Nordic countries: patients and treatment in the acute phase of the EMBLEM study. Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicated differences in admission patterns, patient social functioning and medical treatment in the Nordic patients compared with the European patients. ..
  27. Ceylan M, Alpsan M. Pulmonary hypertension during lithium therapy: clinical case study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2007;40:110-2 pubmed
    ..The patient developed pulmonary hypertension without a prior diagnosed cardiac and/or pulmonary disease. This is the first report of pulmonary hypertension in an adult patient during lithium therapy. ..
  28. Bhalla P, Dhawan D. Protective role of lithium in ameliorating the aluminium-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in rat brain. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the study shows that Li has a potential to exhibit neuroprotective role in conditions of Al-induced oxidative stress and be explored further to be treated as a promising drug against neurotoxicity. ..
  29. Nezami B, Rahimpour S, Sadeghi M, Sianati S, Anaraki D, Ebrahimi F, et al. Chronic lithium impairs skin tolerance to ischemia in random-pattern skin flap of rats. J Surg Res. 2011;171:374-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is prevented by ischemic preconditioning or L-arginine treatment. The results suggest that skin-involving interventions should be applied more cautiously in patients who are on lithium treatment. ..
  30. Rybakowski J, Suwalska A, Skibinska M, Dmitrzak Weglarz M, Leszczynska Rodziewicz A, Hauser J. Response to lithium prophylaxis: interaction between serotonin transporter and BDNF genes. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2007;144B:820-3 pubmed
    ..with bipolar mood disorders (43 male, 68 female), aged 30-77 (mean 54 years) who have been treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 years (5-27 years, mean 15 years)...
  31. da Rocha F, Soares F, Correa H, Teixeira A. Addition of lamotrigine to valproic acid: a successful outcome in a case of rapid-cycling bipolar affective disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:1548-9 pubmed
  32. Yumru M, Savas H, Kurt E, Kaya M, Selek S, Savas E, et al. Atypical antipsychotics related metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. J Affect Disord. 2007;98:247-52 pubmed
    ..Prospectively designed researches should be conducted for further clarification of the role of these drugs in MetS. ..
  33. Krähenmann R, Küchenhoff B, Böker H, Schick M. [Catatonic dilemma in a schizoaffective patient with combined lithium-risperidone administration]. Psychiatr Prax. 2010;37:306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dopaminergic system and psychopharmacological factors are supposed to play a key role. However, other neurotransmitter systems and the individual predisposition must be considered. ..
  34. Fujii S, Oku H, Takahashi R, Kanbara Y, Sugasawa J, Ikeda T. Optic nerve dysfunction secondary to long-term use of lithium carbonate. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2007;51:79-81 pubmed
  35. Sabillo S, Samala R, Ciocon J. A stuttering discovery of lithium toxicity. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13:660-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Her past medical history was significant for dementia, epilepsy, and bipolar disorder, for which she took lithium carbonate. One day, she complained to her nurse that she had been stuttering, finding it difficult to complete a ..
  36. ElDesoky E, Kumar V, Alorainy M, Hamdi M, Derendorf H. Estimation of lithium clearance from routine clinical data in Egyptian bipolar patients. A population pharmacokinetic approach. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;46:617-26 pubmed
    ..6 kg, respectively. Patients selected were maintained on lithium carbonate controlled release tablets at doses of 400 mg/12 hours (n = 43) or 200 mg/12 hours (n = 7) respectively...
  37. Bowden C, Göğüş A, Grunze H, Häggström L, Rybakowski J, Vieta E. A 12-week, open, randomized trial comparing sodium valproate to lithium in patients with bipolar I disorder suffering from a manic episode. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;23:254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Adverse events were reported in 44% of patients in both groups. Valproate and lithium showed comparable efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of acute mania over 12 weeks. ..
  38. Forester B, Finn C, Berlow Y, Wardrop M, Renshaw P, Moore C. Brain lithium, N-acetyl aspartate and myo-inositol levels in older adults with bipolar disorder treated with lithium: a lithium-7 and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Bipolar Disord. 2008;10:691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to demonstrate alterations in NAA and myo-Ino in a sample of older adults with BD treated with lithium. ..
  39. Bedford J, Leader J, Jing R, Walker L, Klein J, Sands J, et al. Amiloride restores renal medullary osmolytes in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F812-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Data presented here provide further understanding of how amiloride may substantially restore the lithium-induced impaired renal concentrating mechanism. ..
  40. Kiełczykowska M, Musik I, Hordyjewska A, Boguszewska A, Lewandowska A, Pasternak K. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2007;59:291-5 pubmed
    ..The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability. ..
  41. Cole N, Parker G. Cade's identification of lithium for manic-depressive illness--the prospector who found a gold nugget. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012;200:1101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The suggestion that Cade simply "rediscovered lithium" is rejected. ..
  42. Ngo J, Haber R. Exacerbation of Darier disease by lithium carbonate. J Cutan Med Surg. 2010;14:80-4 pubmed
    ..A mechanism by which lithium worsens disease has recently been studied in rats. DD's coexistence with affective disorders and the mechanisms by which lithium may cause exacerbation of DD and HHD are reviewed. ..
  43. Huang X, Lei Z, Li X, El Mallakh R. Response of sodium pump to ouabain challenge in human glioblastoma cells in culture. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:884-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that disturbance of ion regulation induces changes in glial cell sodium regulatory systems which are normalized by lithium treatment. ..
  44. Del Grande C, Muti M, Musetti L, Pergentini I, Corsi M, Turri M, et al. [Long-term treatment of bipolar disorder: how should we use lithium salts?]. Riv Psichiatr. 2012;47:515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary data on the prospective course of the illness support the importance of maintaining serum values of lithium within the therapeutic range. ..
  45. Rybakowski J, Czerski P, Dmitrzak Weglarz M, Kliwicki S, Leszczynska Rodziewicz A, Permoda Osip A, et al. Clinical and pathogenic aspects of candidate genes for lithium prophylactic efficacy. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26:368-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible aspects of these genes with regard to the mechanism of lithium activity and pathogenesis of bipolar mood disorder are discussed. ..
  46. Alevizos B, Gatzonis S, Anagnostara C. Myasthenia gravis disclosed by lithium carbonate. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2006;18:427-9 pubmed
  47. Mosolov S, Kostiukova E, Kapiletti S, Belen kaia D, Shafarenko A, Fedotov D. [Open randomized comparative twelve-week study of lithium and valproate in manic episode]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2009;109:47-52 pubmed
    ..One group (64 patients) was treated with valproate sodium and another group (61 patients) received lithium carbonate. Monotherapy was administered with the mean dose of valproate 20 mg/kg/day (serum valproate concentration ..
  48. Paw H, Slingo M, Tinker M. Late onset nephrogenic diabetes insipidus following cessation of lithium therapy. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:278-80 pubmed
    ..We seek to explain this delayed onset by a discussion of the molecular and genetic changes underlying the pathogenesis of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. ..
  49. Grueneberger E, Maria Rountree E, Baron Short E, Kahn D. Neurotoxicity with therapeutic lithium levels: a case report. J Psychiatr Pract. 2009;15:60-3 pubmed publisher
    ..8 mEq/L, within the usual therapeutic range. The discussion emphasizes that lithium toxicity is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and can occur even at usual therapeutic blood levels. ..
  50. Zivkovic M, Mihaljevic Peles A, Sagud M, Silić A, Mihanovic M. The role of CYP2D6 and TaqI A polymorphisms in malignant neuroleptic syndrome: two case reports with three episodes. Psychiatr Danub. 2010;22:112-6 pubmed
    ..Beside antipsychotic drugs, other psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants and lithium carbonate can cause this life threatening side-effect...
  51. Samalin L, Llorca P. [Methodological approach to inter "guideline" variability in the management of bipolar disorders]. Encephale. 2012;38:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the initial objective of guidelines "to develop statements to assist clinician and patient decisions about the most appropriate health care for specific clinical situations" could be implemented in clinical practice. ..
  52. Eddahby S, Kadri N, Moussaoui D. [Ramadan and bipolar disorder: Example of circadian rhythm disturbance and its impact on patients with bipolar disorders]. Encephale. 2013;39:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, the results of these two main studies, with opposite results, do not help us advise bipolar patients to fast or not to fast. Other studies in this field are badly needed. ..
  53. Vloet J, Hagenah U. [Pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorders during childhood and adolescence]. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 2009;37:27-49, quiz 49-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Needed are more placebo-controlled studies and long-term studies on the efficacy and safety of mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotic agents in the treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. ..
  54. Saunders K, Cipriani A, Rendell J, Attenburrow M, Nelissen N, Bilderbeck A, et al. Oxford Lithium Trial (OxLith) of the early affective, cognitive, neural and biochemical effects of lithium carbonate in bipolar disorder: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2016;17:116 pubmed publisher
    ..In this respect, OxLith is a step towards the development of a valid experimental medicine model for bipolar disorder. ISRCTN91624955 . Registered on 22 January 2015. ..
  55. Giotakos O, Nisianakis P, Tsouvelas G, Giakalou V. Lithium in the public water supply and suicide mortality in Greece. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;156:376-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the nutritional importance of lithium in the form of the carbonate named lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is currently still viewed primarily as a pharmacological agent. The study by Al-Chalabi et al...
  56. Joffe R, Sokolov S, Levitt A. Lithium and triiodothyronine augmentation of antidepressants. Can J Psychiatry. 2006;51:791-3 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the relative benefits of the combination of lithium and triiodothyronine (T3) in augmentation of antidepressants, compared with either lithium or T3 alone...
  57. Findling R, Kafantaris V, Pavuluri M, McNamara N, Frazier J, Sikich L, et al. Post-acute effectiveness of lithium in pediatric bipolar I disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013;23:80-90 pubmed publisher
  58. Suppes T, Vieta E, Liu S, Brecher M, Paulsson B. Maintenance treatment for patients with bipolar I disorder: results from a north american study of quetiapine in combination with lithium or divalproex (trial 127). Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:476-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of quetiapine plus lithium or divalproex in the prevention of recurrent mood events in patients with stabilized bipolar I disorder...
  59. Kim J, Ha K. Hypersensitive neurological response to lithium in a patient with organic bipolar disorder secondary to idiopathic basal ganglia calcification. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:646 pubmed publisher
  60. McKean A, Vella Brincat J. Is it NICE to monitor lithium routinely?. N Z Med J. 2012;125:50-4 pubmed
    ..Lithium has a narrow and well described therapeutic range...
  61. Werneke U, Ott M, Renberg E, Taylor D, Stegmayr B. A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012;126:186-97 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish whether lithium or anticonvulsant should be used for maintenance treatment for bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) if the risks of suicide and relapse were traded off against the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD)...
  62. Samalin L, Nourry A, Llorca P. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression]. Encephale. 2011;37 Suppl 3:S203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder...
  63. Wix Ramos R, Eblen Zajjur A. Time course of acute neuroprotective effects of lithium carbonate evaluated by brain impedanciometry in the global ischemia model. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;89:753-8 pubmed publisher
  64. Eduardo C, Simoes A, de Freitas P, Arana Chavez V, Nicolau J, Gentil V. Dentin decalcification during lithium treatment: case report. Spec Care Dentist. 2013;33:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A 30-year-old woman with bipolar disorder, treated with lithium carbonate presented severe dental decay...
  65. Preskorn S. Deconstructing a medication regimen. J Psychiatr Pract. 2008;14:114-8 pubmed publisher
  66. Liu Z, Chuang D, Smith C. Lithium ameliorates phenotypic deficits in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:618-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings and those from other laboratories on the efficacy of lithium treatment in animal models support further studies in patients with FXS...
  67. Bajbouj M, Gallinat J, Lang U, Hellen F, Vesper J, Lisanby S, et al. Motor cortex excitability after vagus nerve stimulation in major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007;27:156-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that VNS is capable of changing motor cortical excitability in patients with depression...
  68. Duffy A, Alda M, Milin R, Grof P. A consecutive series of treated affected offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: is response associated with the clinical profile?. Can J Psychiatry. 2007;52:369-76 pubmed
    ..Long-term treatment studies of youth with BD are lacking. This paper provides longitudinal observations of response to mood stabilizers early in the course of illness in youth with BD...
  69. Potter M, Moses A, Wozniak J. Alternative treatments in pediatric bipolar disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009;18:483-514, xi pubmed publisher
    ..Across the board, more research is necessary and warranted regarding the long-term safety and efficacy of available complementary and alternative treatments for the management of pediatric BPD...
  70. Kayipmaz S, Altınöz A, Ok N. Lithium Intoxication: A Possible Interaction with Moxifloxacin. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2017;15:407-409 pubmed publisher
    ..We presented a 74-year-old female patient who had been stabile with lithium carbonate 600 mg/day for 5 years and developed lithium intoxication after bronchiolitis...
  71. Sadananda S, Narayanaswamy J, Srinivasaraju R, Math S. Delirium during the course of electroconvulsive therapy in a patient on lithium carbonate treatment. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2013;35:678.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    The safety of concurrent mood stabilizers during the course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is yet to be clearly established. Delirium with concurrent administration of ECT and lithium carbonate is described in this case report.
  72. Coplen T, Brand W, Gehre M, Gröning M, Meijer H, Toman B, et al. New guidelines for delta13C measurements. Anal Chem. 2006;78:2439-41 pubmed
    ..6 per thousand to L-SVEC lithium carbonate and +1.95 per thousand to NBS 19 calcium carbonate...
  73. Toskić Radojcić M, Pavlovic M, Gazikalović E, Arandjelovic A, Kovacević A. [A comparative analysis of the influence of different types of Carbopol on the release rate of lithium-carbonate from matrix tablets]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2012;69:675-80 pubmed
  74. O Brien M, Koo J. The mechanism of lithium and beta-blocking agents in inducing and exacerbating psoriasis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2006;5:426-32 pubmed
  75. Lysén C, Hendriksen C, Faxholm M, Reuther L. [Medication errors after hospitalisation due to multi-dose drug dispensing in the primary sector]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2011;173:1944-5 pubmed
    ..These problems has until now been underestimated...
  76. Bellivier F. [Evolution of bipolar disorder]. Encephale. 2006;32 Pt 2:S506-10 pubmed
  77. Millet B, Vanelle J. [Monitoring mood regulating drugs in bipolar disorder]. Encephale. 2006;32 Pt 2:S536-41 pubmed
  78. Sze L, Ulrich B, Brandle M. Severe hypernatraemia due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus - a life-threatening side effect of chronic lithium therapy. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006;114:596-8 pubmed
    ..Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus should always be considered in lithium-treated patients undergoing elective surgery in order to avoid severe hypernatraemia...
  79. Garnham J, Munro A, Slaney C, MacDougall M, Passmore M, Duffy A, et al. Prophylactic treatment response in bipolar disorder: results of a naturalistic observation study. J Affect Disord. 2007;104:185-90 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of commonly used prophylactic treatments for bipolar disorder in a naturalistic setting and to explore factors associated with treatment response...
  80. Bhalla P, Chadha V, Dhar R, Dhawan D. Neuroprotective effects of zinc on antioxidant defense system in lithium treated rat brain. Indian J Exp Biol. 2007;45:954-8 pubmed
    ..From the present study, it can be concluded that the antiperoxidative property of zinc is effective in reversing the oxidative stress induced by lithium toxicity in the rat brain...
  81. Jamrozinski K, Gruber O, Kemmer C, Falkai P, Scherk H. Neurocognitive functions in euthymic bipolar patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;119:365-74 pubmed publisher