hypochlorous acid

Summary

Summary: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.

Top Publications

  1. Xulu B, Ashby M. Small molecular, macromolecular, and cellular chloramines react with thiocyanate to give the human defense factor hypothiocyanite. Biochemistry. 2010;49:2068-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations are further evidence for the importance of secondary reactions during the redox cascades that are associated with oxidative stress by hypohalous acids...
  2. Flemmig J, Arnhold J. Interaction of hypochlorous acid and myeloperoxidase with phosphatidylserine in the presence of ammonium ions. J Inorg Biochem. 2010;104:759-64 pubmed publisher
    ..time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, ammonium ions inhibit in a concentration-dependent manner the hypochlorous acid-mediated formation of aldehyde and nitrile products from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine (DPPS)...
  3. Feliciano L, Lee J, Pascall M. Transmission electron microscopic analysis showing structural changes to bacterial cells treated with electrolyzed water and an acidic sanitizer. J Food Sci. 2012;77:M182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The organic acid formulation and AEW were the most effective sanitizers against bacterial cells, indicating that penetration of acidic substances effectively caused the cell inactivation...
  4. Goud A, Goud P, Diamond M, Gonik B, Abu Soud H. Reactive oxygen species and oocyte aging: role of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:1295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that reactive oxygen species such as superoxide (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are likely candidates that may initiate these changes in the oocyte...
  5. Schaffer S, Azuma J, Mozaffari M. Role of antioxidant activity of taurine in diabetes. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One established antioxidant action of taurine is the detoxification of hypochlorous acid. However, not all of the antioxidant actions of taurine are related to hypochlorous acid because they are ..
  6. Lu J, Weakley S, Yang Z, Hu M, Yao Q, Chen C. Ginsenoside Rb1 directly scavenges hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18:6339-47 pubmed
    ..We found that Rb1 can significantly and selectively reduce hydroxyl radical (?OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), two of the strongest ROS, with unique molecular mechanisms in a cell-free system...
  7. Yang Y, Whiteman M, Gieseg S. HOCl causes necrotic cell death in human monocyte derived macrophages through calcium dependent calpain activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1823:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..HOCl appears to cause HMDM cell death through destabilization of cytosolic calcium control resulting in the failure of both the mitochondria and lysosomes...
  8. Rees M, Whitelock J, Malle E, Chuang C, Iozzo R, Nilasaroya A, et al. Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants selectively disrupt the protein core of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan. Matrix Biol. 2010;29:63-73 pubmed publisher
    The potent oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypobromous acid (HOBr) are produced extracellularly by myeloperoxidase, following release of this enzyme from activated leukocytes...
  9. Montecucco F, Bertolotto M, Ottonello L, Pende A, Dapino P, Quercioli A, et al. Chlorhexidine prevents hypochlorous acid-induced inactivation of alpha1-antitrypsin. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:e72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Human primary neutrophils were isolated from healthy donors. Inactivation of alpha1-AT by neutrophils or hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was evaluated by spectrophotometry and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Summers F, Forsman Quigley A, Hawkins C. Identification of proteins susceptible to thiol oxidation in endothelial cells exposed to hypochlorous acid and N-chloramines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;425:157-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent oxidant produced by the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released by neutrophils under inflammatory conditions...
  2. Terada T, Akimoto Y, Hyo S, Suzuki D, Tanaka K, Takenaka H. Allergic potency of Japanese cedar pollen Cry j 1 is reduced by a low concentration of hypochlorous acid generated by electolysis. Allergol Int. 2009;58:255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the present study aimed to elucidate the ability of chlorine bleach (NaOCl) to reduce the immunogenicity of the major allergenic protein of Japanese cedar (Cry j 1)...
  3. Gebendorfer K, Drazic A, Le Y, Gundlach J, Bepperling A, Kastenmüller A, et al. Identification of a hypochlorite-specific transcription factor from Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:6892-903 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, YjiE specifically confers hypochlorite resistance to E. coli cells. Thus, to our knowledge, YjiE is the first described hypochlorite-specific transcription factor...
  4. Zhu L, Pi J, Wachi S, Andersen M, Wu R, Chen Y. Identification of Nrf2-dependent airway epithelial adaptive response to proinflammatory oxidant-hypochlorous acid challenge by transcription profiling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L469-77 pubmed
    ..By both methods, we conclude that Nrf2 directly protects airway epithelial cells from HOCl-induced toxicity...
  5. Resch U, Semlitsch M, Hammer A, Susani Etzerodt H, Walczak H, Sattler W, et al. Hypochlorite-modified low-density lipoprotein induces the apoptotic machinery in Jurkat T-cell lines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:895-900 pubmed publisher
    ..The potent oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated by the myeloperoxidase-H(2)O(2)-chloride system of activated phagocytes, converts low-..
  6. Kang J, Neidigh J. Hypochlorous acid damages histone proteins forming 3-chlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:1028-38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the primary product of activated neutrophils, is known to damage both DNA and proteins...
  7. Van Antwerpen P, Dufrasne F, Lequeux M, Boudjeltia K, Lessgyer I, Babar S, et al. Inhibition of the myeloperoxidase chlorinating activity by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: flufenamic acid and its 5-chloro-derivative directly interact with a recombinant human myeloperoxidase to inhibit the synthesis of hypochlorous acid. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;570:235-43 pubmed
    ..However, in models that assess the LDL oxidation, flufenamic acid and its derivatives were unable to properly inhibit MPO activity as the enzyme is adsorbed on macrostructures such as LDL molecules...
  8. Chiang C, Ledermann J, Aitkens E, Benjamin E, Katz D, Chain B. Oxidation of ovarian epithelial cancer cells by hypochlorous acid enhances immunogenicity and stimulates T cells that recognize autologous primary tumor. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:4898-907 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochlorous acid, a product of neutrophil myeloperoxidase, is a powerful enhancer of antigen processing and presentation...
  9. Park S, Shin S, Lee S, Park J. Hypochlorous acid-induced modulation of cellular redox status in HeLa cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:905-10 pubmed publisher
    Myeloperoxidase catalyzes the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCI) via reaction of H2O2 with CI(-) ions...
  10. Marsche G, Furtmüller P, Obinger C, Sattler W, Malle E. Hypochlorite-modified high-density lipoprotein acts as a sink for myeloperoxidase in vitro. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;79:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..classes, anti-atherogenic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) represents a major target for modification by hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated from H2O2 by MPO in the presence of physiological chloride concentrations...
  11. Morales E, Calder n I, Collao B, Gil F, Porwollik S, McClelland M, et al. Hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide-induced negative regulation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ompW by the response regulator ArcA. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:63 pubmed publisher
    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are reactive oxygen species that are part of the oxidative burst encountered by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) upon internalization by phagocytic cells...
  12. Rees M, Bottle S, Fairfull Smith K, Malle E, Whitelock J, Davies M. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase-mediated hypochlorous acid production by nitroxides. Biochem J. 2009;421:79-86 pubmed publisher
    Tissue damage resulting from the extracellular production of HOCl (hypochlorous acid) by the MPO (myeloperoxidase)-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system of activated phagocytes is implicated as a key event in the progression of a number of ..
  13. Li H, Cao Z, Moore D, Jackson P, Barnes S, Lambeth J, et al. Microbicidal activity of vascular peroxidase 1 in human plasma via generation of hypochlorous acid. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2528-37 pubmed publisher
    ..reported to be capable of using chloride ion as a substrate to form the highly microbicidal species hypochlorous acid (HOCl) at neutral pH...
  14. Stacey M, Vissers M, Winterbourn C. Oxidation of 2-cys peroxiredoxins in human endothelial cells by hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and chloramines. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2012;17:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated neutrophils generate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as chloramines that are formed when HOCl reacts with amino compounds...
  15. Robaszkiewicz A, Bartosz G, Soszyński M. N-Chloroamino acids mediate the action of hypochlorite on A549 lung cancer cells in culture. Toxicology. 2010;270:112-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochlorous acid, a chlorinating and oxidative agent, has been reported to be implicated in many pathologies. Its markers were found under inflammatory conditions and, at least some of it reveals biological activity...
  16. Nagy P, Winterbourn C. Rapid reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the neutrophil oxidant hypochlorous acid to generate polysulfides. Chem Res Toxicol. 2010;23:1541-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the kinetics and mechanism of its reaction with the neutrophil oxidant hypochlorous acid. Stopped flow studies, carried out at high pH, showed this reaction to be extremely fast, with a second-..
  17. Wei Y, Liu X, Peyton K, Wang H, Johnson F, Johnson R, et al. Hypochlorous acid-induced heme oxygenase-1 gene expression promotes human endothelial cell survival. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C907-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a unique oxidant generated by the enzyme myeloperoxidase that contributes to endothelial cell dysfunction and death in atherosclerosis...
  18. Hadfield K, Pattison D, Brown B, Hou L, Rye K, Davies M, et al. Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants modify apolipoprotein A-I and generate dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins: comparison of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) with hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Biochem J. 2013;449:531-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it has been established that HOCl (hypochlorous acid) produced by MPO targets apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDLs, the role of the ..
  19. Lloyd M, van Reyk D, Davies M, Hawkins C. Hypothiocyanous acid is a more potent inducer of apoptosis and protein thiol depletion in murine macrophage cells than hypochlorous acid or hypobromous acid. Biochem J. 2008;414:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These species are important bactericidal agents, but HOCl (hypochlorous acid) and HOBr (hypobromous acid) have also been implicated in tissue damage in a number of inflammatory diseases...
  20. Sandvik E, McLeod B, Parker A, Stewart P. Direct electric current treatment under physiologic saline conditions kills Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms via electrolytic generation of hypochlorous acid. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55118 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results indicate that electrolysis reactions generating hypochlorous acid from chloride are likely a main contributor to the efficacy of direct current application...
  21. Painter R, Bonvillain R, Valentine V, Lombard G, LaPlace S, Nauseef W, et al. The role of chloride anion and CFTR in killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by normal and CF neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:1345-53 pubmed publisher
    Chloride anion is essential for myeloperoxidase (MPO) to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)...
  22. Palazzolo Ballance A, Reniere M, Braughton K, Sturdevant D, Otto M, Kreiswirth B, et al. Neutrophil microbicides induce a pathogen survival response in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Immunol. 2008;180:500-9 pubmed
    ..Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid, and azurophilic granule proteins had significant bacteriostatic but limited staphylocidal activity toward ..
  23. Gray M, Wholey W, Parker B, Kim M, Jakob U. NemR is a bleach-sensing transcription factor. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:13789-98 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active component of household bleach, also functions as a powerful antimicrobial during the ..
  24. Drazic A, Miura H, Peschek J, Le Y, Bach N, Kriehuber T, et al. Methionine oxidation activates a transcription factor in response to oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9493-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivation of HypT depends on the methionine sulfoxide reductases A/B. Thus, microbial protection mechanisms have evolved along the evolution of antimicrobial control systems, allowing bacteria to survive within the host environment...
  25. Pattison D, Hawkins C, Davies M. Hypochlorous acid-mediated protein oxidation: how important are chloramine transfer reactions and protein tertiary structure?. Biochemistry. 2007;46:9853-64 pubmed
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H2O2 and Cl- by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes...
  26. Marut W, Kavian N, Servettaz A, Nicco C, Ba L, Doering M, et al. The organotelluride catalyst (PHTE)?NQ prevents HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in mouse. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:1125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the effectiveness of (PHTE)(2)NQ in the treatment of mouse SSc seems to be linked to the selective pro-oxidative and cytotoxic effects of (PHTE)(2)NQ on hyperproliferative fibroblasts...
  27. Binder V, Ljubojević S, Haybaeck J, Holzer M, El Gamal D, Schicho R, et al. The myeloperoxidase product hypochlorous acid generates irreversible high-density lipoprotein receptor inhibitors. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1020-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated which oxidation-induced structural alterations convert plasma albumin into a high-density lipoprotein-receptor inhibitor...
  28. Olek R, Ziolkowski W, Kaczor J, Wierzba T, Antosiewicz J. Higher hypochlorous acid scavenging activity of ethyl pyruvate compared to its sodium salt. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:500-4 pubmed
    ..The potential effect of ethanol was also evaluated, and hypochlorous acid was used as an oxidant...
  29. Prokopowicz Z, Arce F, Biedron R, Chiang C, Ciszek M, Katz D, et al. Hypochlorous acid: a natural adjuvant that facilitates antigen processing, cross-priming, and the induction of adaptive immunity. J Immunol. 2010;184:824-35 pubmed publisher
    The production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a characteristic of granulocyte activation, a hallmark of the early phase of innate immune responses...
  30. Jayaraman S, Gantz D, Gursky O. Effects of protein oxidation on the structure and stability of model discoidal high-density lipoproteins. Biochemistry. 2008;47:3875-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This result, which is not limited to model discoidal but also extends to plasma spherical HDL, helps explain the complex effects of oxidation on plasma lipoproteins...
  31. Park S, Lee S, Shin S, Park J. Inactivation of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase by hypochlorous acid. Free Radic Res. 2008;42:467-73 pubmed publisher
    Myeoloperoxidase catalyses the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) via reaction of H(2)O(2) with Cl(-) ion...
  32. Yang D, Sun Z, Peng T, Wang H, Shen J, Chen Y, et al. Synthetic fluorescent probes for imaging of peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid in living cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;591:93-103 pubmed publisher
    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are two highly reactive oxygen species generated in biological systems...
  33. Kawai Y, Matsui Y, Kondo H, Morinaga H, Uchida K, Miyoshi N, et al. Galloylated catechins as potent inhibitors of hypochlorous acid-induced DNA damage. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:1407-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a strong oxidant derived from myeloperoxidase in neutrophils and macrophages, can chlorinate DNA bases at the site of inflammation...
  34. Pattison D, Hawkins C, Davies M. What are the plasma targets of the oxidant hypochlorous acid? A kinetic modeling approach. Chem Res Toxicol. 2009;22:807-17 pubmed publisher
    ..by activated leukocytes at sites of inflammation, which catalyzes the formation of the potent oxidant, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), from H2O2...
  35. Güngör N, Knaapen A, Munnia A, Peluso M, Haenen G, Chiu R, et al. Genotoxic effects of neutrophils and hypochlorous acid. Mutagenesis. 2010;25:149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of the major neutrophilic oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which is formed by myeloperoxidase (MPO), to induce DNA damage and mutagenicity in lung cells...
  36. Schwartz J, Leidal K, Femling J, Weiss J, Nauseef W. Neutrophil bleaching of GFP-expressing staphylococci: probing the intraphagosomal fate of individual bacteria. J Immunol. 2009;183:2632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..NADPH oxidase at the phagosomal membrane generates reactive oxygen species within the phagosome, including hypochlorous acid (HOCl), formed by the oxidation of chloride by the granule protein myeloperoxidase in the presence of H(2)O(..
  37. Nisola G, Yang X, Cho E, Han M, Lee C, Chung W. Disinfection performances of stored acidic and neutral electrolyzed waters generated from brine solution. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2011;46:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Two FC loss mechanisms were identified: chlorine (Cl(2)) volatilization and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) decomposition, wherein Cl(2) volatilization occurred at a faster rate...
  38. Xu Q, Lee K, Lee S, Lee K, Lee W, Yoon J. A highly specific fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application in imaging microbe-induced HOCl production. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:9944-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the various ROS, hypochlorous acid (HOCl) plays as a powerful microbicidal agent in the innate immune system...
  39. Pi J, Zhang Q, Woods C, Wong V, Collins S, Andersen M. Activation of Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response in macrophages by hypochlorous acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;226:236-43 pubmed
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent oxidant generated when chlorine gas reacts with water, is important in the pathogenesis of many disorders...
  40. Hsu S, Wu M, Yang C, Huang K, Liou S, Hsu S, et al. Chronic green tea extract supplementation reduces hemodialysis-enhanced production of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid, atherosclerotic factors, and proinflammatory cytokines. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1539-47 pubmed
    ..Oxidative stress increases in patients with end-stage renal disease and exaggerates the related comorbidities...
  41. Sun Z, Liu F, Chen Y, Tam P, Yang D. A highly specific BODIPY-based fluorescent probe for the detection of hypochlorous acid. Org Lett. 2008;10:2171-4 pubmed publisher
    A fluorescent probe, HKOCl-1, has been successfully developed for the detection of hypochlorous acid on the basis of a specific reaction with p-methoxyphenol...
  42. Woods C, Fu J, Xue P, Hou Y, Pluta L, Yang L, et al. Dose-dependent transitions in Nrf2-mediated adaptive response and related stress responses to hypochlorous acid in mouse macrophages. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;238:27-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is potentially an important source of cellular oxidative stress. Human HOCl exposure can occur from chlorine gas inhalation or from endogenous sources of HOCl, such as respiratory burst by phagocytes...
  43. Strosova M, Karlovska J, Spickett C, Grune T, Orszagova Z, Horakova L. Oxidative injury induced by hypochlorous acid to Ca-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle and protective effect of trolox. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2009;28:195-209 pubmed
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) concentration-dependently decreased ATPase activity and SH groups of pure Ca-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA) of rabbit skeletal muscle with IC(50) of 150 micromol/l and 6.6 micromol/l, respectively...
  44. Kwolek Mirek M, Bartosz G, Spickett C. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite. Yeast. 2011;28:595-609 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins...
  45. Chen S, Lu J, Sun C, Ma H. A highly specific ferrocene-based fluorescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application to cell imaging. Analyst. 2010;135:577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..9-anthryl)ethenylferrocene, has been designed, synthesized and characterized for fluorescence imaging of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in live cells...
  46. Panizzi P, Nahrendorf M, Wildgruber M, Waterman P, Figueiredo J, Aikawa E, et al. Oxazine conjugated nanoparticle detects in vivo hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite generation. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:15739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..of a fluorogenic sensor for monitoring peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated hypochlorous acid (HOCl/OCl(-)) production...
  47. Xu Y, Szep S, Lu Z. The antioxidant role of thiocyanate in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and other inflammation-related diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:20515-9 pubmed publisher
  48. Souza C, Maitra D, Saed G, Diamond M, Moura A, Pennathur S, et al. Hypochlorous acid-induced heme degradation from lactoperoxidase as a novel mechanism of free iron release and tissue injury in inflammatory diseases. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27641 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of LPO and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the final product of MPO...
  49. Maitra D, Byun J, Andreana P, Abdulhamid I, Diamond M, Saed G, et al. Reaction of hemoglobin with HOCl: mechanism of heme destruction and free iron release. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:374-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is generated by myeloperoxidase using chloride and hydrogen peroxide as substrates...
  50. Maitra D, Byun J, Andreana P, Abdulhamid I, Saed G, Diamond M, et al. Mechanism of hypochlorous acid-mediated heme destruction and free iron release. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:364-73 pubmed publisher
    Here, we show that hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent neutrophil-generated oxidant, can mediate destruction of free heme (Ht) and the heme precursor, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX)...
  51. Pennathur S, Maitra D, Byun J, Sliskovic I, Abdulhamid I, Saed G, et al. Potent antioxidative activity of lycopene: A potential role in scavenging hypochlorous acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is an oxidant linked to tissue oxidation in cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory disorders ..
  52. Niezgoda J, Sordi P, Hermans M. Evaluation of Vashe Wound Therapy in the clinical management of patients with chronic wounds. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2010;23:352-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze if Vashe Wound Therapy (PuriCore, Malvern, Pennsylvania) is a valuable contribution to standard protocols of wound care...
  53. Palmer L, Cooper P, Ling M, Wright H, Huissoon A, Chapple I. Hypochlorous acid regulates neutrophil extracellular trap release in humans. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;167:261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, treatment with myeloperoxidase inhibitors and direct addition of hypochlorous acid (HOCl; generated in situ from sodium hypochlorite) established that HOCl was a necessary and sufficient ROI ..