cyanides

Summary

Summary: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.

Top Publications

  1. Peters J, Szilagyi R, Naumov A, Douglas T. A radical solution for the biosynthesis of the H-cluster of hydrogenase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:363-7 pubmed
    ..The ideas presented have broader implications in the context of the prebiotic origin of amino acids...
  2. Vinnakota C, Peetha N, Perrizo M, Ferris D, Oda R, Rockwood G, et al. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers. Biomarkers. 2012;17:625-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure...
  3. Brooks D, Levine M, O Connor A, French R, Curry S. Toxicology in the ICU: Part 2: specific toxins. Chest. 2011;140:1072-1085 pubmed publisher
    ..The first article discussed the general approach to the toxicology patient, including laboratory testing; the third article will cover natural toxins...
  4. Kumari N, Jha S, Bhattacharya S. Colorimetric probes based on anthraimidazolediones for selective sensing of fluoride and cyanide ion via intramolecular charge transfer. J Org Chem. 2011;76:8215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In organic medium, 2 showed selective color change with fluoride and cyanide, whereas in aqueous organic medium it showed a ratiometric response selectively for cyanide ion...
  5. Lv X, Liu J, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Chen M, Wang P, et al. A ratiometric fluorescent probe for cyanide based on FRET. Org Biomol Chem. 2011;9:4954-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of FRET from 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzamide to fluorescein, a new ratiometric fluorescence probe bearing a hydrazone binding unit was developed for highly selective and sensitive detection of CN(-) in aqueous solution...
  6. Ma J, Ohira S, Mishra S, Puanngam M, Dasgupta P, Mahon S, et al. Rapid point of care analyzer for the measurement of cyanide in blood. Anal Chem. 2011;83:4319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r(2) 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used...
  7. Tian Y, Dasgupta P, Mahon S, Ma J, Brenner M, Wang J, et al. A disposable blood cyanide sensor. Anal Chim Acta. 2013;768:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 200 ?M. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in <4 min...
  8. Minakata K, Nozawa H, Gonmori K, Yamagishi I, Suzuki M, Hasegawa K, et al. Determination of cyanide in blood by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after direct injection of dicyanogold. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;400:1945-51 pubmed publisher
    ..5?±?5.5, 11.8?±?0.5, and 11.4?±?0.8 ?g/L, respectively...
  9. Ren J, Zhu W, Tian H. A highly sensitive and selective chemosensor for cyanide. Talanta. 2008;75:760-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The cyanide detection method should have potential application in a variety of settings requiring rapid and accurate analysis of cyanide anion for drinking and fresh water...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Niu H, Su D, Jiang X, Yang W, Yin Z, He J, et al. A simple yet highly selective colorimetric sensor for cyanide anion in an aqueous environment. Org Biomol Chem. 2008;6:3038-40 pubmed publisher
  2. Mak K, Yanase H, Renneberg R. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2005;20:2581-93 pubmed
    ..A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed...
  3. Han S, Seo Y, Kim D, Sung S, Kim W. Expression of MdCAS1 and MdCAS2, encoding apple beta-cyanoalanine synthase homologs, is concomitantly induced during ripening and implicates MdCASs in the possible role of the cyanide detoxification in Fuji apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits. Plant Cell Rep. 2007;26:1321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggest that MdCAS may play a role in cyanide detoxification in ripening apple fruits...
  4. Bjarnholt N, Laegdsmand M, Hansen H, Jacobsen O, Møller B. Leaching of cyanogenic glucosides and cyanide from white clover green manure. Chemosphere. 2008;72:897-904 pubmed publisher
  5. Hasuike Y, Nakanishi T, Moriguchi R, Otaki Y, Nanami M, Hama Y, et al. Accumulation of cyanide and thiocyanate in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2004;19:1474-9 pubmed
    ..However, inaccuracies in conventional assays for cyanide and thiocyanate have limited the understanding of their metabolism in haemodialysis (HD) patients...
  6. Adamolekun B. Neurological disorders associated with cassava diet: a review of putative etiological mechanisms. Metab Brain Dis. 2011;26:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that urgent research is needed to evaluate thiamine status and implement a therapeutic trial of thiamine in these debilitating neurological disorders. ..
  7. Santana M, Vásquez V, Matehus J, Aldao R. Linamarase expression in cassava cultivars with roots of low- and high-cyanide content. Plant Physiol. 2002;129:1686-94 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed...
  8. Svensson A, Bäckman U, Jonsson E, Larsson R, Christofferson R. CHS 828 inhibits neuroblastoma growth in mice alone and in combination with antiangiogenic drugs. Pediatr Res. 2002;51:607-11 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, they imply efficiency of daily administration of nontoxic doses of chemotherapy, and a possible additive effect when chemotherapy is combined with angiogenesis inhibitors...
  9. Moriya F, Hashimoto Y. Potential for error when assessing blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims. J Forensic Sci. 2001;46:1421-5 pubmed
    ..The present results and those published in the literature demonstrate that the toxic effects of cyanide on fire victims should not be evaluated based solely on the concentration in blood...
  10. Shokhireva T, Shokhirev N, Berry R, Zhang H, Walker F. Assignment of the ferriheme resonances of high- and low-spin forms of the symmetrical hemin-reconstituted nitrophorins 1-4 by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy: the dynamics of heme ruffling deformations. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2008;13:941-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Two other types of dynamics, i.e., changes in heme seating and NMeIm rotation, are also observed. The highly distorted heme and the dynamics it causes are unique to the NPs and a few other heme proteins with highly distorted macrocycles...
  11. Blair Johnson M, Fiedler T, Fenna R. Human myeloperoxidase: structure of a cyanide complex and its interaction with bromide and thiocyanate substrates at 1.9 A resolution. Biochemistry. 2001;40:13990-7 pubmed
    ..These results support a model for a single common binding site for halides and thiocyanate as substrates or as inhibitors near the delta-meso carbon of the porphyrin ring in myeloperoxidase...
  12. Jafferji A, Allen J, Ferguson S, Fulop V. X-ray crystallographic study of cyanide binding provides insights into the structure-function relationship for cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase from Paracoccus pantotrophus. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25089-94 pubmed
  13. Martinsson P, de la Torre M, Binderup L, Nygren P, Larsson R. Cell death with atypical features induced by the novel antitumoral drug CHS 828, in human U-937 GTB cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;417:181-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, CHS 828 induces several unexpected features in this system, suggesting a potentially novel mechanism of action...
  14. Morocco A. Cyanides. Crit Care Clin. 2005;21:691-705, vi pubmed
    ..Survivors of significant poisonings can have long-term neurologic dysfunction...
  15. Xu Z, Chen X, Kim H, Yoon J. Sensors for the optical detection of cyanide ion. Chem Soc Rev. 2010;39:127-37 pubmed publisher
  16. Cody W, Pritchett C, Jones A, Carterson A, Jackson D, Frisk A, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgR controls cyanide production in an AlgZ-dependent manner. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:2993-3002 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa hcnA promoter contains three transcriptional start sites and that HCN production is regulated by AlgZ and AlgR and is maximal under microaerobic conditions when the organism is surface attached...
  17. Jenrich R, Trompetter I, Bak S, Olsen C, Møller B, Piotrowski M. Evolution of heteromeric nitrilase complexes in Poaceae with new functions in nitrile metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18848-53 pubmed
    ..Through combinatorial biochemistry and neofunctionalizations, the small family of nitrilases has gained diverse biological functions in nitrile metabolism...
  18. Kita Y, Nishikawa H, Takemoto T. Effects of cyanide and dissolved oxygen concentration on biological Au recovery. J Biotechnol. 2006;124:545-51 pubmed
    ..25 mmol/l. Therefore, it was clarified that dissolved oxygen concentration is the main factor affecting the efficiency of cyanide leaching of gold by using bacteria...
  19. DesLauriers C, Burda A, Wahl M. Hydroxocobalamin as a cyanide antidote. Am J Ther. 2006;13:161-5 pubmed
  20. Hovstadius P, Larsson R, Jonsson E, Skov T, Kissmeyer A, Krasilnikoff K, et al. A Phase I study of CHS 828 in patients with solid tumor malignancy. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8:2843-50 pubmed
    ..There was an apparent inverse relationship between systemic exposure of CHS 828, and thrombocyte and lymphocyte nadir levels. No objective tumor responses were observed, and 7 patients showed stable disease after two courses of therapy...
  21. Gullbo J, Lövborg H, Dhar S, Lukinius A, Oberg F, Nilsson K, et al. Development and characterization of two human tumor sublines expressing high-grade resistance to the cyanoguanidine CHS 828. Anticancer Drugs. 2004;15:45-54 pubmed
    ..The findings presented here indicate that development of specific cellular alterations is responsible for the gained CHS 828 resistance...
  22. Park H, Yang C, Treff N, Satterlee J, Kang C. Crystal structures of unligated and CN-ligated Glycera dibranchiata monomer ferric hemoglobin components III and IV. Proteins. 2002;49:49-60 pubmed
  23. Watson M, Roulston A, Belec L, Billot X, Marcellus R, Bédard D, et al. The small molecule GMX1778 is a potent inhibitor of NAD+ biosynthesis: strategy for enhanced therapy in nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase 1-deficient tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5872-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides the rationale for a novel therapeutic approach for the use of GMX1777 in the treatment of human cancers...
  24. Hall A, Saiers J, Baud F. Which cyanide antidote?. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2009;39:541-52 pubmed publisher
  25. Woznica A, Nowak A, Karczewski J, Klis C, Bernas T. Automatic biodetector of water toxicity (ABTOW) as a tool for examination of phenol and cyanide contaminated water. Chemosphere. 2010;81:767-72 pubmed publisher
    ..One may conclude that the presented biodetector provides a good sensitivity for continuous on-line monitoring of toxicity in water...
  26. Olesen U, Christensen M, Bjorkling F, Jaattela M, Jensen P, Sehested M, et al. Anticancer agent CHS-828 inhibits cellular synthesis of NAD. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;367:799-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we observed that treatment with CHS-828 depletes cellular NAD levels in sensitive cancer cells. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that, like FK866, CHS-828 kills cancer cells by depleting NAD...
  27. Lee K, Kim H, Kim G, Shin I, Hong J. Fluorescent chemodosimeter for selective detection of cyanide in water. Org Lett. 2008;10:49-51 pubmed
    ..A coumarin-based fluorescent chemodosimeter with a salicylaldehyde functionality as a binding site has been developed for selective detection of cyanide anions over other anions in water at biological pH...
  28. Frost B, Lönnerholm G, Nygren P, Larsson R, Lindhagen E. In vitro activity of the novel cytotoxic agent CHS 828 in childhood acute leukemia. Anticancer Drugs. 2002;13:735-42 pubmed
    ..In most ALL samples subadditive effects were found. Further exploration of CHS 828 in childhood leukemia is warranted, especially in AML...
  29. Friberg L, Hassan S, Lindhagen E, Larsson R, Karlsson M. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of the schedule-dependent effect of the anti-cancer agent CHS 828 in a rat hollow fibre model. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005;25:163-73 pubmed
    ..The prolonged schedules of CHS 828 were therefore associated with greater antitumour effects than single doses of the same total exposure...
  30. Hovstadius P, Lindhagen E, Hassan S, Nilsson K, Jernberg Wiklund H, Nygren P, et al. Cytotoxic effect in vivo and in vitro of CHS 828 on human myeloma cell lines. Anticancer Drugs. 2004;15:63-70 pubmed
    ..The results indicate a high cytotoxic activity of CHS 828. Overall, the results show a high cytotoxic activity of CHS 828 in the myeloma models, which might warrant its further development against myeloma...
  31. Shokhireva T, Weichsel A, Smith K, Berry R, Shokhirev N, Balfour C, et al. Assignment of the ferriheme resonances of the low-spin complexes of nitrophorins 1 and 4 by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy: comparison to structural data obtained from X-ray crystallography. Inorg Chem. 2007;46:2041-56 pubmed
    ..The A:B ratio can be much more accurately measured by NMR spectroscopy than by X-ray crystallography...
  32. Geller R, Barthold C, Saiers J, Hall A. Pediatric cyanide poisoning: causes, manifestations, management, and unmet needs. Pediatrics. 2006;118:2146-58 pubmed
    ..In this article we review the available data on the sources, manifestations, and treatment of acute cyanide poisoning in children and discuss unmet needs in the management of pediatric cyanide poisoning...
  33. Aleskog A, Bashir Hassan S, Hovstadius P, Kristensen J, Hoglund M, Tholander B, et al. Activity of CHS 828 in primary cultures of human hematological and solid tumors in vitro. Anticancer Drugs. 2001;12:821-7 pubmed
    ..The results show that CHS 828 has potent antitumor activity against primary cultures of human tumor cells from patients and might have a unique mechanism of action...
  34. Na C, Olson T. Stability of cyanogen chloride in the presence of free chlorine and monochloramine. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:6037-43 pubmed
    ..The results of this study demonstrate that the observed association of CNCl with chloramination systems can in part be explained by the differences in its stability with chlorine and chloramines...
  35. Cipollone R, Frangipani E, Tiburzi F, Imperi F, Ascenzi P, Visca P. Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhodanese in protection from cyanide toxicity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration...
  36. Yin G, Li Y, Li J, Li J, Du W, Wei Q, et al. Solution 1H NMR study of the active site structure for the double mutant H64Q/V68F cyanide complex from mouse neuroglobin. Biophys Chem. 2008;136:115-23 pubmed publisher
  37. Zlosnik J, Williams H. Methods for assaying cyanide in bacterial culture supernatant. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;38:360-5 pubmed
    ..To find an easy, rapid and direct method for the quantitation of cyanide in a moderate number of bacterial culture supernatants...
  38. Ma J, Dasgupta P. Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review. Anal Chim Acta. 2010;673:117-25 pubmed publisher
  39. Deng T, Macdonald I, Simianu M, Sykora M, Kincaid J, Sligar S. Hydrogen-bonding interactions in the active sites of cytochrome P450cam and its site-directed mutants. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:269-78 pubmed
  40. Ma J, Dasgupta P, Blackledge W, Boss G. Cobinamide-based cyanide analysis by multiwavelength spectrometry in a liquid core waveguide. Anal Chem. 2010;82:6244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate applicability by analyzing the hydrolytic cyanide extract of apple and pear seeds with orange seeds as control and also measure HCN in breath air samples. Spike recoveries in these sample extracts ranged from 91 to 108%...
  41. Maes E, Walker F, Montfort W, Czernuszewicz R. Resonance Raman spectroscopic study of nitrophorin 1, a nitric oxide-binding heme protein from Rhodnius prolixus, and its nitrosyl and cyano adducts. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:11664-72 pubmed
    ..We also find that the observed frequencies are consistent with the presence of a nearly linear Fe(III)CN(-) linkage (173 degrees ) coexisting with a population with a bent structure (155 degrees )...
  42. Campbell S, Olson G, Clark T, McFeters G. Biogenic production of cyanide and its application to gold recovery. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;26:134-9 pubmed
    ..This indicates that biogenesis of cyanide may be supported in remote areas using locally produced and inexpensive agricultural feedstocks in place of commercial media...
  43. Hamdane D, Kiger L, Dewilde S, Uzan J, Burmester T, Hankeln T, et al. Hyperthermal stability of neuroglobin and cytoglobin. FEBS J. 2005;272:2076-84 pubmed
  44. Weaver W, Li J, Wen Y, Johnston J, Blatchley M, Blatchley E. Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools. Water Res. 2009;43:3308-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Pairwise correlations among the measured volatile DBPs allowed identification of dichloromethylamine and dichloroacetonitrile as potential swimming pool water quality indicator compounds...
  45. van der Linden E, Burgdorf T, Bernhard M, Bleijlevens B, Friedrich B, Albracht S. The soluble [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha contains four cyanides in its active site, one of which is responsible for the insensitivity towards oxygen. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2004;9:616-26 pubmed
    ..The Ni-Fe active site was EPR undetectable under all conditions tested. It is concluded that the Ni-bound cyanide group is responsible for the oxygen insensitivity of the enzyme...
  46. Uhl W, Nolting A, Golor G, Rost K, Kovar A. Safety of hydroxocobalamin in healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44 Suppl 1:17-28 pubmed
    ..This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety of the investigational cyanide antidote hydroxocobalamin...
  47. Eckstein M, Maniscalco P. Focus on smoke inhalation--the most common cause of acute cyanide poisoning. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21:s49-55 pubmed
  48. Ravaud A, Cerny T, Terret C, Wanders J, Bui B, Hess D, et al. Phase I study and pharmacokinetic of CHS-828, a guanidino-containing compound, administered orally as a single dose every 3 weeks in solid tumours: an ECSG/EORTC study. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41:702-7 pubmed
    ..The pharmacokinetics of CHS 828 showed large variations both between and within patients. No objective responses were seen. A dose of 420 mg of CHS 828 administered every 3 weeks is the recommended dose, while 500 mg is the MTD...
  49. Li L, Prabhakaran K, Mills E, Borowitz J, Isom G. Enhancement of cyanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cortical cell necrosis by uncoupling protein-2. Toxicol Sci. 2005;86:116-24 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that UCP-2 levels influence cellular responses to cyanide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction...
  50. Jandhyala D, Berman M, Meyers P, Sewell B, Willson R, Benedik M. CynD, the cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: gene cloning and structural studies. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:4794-805 pubmed
    ..pumilus (strain 8A3) was cloned and expressed. This suggests that cynD, the gene coding for the cyanide dihydratase, is not unique to the C1 strain of B. pumilus and is not a reflection of its origin at a mining waste site...
  51. Olsen L, Hjarnaa P, Latini S, Holm P, Larsson R, Bramm E, et al. Anticancer agent CHS 828 suppresses nuclear factor-kappa B activity in cancer cells through downregulation of IKK activity. Int J Cancer. 2004;111:198-205 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we hypothesize that the anticancer activity of CHS 828 is due to inhibition of the IKK activity by which the antiapoptotic protection of NF-kappa B is removed, leading to the promotion of apoptosis...
  52. Hassan S, Jonsson E, Larsson R, Karlsson M. Model for time dependency of cytotoxic effect of CHS 828 in vitro suggests two different mechanisms of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;299:1140-7 pubmed
    ..This could indicate two distinct mechanisms of induction of cell death...
  53. Martinsson P, Liminga G, Dhar S, de la Torre M, Lukinius A, Jonsson E, et al. Temporal effects of the novel antitumour pyridyl cyanoguanidine (CHS 828) on human lymphoma cells. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:260-7 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that CHS 828 induced active and delayed cell death with a non-apoptotic morphology...