nitric acid

Summary

Summary: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Garippo A, Parra E, Teodoro W, Veloza A, Yoshinari N, Capelozzi V. Immune cell infiltration and broncovascular remodeling after nitric acid nasal instillation in a mouse bronchiolitis obliterans model. Lung. 2006;184:229-38 pubmed
    ..Eight weeks after a single nitric acid (NA) nasal instillation, lung changes were characterized by lumen distortion, epithelial layer folding, ..
  2. Preszler Prince A, Grassian V, Kleiber P, Young M. Heterogeneous conversion of calcite aerosol by nitric acid. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2007;9:622-34 pubmed
    The reaction of nitric acid with calcite aerosol at varying relative humidities has been studied under suspended particle conditions in an atmospheric reaction chamber using infrared absorption spectroscopy...
  3. Pryor S, Barthelmie R, Schoof J, Binkowski F, Delle Monache L, Stull R. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city. Sci Total Environ. 2008;391:132-42 pubmed
  4. Prince A, Kleiber P, Grassian V, Young M. Reactive uptake of acetic acid on calcite and nitric acid reacted calcite aerosol in an environmental reaction chamber. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2008;10:142-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a possible mechanism for observed correlations between particulate nitrate and organic acids in the atmosphere. Calcium rich mineral dust may be an important sink for simple organic acids...
  5. Jiang Y, Xi B, Li X, Zhang X, Wei Z. [Effect of different extractants on leaching characteristics of the fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerator]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2007;28:2400-3 pubmed
  6. Zhu N, Chen X, Zhang T, Wu P, Li P, Wu J. Improved performance of membrane free single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells with nitric acid and ethylenediamine surface modified activated carbon fiber felt anodes. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:422-6 pubmed publisher
    ..air-cathode MFCs, MFC-A and MFC-N, were constructed using activated carbon fiber felt (ACF) anodes treated by nitric acid and ethylenediamine (EDA), respectively...
  7. Michalsen M, Peacock A, Smithgal A, White D, Spain A, Sanchez Rosario Y, et al. Treatment of nitric acid-, U(VI)-, and Tc(VII)-contaminated groundwater in intermediate-scale physical models of an in situ biobarrier. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:1952-61 pubmed
    ..potential in situ biobarrier configuration designed to neutralize pH and remove nitrate and radionuclides from nitric acid-, U-, and Tc-contaminated groundwater for over 21 months...
  8. Murphy C, Akbarnia H, Rose S. Fatal pulmonary edema after acute occupational exposure to nitric acid. J Emerg Med. 2010;39:39-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Nitric acid (HNO(3)) is a solution of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) in water commonly used as an industrial chemical and cleaner. Oxides of nitrogen liberated as nitric acid interact with the environment to cause inhalation injuries...
  9. Martínez González J, García Sabán F, Ferrándiz Bernal J, Gonzalo Lafuente J, Cano Sánchez J, Barona Dorado C. Removal torque and physico-chemical characteristics of dental implants etched with hydrofluoric and nitric acid. An experimental study in Beagle dogs. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2006;11:E281-5 pubmed
    To study the composition, surface characteristics and response to removal torque of an implant surface subjected to hydrofluoric acid etching and posterior passivating with hydrofluoric and nitric acid.

More Information

Publications62

  1. Khoder M. Atmospheric conversion of sulfur dioxide to particulate sulfate and nitrogen dioxide to particulate nitrate and gaseous nitric acid in an urban area. Chemosphere. 2002;49:675-84 pubmed
    Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate sulfate and nitrate, gaseous nitric acid, ozone and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity) were measured during the winter season (1999-2000) and summer season (2000) ..
  2. Megges R, Weiland J, Undeutsch B, Büchting H, Schon R. The nitration of canrenone with acetic anhydride/nitric acid. Steroids. 1997;62:762-6 pubmed
    ..II reacts with acetic anhydride/nitric acid to give one main product (III) and some minor products...
  3. Fields M, Yan T, Rhee S, Carroll S, Jardine P, Watson D, et al. Impacts on microbial communities and cultivable isolates from groundwater contaminated with high levels of nitric acid-uranium waste. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2005;53:417-28 pubmed
  4. Costa C, Spilborghs G, Martins M, Saldiva P, Mauad T. Nitric acid-induced bronchiolitis in rats mimics childhood Bronchiolitis obliterans. Respiration. 2005;72:642-9 pubmed
    ..Animal models could help to better understand the sequence of events culminating in bronchiolar obliteration and serve as basis for experimental therapeutic research...
  5. Kang C, Kang B, Lee H. Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2006;56:911-21 pubmed
  6. Tung N, Chikae M, Ukita Y, Viet P, Takamura Y. Sensing technique of silver nanoparticles as labels for immunoassay using liquid electrode plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2012;84:1210-3 pubmed publisher
    ..at the narrow pass in the center of a quartz chip following oxidative dissolution of the Ag nanoparticles by nitric acid. hCG was analyzed in the range from 10 pg/mL to 1 ng/mL, and the detection limit for hCG was estimated at 1...
  7. Pacquette L, Levenson A, Thompson J. Determination of total iodine in infant formula and nutritional products by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation. J AOAC Int. 2012;95:169-76 pubmed
    ..All samples were digested in nitric acid using a closed vessel microwave oven system; Te (m/z 130) was used as an internal standard...
  8. Grahek Z, Milanović I, Nodilo M, Rozmarić M. Sequential separation of Fe and Sr from liquid samples by using Sr resin and rapid determination of ??Fe and (??,??)Sr. Appl Radiat Isot. 2013;81:42-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The method enables efficient simultaneous separation (with high recovery) of (89,90)Sr and (55)Fe and in combination with ?erenkov counting rapid determination of (89,90)Sr...
  9. Loukhovitskaya E, Talukdar R, Ravishankara A. Uptake of HNO3 on aviation kerosene and aircraft engine soot: influences of H2O or/and H2SO4. J Phys Chem A. 2013;117:4928-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The uptake of nitric acid increased slightly with relative humidity (RH)...
  10. Butler M, Gardiner R, Day A. Melanin synthesis by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mycologia. 2009;101:296-304 pubmed
    ..We report basic conditions for sclerotial melanin degradation by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium...
  11. Balcı F, Uras Aytemiz N. Interaction in the ternary complexes of HNO3···HCl···H2O: a theoretical study on energetics, structure, and spectroscopy. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:5943-54 pubmed publisher
  12. Xu Z, Lin M. Computational studies on metathetical and redox processes of HOCl in gas phase. III. Its self-reaction and interactions with HNOx (x = 1-3). J Phys Chem A. 2010;114:5320-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we calculated the equilibrium constant for the Cl(2)O + H(2)O --> HOCl + HOCl reaction, which is also in reasonable agreement with experimental data within the error of the available experimental enthalpy change...
  13. Balaji S, Kokovkin V, Chung S, Moon I. Destruction of EDTA by mediated electrochemical oxidation process: monitoring by continuous CO2 measurements. Water Res. 2007;41:1423-32 pubmed
    The mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO) process with cerium(IV) in nitric acid as the oxidizing medium was employed for the destruction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in batch and continuous feeding modes...
  14. da Silva M, Paim A, Pimentel M, Cervera M, de la Guardia M. Determination of mercury in rice by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;667:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..9ngg(-1) with a recovery percentage of 95+/-4% at an added concentration of 5ngg(-1). The concentration level of Hg found in 24 natural rice samples from different origin ranged between 1.3 and 7.8ngg(-1)...
  15. Tsoi Y, Leung K. Toward the use of surface modified activated carbon in speciation: selective preconcentration of selenite and selenate in environmental waters. J Chromatogr A. 2011;1218:2160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The modified AC material is hence presented as a low-cost yet robust substitute for conventional anion exchange resins for routine applications...
  16. De Michelis I, Ferella F, Varelli E, Vegliò F. Treatment of exhaust fluorescent lamps to recover yttrium: experimental and process analyses. Waste Manag. 2011;31:2559-68 pubmed publisher
  17. Abbasfard H, Hashemi S, Rahimpour M, Jokar S, Ghader S. Reducing NO(x) emissions from a nitric acid plant of domestic petrochemical complex: enhanced conversion in conventional radial-flow reactor of selective catalytic reduction process. Environ Technol. 2013;34:2867-79 pubmed
    The nitric acid plant of a domestic petrochemical complex is designed to annually produce 56,400 metric tons (based on 100% nitric acid)...
  18. Zhuang Z, Xu X, Wang Y, Wang Y, Huang F, Lin Z. Treatment of nanowaste via fast crystal growth: with recycling of nano-SnO2 from electroplating sludge as a study case. J Hazard Mater. 2012;211-212:414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 kg original sludge and the recycling of about 90 g nano-SnO(2) was achieved. We anticipate this work can provide a good example for the recycling of valuable metals from industrial sludge containing fine metal oxides or hydroxides...
  19. Riddell J, Padgett P, Nash T. Physiological responses of lichens to factorial fumigations with nitric acid and ozone. Environ Pollut. 2012;170:202-10 pubmed publisher
    This paper addresses the effects of gaseous nitric acid (HNO(3)) and ozone (O(3)), two important air pollutants, on six lichen species with different morphological, ecological, and biological characteristics...
  20. Mudunkotuwa I, Anthony T, Grassian V, Peters T. Accurate quantification of tio2 nanoparticles collected on air filters using a microwave-assisted acid digestion method. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016;13:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Other alternative methods that are used typically involve the use of nitric acid or combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which yield very poor recoveries for titanium dioxide...
  21. Ross G, Kang M, Shirwany N, Malykhina A, Drozd M, Akbarali H. Nitrotyrosylation of Ca2+ channels prevents c-Src kinase regulation of colonic smooth muscle contractility in experimental colitis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;322:948-56 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that post-translational modification of Ca(2+) channels during inflammation, possibly nitrotyrosylation, prevents c-Src kinase regulation resulting in decreased Ca(2+) influx...
  22. Lin W, Xu X, Yu X, Zhang X, Huang J. Observed levels and trends of gaseous SO2 and HNO3 at Mt. Waliguan, China: results from 1997 to 2009. J Environ Sci (China). 2013;25:726-34 pubmed
    ..13 microg/(m3 x yr) and +0.007 microg/(m3 x yr), respectively...
  23. Bytnerowicz A, Arbaugh M, Schilling S, Fraczek W, Alexander D, Dawson P. Air pollution distribution patterns in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California: a 40-year perspective. ScientificWorldJournal. 2007;7 Suppl 1:98-109 pubmed
    ..Since most of the N deposition to mixed conifer forest stands in the SBM results from dry deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3), characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of these two pollutants ..
  24. Jensen M, Yaita T, Chiarizia R. Reverse-micelle formation in the partitioning of trivalent F-element cations by biphasic systems containing a tetraalkyldiglycolamide. Langmuir. 2007;23:4765-74 pubmed
    ..mixture containing TODGA monomers, dimers, and small reverse-micelles of TODGA tetramers at aqueous nitric acid acidities of 0.7 M or higher in the absence of Nd. Application of the Baxter model to the samples containing 0...
  25. Yang G, Zheng J, Tagami K, Uchida S. Rapid and sensitive determination of tellurium in soil and plant samples by sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Talanta. 2013;116:181-7 pubmed publisher
  26. Chen I, Lin S, Wang C, Chang S. CWAO of phenol using CeO2/gamma-Al2O3 with promoter--effectiveness of promoter addition and catalyst regeneration. Chemosphere. 2007;66:172-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, addition of Cu, as well as other metal species, is unfavorable in promoting the CeO(2)/gamma-Al(2)O(3) catalyst...
  27. Guo J, Shu S, Liu X, Wang X, Yin H, Chu Y. Influence of Fe loadings on desulfurization performance of activated carbon treated by nitric acid. Environ Technol. 2017;38:266-276 pubmed publisher
    A series of Fe supported on activated carbon treated by nitric acid are prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic assistance and characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform ..
  28. Nano R, Bruns R, Ferreira S, Baccan N, Cadore S. Statistical mixture design development of digestion methods for Oyster tissue using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the determination of metallic ions. Talanta. 2009;80:559-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of Oyster tissue reference material (SRM 1566b - NIST) under optimized conditions at the selected wavelengths resulted in ion recoveries between 90% and 100%...
  29. Grothe H, Tizek H, Waller D, Stokes D. The crystallization kinetics and morphology of nitric acid trihydrate. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2006;8:2232-9 pubmed
    Crystallization kinetics of stable and metastable nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) were investigated by time dependent X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements. Kinetic conversion curves were evaluated adopting the Avrami model...
  30. Whalen E, Foster M, Matsumoto A, Ozawa K, Violin J, Que L, et al. Regulation of beta-adrenergic receptor signaling by S-nitrosylation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Cell. 2007;129:511-22 pubmed
    ..Cys340 of GRK2 is identified as a principal locus of inhibition by S-nitrosylation. Our studies thus reveal a central molecular mechanism through which GPCR signaling is regulated...
  31. Chandrasekara Pillai K, Chung S, Raju T, Moon I. Experimental aspects of combined NOx and SO2 removal from flue-gas mixture in an integrated wet scrubber-electrochemical cell system. Chemosphere. 2009;76:657-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The flow rate effects were analyzed in terms of gas/liquid residence time and superficial liquid velocity/superficial gas velocity ratio. SO2 removal was total under all conditions...
  32. Gandolfi M, Silvia F, H P, Gasparotto G, Carlo P. Calcium silicate coating derived from Portland cement as treatment for hypersensitive dentine. J Dent. 2008;36:565-78 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the in vitro effectiveness on dentine permeability and dentine morphology of a calcium silicate treatment based on Portland cement (DSC)...
  33. Nishimura T, Hamano Nagaoka M, Sakakibara N, Abe T, Maekawa Y, Maitani T. Determination method for total arsenic and partial-digestion method with nitric acid for inorganic arsenic speciation in several varieties of rice. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2010;51:178-81 pubmed
    ..The extraction temperature in the partial-digestion method with nitric acid to speciate inorganic As was raised to 100 degrees C, because extraction efficiency over 90% was obtained from ..
  34. Neirynck J, Kowalski A, Carrara A, Genouw G, Berghmans P, Ceulemans R. Fluxes of oxidised and reduced nitrogen above a mixed coniferous forest exposed to various nitrogen emission sources. Environ Pollut. 2007;149:31-43 pubmed
    ..Comparison of throughfall nitrogen with total deposition suggested substantial uptake of reduced N (+/-15 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) within the canopy...
  35. Wang X, Gao N, Zhou Q, Dong H, Yu H, Feng Y. Acidic and alkaline pretreatments of activated carbon and their effects on the performance of air-cathodes in microbial fuel cells. Bioresour Technol. 2013;144:632-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, acidic pretreatment decreased the power output to 537±36 mW m(-2), which can be mainly attributed to the corrosion by adsorbed proton at the interface of AC powder and stainless steel mesh and the decreased pore area...
  36. Meng Y, Tang C, Tsui C, Chen D. Fabrication and characterization of needle-like nano-HA and HA/MWNT composites. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2008;19:75-81 pubmed
    ..MWNTs were treated with a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. The HA/MWNT composites were prepared by solution blending...
  37. Liu Y, Haynes R. Influence of different acid and alkaline cleaning agents on the effects of irrigation of synthetic dairy factory effluent on soil quality, ryegrass growth and nutrient uptake. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20:498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Replacement of NaOH by KOH lowers the likelihood of phytotoxic effects of Na, but K and Na have similar effects on disaggregation...
  38. Panta Y, Liu J, Cheney M, Joo S, Qian S. Ultrasensitive detection of mercury (II) ions using electrochemical surface plasmon resonance with magnetohydrodynamic convection. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;333:485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In the presence of supporting electrolytes, 1 mM nitric acid and 10 mM potassium nitrate, Hg(2+) ionic solutions with concentrations ranging from 1 fM to 1 microM are ..
  39. Zhang B, Hodgson J, Hancock W, Powers R. An inexpensive high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance tube cleaning apparatus. Anal Biochem. 2011;416:234-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of this apparatus significantly shortens the time to recycle NMR tubes while avoiding cross-contamination and tube damage...
  40. Clegg S, Wexler A. Densities and apparent molar volumes of atmospherically important electrolyte solutions. 1. The solutes H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, Na2SO4, NaNO3, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and NH4Cl from 0 to 50 °C, including extrapolations to very low temperature and to the p. J Phys Chem A. 2011;115:3393-460 pubmed publisher
    ..aim.env.uea.ac.uk/aim/aim.php) together with densities of the solid salts and hydrates...
  41. Zhu C, Xiang B, Chu L, Zhu L. 308 nm photolysis of nitric acid in the gas phase, on aluminum surfaces, and on ice films. J Phys Chem A. 2010;114:2561-8 pubmed publisher
    We have studied the photolysis of nitric acid (HNO(3)) in the gas phase at 253 and 295 K, on aluminum surfaces at 253 and 295 K, and on ice films at 253 K, by using 308 nm excimer laser photolysis combined with cavity ring-down ..
  42. De Gioannis G, Muntoni A, Polettini A, Pomi R. Enhanced electrokinetic treatment of different marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2008;43:852-65 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment for sediment V (more than 60% mobilized for each metal), while only aggressive acid conditioning with nitric acid was able to remove significant amounts of heavy metals (up to 40...
  43. Huan T, Hung L, Ha V, Anh N, Van Khai T, Shim K, et al. Spirally oriented Au microelectrode array sensor for detection of Hg (II). Talanta. 2012;94:284-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, highly sensitive detection of Hg(2+) was possible using the proposed GMA sensor due to efficient arrangement of microelectrodes and the sensor-to-sensor reproducibility was superior owing to simplicity in sensor fabrication...
  44. Jang K, Baek I, Back S, Ahn H. Electrospinning of porphyrin/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers and their acid vapor sensing capability. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2011;11:6102-8 pubmed
    ..Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TMPyP-coated PVA/TEOS nanofibers exhibited better acid-sensing capability than TMPyP-embedded PVA/TEOS nanofibers and films...
  45. Vyas C, Joshirao P, Shukla R, Tyagi A, Manchanda V. A novel approach for preferential recovery of Sr from (Sr, Th)O2. J Hazard Mater. 2012;241-242:340-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Th (IV), Zr(IV), Y(III), Pd(II) as well as (152)Eu(III) and (137)Cs (I) were determined under varying nitric acid/perchloric acid concentration and under varying loading conditions of metal ions...
  46. Lu X, Wang Y, Yang X, Zhang Q, Zhao Z, Weng L, et al. Spectroscopic analysis of titanium surface functional groups under various surface modification and their behaviors in vitro and in vivo. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008;84:523-34 pubmed
    ..functional groups of titanium surfaces gone through different treatments, including acid etched treatment (AE), nitric acid treatment (NT), heat treatment (HT), and alkali treatment (AT), and their behaviors in vitro and in vivo was ..
  47. Gautier C, Coppo M, Caussignac C, Laszak I, Fichet P, Goutelard F. Zr and U determination at trace level in simulated deep groundwater by Q ICP-MS using extraction chromatography. Talanta. 2013;106:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to a sample dilution implemented to reduce the matrix effects, the developed preconcentration method allowed improving the sensitivity up to a 20 fold factor for Zr and U measurements at trace level by Q ICP-MS...
  48. Gujar R, Lakshmi D, Figoli A, Mohapatra P. Polymeric beads containing Cyanex 923 for actinide uptake from nitric acid medium: Studies with uranium and plutonium. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1305:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..involving the uptake of both U(VI) and Pu(IV) at tracer scale and U(VI) at milli molar concentrations from nitric acid feeds...
  49. Sakudo A, Tsenkova R, Tei K, Onozuka T, Ikuta K, Yoshimura E, et al. Comparison of the vibration mode of metals in HNO3 by a partial least-squares regression analysis of near-infrared spectra. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:1578-83 pubmed
  50. Cisneros R, Bytnerowicz A, Schweizer D, Zhong S, Traina S, Bennett D. Ozone, nitric acid, and ammonia air pollution is unhealthy for people and ecosystems in southern Sierra Nevada, California. Environ Pollut. 2010;158:3261-71 pubmed publisher
    Two-week average concentrations of ozone (O3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) were measured with passive samplers during the 2002 summer season across the central Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, along the San Joaquin ..
  51. Huang Q, Qin X, Liu P, Zhang L, Su C. Impact of sulfuric and nitric acids on carbonate dissolution, and the associated deficit of CO2 uptake in the upper-middle reaches of the Wujiang River, China. J Contam Hydrol. 2017;203:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..92%, which suggests that previous workers may have overestimated the absorption of CO2 by carbonate weathering in other karstic areas worldwide. ..
  52. Otero Romaní J, Moreda Piñeiro A, Bermejo Barrera P, Martin Esteban A. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry for the determination of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in seawater after ionic imprinted polymer based solid phase extraction. Talanta. 2009;79:723-9 pubmed publisher
    ..After seawater sample loading (250 mL), analytes were eluted with 2.5 mL of 2.0M nitric acid, offering a pre-concentration factor of 100. Therefore, the limits of detection (LODs) of the method were 0...
  53. Pietrass T, Dewald J, Clewett C, Tierney D, Ellis A, Dias S, et al. Electron spin resonance and raman scattering spectroscopy of multi-walled carbon nanotubes: a function of acid treatment. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2006;6:135-40 pubmed
    ..Defects introduced through the acid treatment move the Fermi level closer to the K points in the valence band, and consequently conduction is reduced. These defects are identified as Stone-Wales type from the Raman results...