hydrogen cyanide

Summary

Summary: Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.

Top Publications

  1. Alarie Y. Toxicity of fire smoke. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2002;32:259-89 pubmed
    ..Many contain nitrogen or halogens, resulting in the release of hydrogen cyanide and inorganic acids in fire smoke as additional toxic threats...
  2. Bjarnholt N, Rook F, Motawia M, Cornett C, Jørgensen C, Olsen C, et al. Diversification of an ancient theme: hydroxynitrile glucosides. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:1507-16 pubmed publisher
    ..They are alpha-hydroxynitrile glucosides, which release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon cleavage by endogenous plant beta-glucosidases...
  3. Ballhorn D, Lieberei R. Oviposition choice of Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis) depends on host plants cyanogenic capacity. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:1861-5 pubmed
    ..e., in the intensity of hydrogen cyanide release per time unit from damaged plant tissue. Females preferred to lay their eggs on plants with low HCNc...
  4. Lee J, Mukai D, Kreuter K, Mahon S, Tromberg B, Brenner M. Potential interference by hydroxocobalamin on cooximetry hemoglobin measurements during cyanide and smoke inhalation treatments. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:802-5 pubmed
  5. McCall J, Cahill T. Respiratory care of the burn patient. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2005;26:200-6 pubmed
  6. Stamyr K, Vaittinen O, Jaakola J, Guss J, Metsälä M, Johanson G, et al. Background levels of hydrogen cyanide in human breath measured by infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy. Biomarkers. 2009;14:285-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in breath has been suggested as a diagnostic tool for cyanide poisoning and for cyanide-producing bacterial infections. To distinguish elevated levels of breath HCN, baseline data are needed...
  7. Romanowski A, Migliori M, Valverde C, Golombek D. Circadian variation in Pseudomonas fluorescens (CHA0)-mediated paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans. Microb Pathog. 2011;50:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..the post-transcriptional Gac/Rsm regulatory cascade, and the fast paralytic killing depends strongly on hydrogen cyanide production. The response observed in C...
  8. Gilchrist F, Alcock A, Belcher J, Brady M, Jones A, Smith D, et al. Variation in hydrogen cyanide production between different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eur Respir J. 2011;38:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa strains needs to be investigated. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) released into the gas phase by 96 genotyped P...
  9. Pessi G, Haas D. Transcriptional control of the hydrogen cyanide biosynthetic genes hcnABC by the anaerobic regulator ANR and the quorum-sensing regulators LasR and RhlR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:6940-9 pubmed
    Virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa include hydrogen cyanide (HCN). This secondary metabolite is maximally produced at low oxygen tension and high cell densities during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Gallagher L, Manoil C. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 kills Caenorhabditis elegans by cyanide poisoning. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:6207-14 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode...
  2. Budde M, Roth M. The response of Caenorhabditis elegans to hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide. Genetics. 2011;189:521-32 pubmed publisher
    ..two distinct pathways appear to be important for this response, including the H2S-oxidation pathway and the hydrogen cyanide (HCN)-assimilation pathway...
  3. Miyakawa S, Cleaves H, Miller S. The cold origin of life: A. Implications based on the hydrolytic stabilities of hydrogen cyanide and formamide. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2002;32:195-208 pubmed
    It has been suggested that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) would not have been present in sufficient concentration to polymerize in the primitive ocean to produce nucleic acid bases and amino acids...
  4. Scherer G. Carboxyhemoglobin and thiocyanate as biomarkers of exposure to carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide in tobacco smoke. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2006;58:101-24 pubmed
    ..Smoking machine-derived yields of the precursors carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide were not correlated with COHb/COex and SCN, respectively...
  5. Carterson A, Morici L, Jackson D, Frisk A, Lizewski S, Jupiter R, et al. The transcriptional regulator AlgR controls cyanide production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6837-44 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa. Quantification of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production from laboratory isolates revealed that mucoid laboratory strains made sevenfold more HCN ..
  6. Walsh D, Eckstein M. Hydrogen cyanide in fire smoke: an underappreciated threat. Emerg Med Serv. 2004;33:160-3 pubmed
  7. Dummer J, Storer M, Sturney S, Scott Thomas A, Chambers S, Swanney M, et al. Quantification of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in breath using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry--HCN is not a biomarker of Pseudomonas in chronic suppurative lung disease. J Breath Res. 2013;7:017105 pubmed publisher
    b>Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in exhaled breath has been proposed as a biomarker for airway inflammation, and also a marker of the presence in the airways of specific organisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  8. Ballhorn D, Heil M, Pietrowski A, Lieberei R. Quantitative effects of cyanogenesis on an adapted herbivore. J Chem Ecol. 2007;33:2195-208 pubmed
    Plant cyanogenesis means the release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in response to cell damage and is considered as an effective defense against generalist herbivores...
  9. Borron S, Baud F, Barriot P, Imbert M, Bismuth C. Prospective study of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning in smoke inhalation. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:794-801, 801.e1-2 pubmed
    ..To assess outcomes in patients treated with hydroxocobalamin at the fire scene or in the ICU for suspected smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning...
  10. Murphy K, Schantz M, Butler T, Benner B, Wood L, Turk G. Determination of cyanide in blood by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2006;52:458-67 pubmed
    ..We describe an automated procedure based on isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ID GC/MS) for the accurate and rapid determination of CN in whole blood...
  11. Kotdawala R, Kazantzis N, Thompson R. Molecular simulation studies of adsorption of hydrogen cyanide and methyl ethyl ketone on zeolite NaX and activated carbon. J Hazard Mater. 2008;159:169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..study the primary aim is to understand and characterize the physical adsorption of polar molecules namely, hydrogen cyanide and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in zeolite NaX, and activated carbon through detailed Monte-Carlo simulations ..
  12. Williams H, Zlosnik J, Ryall B. Oxygen, cyanide and energy generation in the cystic fibrosis pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Adv Microb Physiol. 2007;52:1-71 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa against reactive oxygen species. Finally, we consider a possible link between cyanide synthesis and the mucoid switch that operates in P. aeruginosa during chronic CF lung infection...
  13. Gilchrist F, Bright Thomas R, Jones A, Smith D, Spanel P, Webb A, et al. Hydrogen cyanide concentrations in the breath of adult cystic fibrosis patients with and without Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. J Breath Res. 2013;7:026010 pubmed publisher
    Elevated concentrations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) have been detected in the headspace of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) cultures and in the breath of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and PA infection...
  14. Olsen K, Sutherland B, Small L. Molecular evolution of the Li/li chemical defence polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Mol Ecol. 2007;16:4180-93 pubmed
    White clover (Trifolium repens) is naturally polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage)...
  15. Anseeuw K, Delvau N, Burillo Putze G, De Iaco F, Geldner G, Holmström P, et al. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Eur J Emerg Med. 2013;20:2-9 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims...
  16. Blier A, Vieillard J, Gerault E, Dagorn A, Varacavoudin T, Le Derf F, et al. Quantification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa hydrogen cyanide production by a polarographic approach. J Microbiol Methods. 2012;90:20-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This bacterium produces a great diversity of virulence factors among them hydrogen cyanide (HCN) which is one of the most potent and toxic...
  17. Nielsen K, Hrmova M, Nielsen J, Forslund K, Ebert S, Olsen C, et al. Reconstitution of cyanogenesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its implications for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus. Planta. 2006;223:1010-23 pubmed
    ..Barley leaves are not cyanogenic, i.e. they do not possess the ability to release hydrogen cyanide, because they lack a cyanide releasing beta-D-glucosidase...
  18. Alonso Amelot M, Oliveros Bastidas A. Kinetics of the natural evolution of hydrogen cyanide in plants in neotropical Pteridium arachnoideum and its ecological significance. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:315-31 pubmed
    The time-dependent natural release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was studied quantitatively using young croziers of the neotropical bracken fern Pteridium arachnoideum...
  19. Ballhorn D, Lieberei R, Ganzhorn J. Plant cyanogenesis of Phaseolus lunatus and its relevance for herbivore-plant interaction: the importance of quantitative data. J Chem Ecol. 2005;31:1445-73 pubmed
    ..This general finding was independent of the cyanogenic status (high or low) of the leaf material...
  20. Hagins J, Locy R, Silo Suh L. Isocitrate lyase supplies precursors for hydrogen cyanide production in a cystic fibrosis isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:6335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa CF isolate FRD1. We show here that high ICL activity in FRD1 contributes to increased hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production by this isolate...
  21. Lawson Smith P, Jansen E, Hilsted L, Hyldegaard O. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2010;18:32 pubmed publisher
    b>Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO...
  22. Lawson Smith P, Jansen E, Hyldegaard O. Cyanide intoxication as part of smoke inhalation--a review on diagnosis and treatment from the emergency perspective. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2011;19:14 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews the current literature on smoke inhalation injuries with special attention to the effects of hydrogen cyanide. It is assumed that cyanide poisoning is still an overlooked diagnosis in fire victims...
  23. Cooper C, Brown G. The inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase by the gases carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide: chemical mechanism and physiological significance. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2008;40:533-9 pubmed publisher
    The four gases, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) all readily inhibit oxygen consumption by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase...
  24. Olsen K, Hsu S, Small L. Evidence on the molecular basis of the Ac/ac adaptive cyanogenesis polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens L). Genetics. 2008;179:517-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of these polymorphisms may reflect white clover's evolutionary origin as an allotetraploid derived from cyanogenic and acyanogenic diploid progenitors...
  25. Blomstedt C, Gleadow R, O Donnell N, Naur P, Jensen K, Laursen T, et al. A combined biochemical screen and TILLING approach identifies mutations in Sorghum bicolor L. Moench resulting in acyanogenic forage production. Plant Biotechnol J. 2012;10:54-66 pubmed publisher
    ..can pose a significant problem for human and animal consumption, because of their ability to release toxic hydrogen cyanide. Sorghum bicolor L. contains the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin...
  26. Ramette A, Moënne Loccoz Y, Défago G. Genetic diversity and biocontrol potential of fluorescent pseudomonads producing phloroglucinols and hydrogen cyanide from Swiss soils naturally suppressive or conducive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated black root rot of tobacco. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2006;55:369-81 pubmed
    Pseudomonas populations producing the biocontrol compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were found in the rhizosphere of tobacco both in Swiss soils suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola and in their ..
  27. Michelsen C, Stougaard P. Hydrogen cyanide synthesis and antifungal activity of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens In5 from Greenland is highly dependent on growth medium. Can J Microbiol. 2012;58:381-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a secondary metabolite produced by many antagonistic Pseudomonas species...
  28. Hay Roe M, Meagher R, Nagoshi R. Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:1314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..in the concentration of the cyanogenic precursors or cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and the release of hydrogen cyanide per unit time or cyanogenic capacity (HCNc)...
  29. O Brien D, Walsh D, Terriff C, Hall A. Empiric management of cyanide toxicity associated with smoke inhalation. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2011;26:374-82 pubmed publisher
  30. Blom D, Fabbri C, Eberl L, Weisskopf L. Volatile-mediated killing of Arabidopsis thaliana by bacteria is mainly due to hydrogen cyanide. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:1000-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a major factor accounting for the observed volatile-mediated toxicity of some strains...
  31. Fechter L, Chen G, Johnson D. Potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss by low concentrations of hydrogen cyanide in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2002;66:131-8 pubmed
    ..Rats were exposed to 10, 30, and 50 ppm hydrogen cyanide (HCN) alone for 3.5 h (n = 28) or in combination with 2 h octave band noise exposure (100 dB(lin); n = 28)...
  32. Gilchrist F, Razavi C, Webb A, Jones A, Spanel P, Smith D, et al. An investigation of suitable bag materials for the collection and storage of breath samples containing hydrogen cyanide. J Breath Res. 2012;6:036004 pubmed publisher
    The SPACE study will assess exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations as a marker of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection in 240 children with cystic fibrosis (CF)...
  33. Cooper M, Tavankar G, Williams H. Regulation of expression of the cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology. 2003;149:1275-84 pubmed
  34. Oracz K, El Maarouf Bouteau H, Kranner I, Bogatek R, Corbineau F, Bailly C. The mechanisms involved in seed dormancy alleviation by hydrogen cyanide unravel the role of reactive oxygen species as key factors of cellular signaling during germination. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:494-505 pubmed publisher
    ..annuus) embryos can be overcome during dry storage (after-ripening) or by applying exogenous ethylene or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during imbibition...
  35. Pessi G, Haas D. Dual control of hydrogen cyanide biosynthesis by the global activator GacA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;200:73-8 pubmed
    ..C4-HSL) and hence the synthesis of several C4-HSL-dependent virulence factors, including hydrogen cyanide (HCN)...
  36. Zlosnik J, Tavankar G, Bundy J, Mossialos D, O Toole R, Williams H. Investigation of the physiological relationship between the cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cyanide production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology. 2006;152:1407-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the physiological relationship between hydrogen cyanide production and the CIO. It was found that cyanide is produced in P...
  37. Takos A, Lai D, Mikkelsen L, Abou Hachem M, Shelton D, Motawia M, et al. Genetic screening identifies cyanogenesis-deficient mutants of Lotus japonicus and reveals enzymatic specificity in hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism. Plant Cell. 2010;22:1605-19 pubmed publisher
    Cyanogenesis, the release of hydrogen cyanide from damaged plant tissues, involves the enzymatic degradation of amino acid-derived cyanogenic glucosides (alpha-hydroxynitrile glucosides) by specific beta-glucosidases...
  38. Gleadow R, Woodrow I. Constraints on effectiveness of cyanogenic glycosides in herbivore defense. J Chem Ecol. 2002;28:1301-13 pubmed
    Cyanogenesis is the process by which hydrogen cyanide is released from endogenous cyanide containing compounds. Many cyanogenic plants release HCN in sufficient quantities to be toxic and, as a result, tend to be avoided by herbivores...
  39. Svercel M, Duffy B, Defago G. PCR amplification of hydrogen cyanide biosynthetic locus hcnAB in Pseudomonas spp. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;70:209-13 pubmed
    A PCR-based assay targeting hcnAB, essential genes for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) biosynthesis, allowed sensitive detection of HCN(+) pseudomonads between logs 2.9 and 3.5 cells per PCR reaction tube...
  40. Matthews C, Minard R. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life. Faraday Discuss. 2006;133:393-401; discussion 427-52 pubmed
    b>Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets ..
  41. Ballhorn D, Heil M, Lieberei R. Phenotypic plasticity of cyanogenesis in lima bean Phaseolus lunatus-activity and activation of beta-glucosidase. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:261-75 pubmed
    ..The results place plant cyanogenesis in the group of induced resistance traits, whose degree of activity depends on the feeding by a particular herbivore...
  42. Enderby B, Smith D, Carroll W, Lenney W. Hydrogen cyanide as a biomarker for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the breath of children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009;44:142-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in vitro...
  43. Oracz K, El Maarouf Bouteau H, Farrant J, Cooper K, Belghazi M, Job C, et al. ROS production and protein oxidation as a novel mechanism for seed dormancy alleviation. Plant J. 2007;50:452-65 pubmed
    ..Incubation of dormant seeds for 3 h in the presence of hydrogen cyanide (a compound that breaks dormancy) or methylviologen (a ROS-generating compound) also released dormancy and ..
  44. Rajasankar R, Manju Gayathry G, Sathiavelu A, Ramalingam C, Saravanan V. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil. Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:707-17 pubmed publisher
    ..strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment...
  45. Schilke P, Groesbeck T, Blake G, Phillips T. A line survey of Orion KL from 325 to 360 GHz. Astrophys J Suppl Ser. 1997;108:301-37 pubmed
    ..An interesting detail of this survey is the first detection of vibrationally excited HCN in the v2 = 2 state, 2000 K above ground. Clearly this is a glimpse into the very inner part of the Orion hot core...
  46. Brutscher B, Simorre J. Transverse relaxation optimized HCN experiment for nucleic acids: combining the advantages of TROSY and MQ spin evolution. J Biomol NMR. 2001;21:367-72 pubmed
    ..The advantages of the MQ-TROSY-HCN experiment compared to the best previous implementations of HCN are demonstrated for a 33 nucleotide RNA aptamer...
  47. Blomstedt C, O Donnell N, Bjarnholt N, Neale A, Hamill J, Møller B, et al. Metabolic consequences of knocking out UGT85B1, the gene encoding the glucosyltransferase required for synthesis of dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench). Plant Cell Physiol. 2016;57:373-86 pubmed publisher
  48. Menor Salván C, Marin Yaseli M. Prebiotic chemistry in eutectic solutions at the water-ice matrix. Chem Soc Rev. 2012;41:5404-15 pubmed publisher
    ..e., the chemical evolution in the range between the freezing point of water and the limit of stability of liquid brines, 273 to 210 K) is an under-explored experimental model in prebiotic chemistry...
  49. Olafadehan O, Olafadehan O, Obun C, Yusuf A, Adewumi M, Omotugba S, et al. Influence of processing cassava peels on the hydrogen cyanide concentration, nutritive value and performance of growing rabbits. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2012;44:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentration in the processed cassava peel meal was lower relative to the unprocessed meal...
  50. Yang M, He J, Hu X, Yan C, Cheng Z. CuO nanostructures as quartz crystal microbalance sensing layers for detection of trace hydrogen cyanide gas. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:6088-94 pubmed publisher
    In this work, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors for detection of trace hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas were developed based on nanostructural (flower-like, boat-like, ellipsoid-like, plate-like) CuO...
  51. Kluchinsky T, Savage P, Fitz R, Smith P. Liberation of hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride during high-temperature dispersion of CS riot control agent. AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2002;63:493-6 pubmed
    ..A reassessment of human health risks associated with exposure to CS riot control agent dispersed at high temperature should be conducted, and should consider the full range of contaminants produced during the dispersion process...
  52. Li J, Jiang W, Han K, He G, Li C. Density functional study on the mechanism of bicyclic guanidine-catalyzed Strecker reaction. J Org Chem. 2003;68:8786-9 pubmed
    ..Assisted by guanidine, two competitive pathways to aminoacetonitrile were rationalized. The aminoisoacetonitrile may not form due to the instability of the product...
  53. Hanefeld U, Straathof A, Heijnen J. Study of the (S)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Hevea brasiliensis: mechanistic implications. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1432:185-93 pubmed
    ..Therefore the earlier postulated reaction intermediate as well as the proposed action of the catalytic triad have to be reevaluated. The calculated molecular mass could be confirmed by mass spectroscopy...