sodium fluoride

Summary

Summary: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.

Top Publications

  1. Derlin T, Wisotzki C, Richter U, Apostolova I, Bannas P, Weber C, et al. In vivo imaging of mineral deposition in carotid plaque using 18F-sodium fluoride PET/CT: correlation with atherogenic risk factors. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:362-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to correlate (18)F-sodium fluoride accumulation in the common carotid arteries of neurologically asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid calcified plaque burden.
  2. Liu J, Cui H, Peng X, Fang J, Zuo Z, Deng J, et al. Decreased IgA+ B cells population and IgA, IgG, IgM contents of the cecal tonsil induced by dietary high fluorine in broilers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:1775-85 pubmed publisher
    ..diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III) in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period...
  3. Nabavi S, Moghaddam A, Eslami S, Nabavi S. Protective effects of curcumin against sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in rat kidneys. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;145:369-74 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, the protective effect of curcumin against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity was evaluated in rats. Renal injury was induced by daily administration of 600 ppm sodium fluoride in drinking water for 1 week...
  4. Tong Z, Zhou L, Jiang W, Kuang R, Li J, Tao R, et al. An in vitro synergetic evaluation of the use of nisin and sodium fluoride or chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans. Peptides. 2011;32:2021-6 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study is to investigate the synergetic action between nisin and sodium fluoride or chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans, a primary cariogenic pathogen. In the antibacterial assay, a synergetic effect on S...
  5. Błaszczyk I, Birkner E, Gutowska I, Romuk E, Chlubek D. Influence of methionine and vitamin E on fluoride concentration in bones and teeth of rats exposed to sodium fluoride in drinking water. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;146:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and vitamin E on fluoride concentration in bones and teeth of rats subjected to long-term exposure to sodium fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted in 30 3-month-old female Wistar FL rats...
  6. Gambino R. Sodium fluoride: an ineffective inhibitor of glycolysis. Ann Clin Biochem. 2013;50:3-5 pubmed publisher
    Entrenched in current laboratory protocols for the measurement of plasma glucose is the false belief that sodium fluoride (NaF) is an effective inhibitor of glycolysis...
  7. Kurdziel K, Shih J, Apolo A, Lindenberg L, Mena E, McKinney Y, et al. The kinetics and reproducibility of 18F-sodium fluoride for oncology using current PET camera technology. J Nucl Med. 2012;53:1175-84 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the kinetics of (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF) and reassessed the recommended dose, optimal uptake period, and reproducibility using a current-generation PET/CT scanner...
  8. Nabavi S, Nabavi S, Habtemariam S, Moghaddam A, Latifi A. Ameliorative effects of quercetin on sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat's kidney. Ren Fail. 2012;34:901-6 pubmed publisher
    The in vivo nephroprotective effect of quercetin against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced damage was studied.
  9. Dweck M, Chow M, Joshi N, Williams M, Jones C, Fletcher A, et al. Coronary arterial 18F-sodium fluoride uptake: a novel marker of plaque biology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;59:1539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..positron emission tomography and computed tomography (CT), we investigated coronary arterial uptake of 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) as markers of active plaque calcification and inflammation, ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yang S, Wang Z, Farquharson C, Alkasir R, Zahra M, Ren G, et al. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis and alters bcl-2 family protein expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;410:910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that fluoride-induced osteoblast apoptosis is mediated by direct effects of fluoride on the expression of bcl-2 family members...
  2. Langsteger W, Balogova S, Huchet V, Beheshti M, Paycha F, Egrot C, et al. Fluorocholine (18F) and sodium fluoride (18F) PET/CT in the detection of prostate cancer: prospective comparison of diagnostic performance determined by masked reading. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011;55:448-57 pubmed
    ..The initial hypothesis was that FCH site-based specificity would be superior to that of F Na, with no loss in sensitivity...
  3. Nabavi S, Nabavi S, Abolhasani F, Moghaddam A, Eslami S. Cytoprotective effects of curcumin on sodium fluoride-induced intoxication in rat erythrocytes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;88:486-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, protective effects of curcumin against sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in rat erythrocytes were evaluated...
  4. Niu Q, Liu H, Guan Z, Zeng Q, Guo S, He P, et al. The effect of c-Fos demethylation on sodium fluoride-induced apoptosis in L-02 cells. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;149:102-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) on apoptosis, c-Fos mRNA and protein expression levels, and methylation status as well as Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and Dnmt3b mRNA expression levels in human embryo hepatocyte (L-02) which were ..
  5. Nabavi S, Nabavi S, Latifi A, Mirzaei M, Habtemariam S, Moghaddam A. Mitigating role of quercetin against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1380-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Quercetin is a well known aglycone flavonoid that is widely found in different food sources...
  6. Slompo C, Buzalaf C, Damante C, Martins G, Hannas A, Buzalaf M, et al. Fluoride modulates preosteoblasts viability and matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 activities. Braz Dent J. 2012;23:629-34 pubmed
    ..Adherent cells were treated with different concentrations of F (as sodium fluoride-NaF) in medium (5 x 10(-6) M, 10(-5) M, 10(-4) M and 10(-3) M) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h at 37ºC, 5% CO(2)...
  7. Nabavi S, Habtemariam S, Jafari M, Sureda A, Nabavi S. Protective role of gallic acid on sodium fluoride induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;89:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid against sodium fluoride induced oxidative stress in rat brain...
  8. Hamba H, Nikaido T, Inoue G, Sadr A, Tagami J. Effects of CPP-ACP with sodium fluoride on inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization: a quantitative assessment using micro-computed tomography. J Dent. 2011;39:405-13 pubmed publisher
  9. Wang Z, Yang X, Yang S, Ren G, Ferreri M, Su Y, et al. Sodium fluoride suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis through decreased insulin-like growth factor-I expression and oxidative stress in primary cultured mouse osteoblasts. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:1407-17 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that sodium fluoride suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. However, the details about the mechanism at work in bone metabolism are limited...
  10. Nguyen Ngoc T, Son Y, Lim S, Shi X, Kim J, Heo J, et al. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells through ROS-dependent and caspase- and JNK-mediated pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;259:329-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium fluoride (NaF) is used as a source of fluoride ions in diverse applications. Fluoride salt is an effective prophylactic for dental caries and is an essential element required for bone health...
  11. Li P, Xue Y, Zhang W, Teng F, Sun Y, Qu T, et al. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in odontoblasts via a JNK-dependent mechanism. Toxicology. 2013;308:138-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium fluoride (NaF) is widely used for the treatment of dental caries and dentin hypersensitivity. However, its pro-apoptotic effect on odontoblasts may lead to harmful side-effects...
  12. Ren G, Ferreri M, Wang Z, Su Y, Han B, Su J. Sodium fluoride affects proliferation and apoptosis through insulin-like growth factor I receptor in primary cultured mouse osteoblasts. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;144:914-23 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the details about the effect of sodium fluoride supplementation on primary osteoblast cultures on mediating IGF-IR expression are still not well-known...
  13. Avery R, Kuo P. 18F sodium fluoride PET/CT detects osseous metastases from breast cancer missed on FDG PET/CT with marrow rebound. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38:746-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This case demonstrates that (18)F-fluoride PET/CT should be considered for the evaluation of osseous metastases in patients with rebound marrow uptake on FDG PET/CT...
  14. Yilmaz H, Kurtulmus Yilmaz S, Cengiz E. Long-term effect of diode laser irradiation compared to sodium fluoride varnish in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity in periodontal maintenance patients: a randomized controlled clinical study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2011;29:721-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the desensitizing effects of a gallium?aluminum?arsenide (GaAlAs) laser and sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish on dentine hypersensitivity (DH) in periodontal maintenance patients.
  15. Sahlberg C, Pavlic A, Ess A, Lukinmaa P, Salmela E, Alaluusua S. Combined effect of amoxicillin and sodium fluoride on the structure of developing mouse enamel in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58:1155-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim was to investigate separate and combined effects of sodium fluoride (NaF) and amoxicillin on enamel formation in vitro.
  16. Kato M, Bolanho A, Zarella B, Salo T, Tjäderhane L, Buzalaf M. Sodium fluoride inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9. J Dent Res. 2014;93:74-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sodium fluoride (50-275 ppm F) was added to the incubation buffer...
  17. Agalakova N, Gusev G. Fluoride-induced death of rat erythrocytes in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro. 2011;25:1609-18 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in intracellular [Ca2+] appears to be crucial mechanism implicated in development of NaF-induced apoptosis in rat erythrocytes...
  18. Chen W, Dilsizian V. Targeted PET/CT imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: microcalcification with sodium fluoride and inflammation with fluorodeoxyglucose. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2013;15:364 pubmed publisher
    ..More recently, another molecular probe 18?F-sodium fluoride (18?F-NaF) was introduced for PET imaging, which targets active microcalcifications in atherosclerotic ..
  19. Basha P, Sujitha N. Combined influence of intermittent exercise and temperature stress on the modulation of fluoride toxicity. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;148:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Three-month-old Wistar male rats were exposed to high sodium fluoride (600 ppm) through drinking water for 1 month and the rats were then subjected to swimming exercise at ..
  20. Inkielewicz Stępniak I, Santos Martinez M, Medina C, Radomski M. Pharmacological and toxicological effects of co-exposure of human gingival fibroblasts to silver nanoparticles and sodium fluoride. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:1677-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, risks associated with the co-exposure of local cells and tissues to these xenobiotics are not clear. Therefore, we have evaluated the effects of AgNPs and F co-exposure on human gingival fibroblast cells...
  21. Liu J, Ling J, Zhang K, Huo L, Ning Y. Effect of sodium fluoride, ampicillin, and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans biofilm detachment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4532-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sodium fluoride (NaF) and chlorhexidine at MIC levels promoted biofilm detachment and inhibited detachment when ..
  22. He T, Sun L, Li S, Ji N. The anti-plaque efficacy of a novel stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Dent. 2010;23 Spec No B:11B-16B pubmed
    To evaluate the anti-plaque efficacy of a novel stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice compared to a negative control regular anti-caries dentifrice and a positive control marketed triclosan-containing dentifrice.
  23. Nabavi S, Habtemariam S, Nabavi S, Sureda A, Daglia M, Moghaddam A, et al. Protective effect of gallic acid isolated from Peltiphyllum peltatum against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat's kidney. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;372:233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, the nephroprotective effect of gallic acid isolated from Peltiphyllum peltatum was examined in sodium fluoride (NaF) treated rats...
  24. Comar L, Wiegand A, Moron B, Rios D, Buzalaf M, Buchalla W, et al. In situ effect of sodium fluoride or titanium tetrafluoride varnish and solution on carious demineralization of enamel. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012;120:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One sound and one predemineralized specimen in each subject was treated once with sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish or solution (Treatment A); TiF(4) varnish or solution (Treatment B); or placebo varnish or no ..
  25. van Rijkom H, Ruben J, Vieira A, Huysmans M, Truin G, Mulder J. Erosion-inhibiting effect of sodium fluoride and titanium tetrafluoride treatment in vitro. Eur J Oral Sci. 2003;111:253-7 pubmed
    ..It was the aim of this study to determine the erosion-inhibiting effect of topical neutral 1% sodium fluoride (NaF) application and an application of a 4% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution compared with no ..
  26. Hughes N, Mason S, Jeffery P, Welton H, Tobin M, O Shea C, et al. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a test dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm sodium fluoride versus a marketed control dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluoroph. J Clin Dent. 2010;21:49-55 pubmed
    ..to evaluate and compare the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of an 8% strontium acetate, 1040 ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice to a marketed control 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate ..
  27. Biesbrock A, Bartizek R, Gerlach R, Jacobs S, Archila L. Dose response efficacy of sodium fluoride dentifrice at 9 and 21 months with supervised brushing. Am J Dent. 2003;16:305-12 pubmed
    ..To assess whether a fluoride dose response could be detected with a relatively small sample size in a short duration using a novel randomized, double-blind study design...
  28. Browning W, Chan D, Frazier K, Callan R, Blalock J. Safety and efficacy of a nightguard bleaching agent containing sodium fluoride and potassium nitrate. Quintessence Int. 2004;35:693-8 pubmed
    ..While most people tolerate this sensitivity, some find it impossible to continue treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of an experimental, low-sensitivity bleaching agent...
  29. Manna P, Sinha M, Sil P. A 43 kD protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus L attenuates sodium fluoride-induced hepatic and renal disorders in vivo. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;40:382-95 pubmed
    ..evaluate the potential efficacy of this protein in protecting the hepatic as well as renal tissues from the sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress...
  30. Waring W, Evans L, Kirkpatrick C. Glycolysis inhibitors negatively bias blood glucose measurements: potential impact on the reported prevalence of diabetes mellitus. J Clin Pathol. 2007;60:820-3 pubmed
    ..One of these involves addition of glycolysis inhibitors, such as sodium fluoride-potassium oxalate (NaF-KOx) to sample collection tubes, whereas the other requires immediate refrigeration ..
  31. Błaszczyk I, Grucka Mamczar E, Kasperczyk S, Birkner E. Influence of fluoride on rat kidney antioxidant system: effects of methionine and vitamin E. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008;121:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of vitamin E, and vitamin E in combination with methionine, under conditions of oxidative stress induced by sodium fluoride. The experiment was carried out on Wistar FL rats (adult males) that, for 35 days, were administered water, ..
  32. Chu C, Lo E, Lin H. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children. J Dent Res. 2002;81:767-70 pubmed
    ..b>Sodium fluoride varnish (22,600 ppm F) was applied every three months to the lesions of children in the third and fourth ..
  33. Verma R, Guna Sherlin D. Sodium fluoride-induced hypoproteinemia and hypoglycemia in parental and F(1)-generation rats and amelioration by vitamins. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002;40:1781-8 pubmed
    Oral administration of sodium fluoride (NaF; 40 mg/kg body weight) daily from day 6 of gestation to day 21 of lactation caused, compared with the distilled water control (group 2), significant reductions in body weight and feed ..
  34. Nomikos T, Iatrou C, Demopoulos C. Application of a TCA-precipitation method for the determination of 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate: Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase in human renal tissue. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2004;73:123-40 pubmed
    ..Cortical and medullary acetyltransferases share similar biochemical properties and there is no statistical difference between the two activities...
  35. Scheidhauer R, Guessregen B, Hohl A, Arndt T. Effects of prolonged ambient storage of sodium fluoride/heparin specimens on plasma homocysteine. Clin Chem. 2005;51:1564-5 pubmed
  36. White D, Kozak K, Gibb R, Dunavent J, Klukowska M, Sagel P. A 24-hour dental plaque prevention study with a stannous fluoride dentifrice containing hexametaphosphate. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2006;7:1-11 pubmed
    ..intervention protocol that included: (1) an initial treatment regimen including toothbrushing with standard sodium fluoride dentifrice in conventional bid brushing, (2) a second treatment regimen where a modified hygiene regimen was ..
  37. Wang X, Klocke A, Mihailova B, Tosheva L, Bismayer U. New insights into structural alteration of enamel apatite induced by citric acid and sodium fluoride solutions. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:8840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..for comparison, geological hydroxylapatite samples were treated with aqueous solutions of citric acid and sodium fluoride of different concentrations, ranging from 0.01 to 0.5 mol/L for citric acid solutions and from 0.5 to 2...
  38. Hellwig E, Polydorou O, Lussi A, Kielbassa A, Altenburger M. The influence of saliva on the dissolution of calcium fluoride after application of different fluoride gels in vitro. Quintessence Int. 2010;41:773-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the formation and dissolution of calcium fluoride on the enamel surface after application of two fluoride gel-saliva mixtures...
  39. Nordstrom A, Birkhed D. Fluoride retention in proximal plaque and saliva using two NaF dentifrices containing 5,000 and 1,450 ppm F with and without water rinsing. Caries Res. 2009;43:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase of F in both proximal saliva and plaque, using a dentifrice with 5,000 ppm F without postbrushing water rinsing, may be of clinical importance...
  40. Orsini G, Procaccini M, Manzoli L, Giuliodori F, Lorenzini A, Putignano A. A double-blind randomized-controlled trial comparing the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice containing carbonate/hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:510-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to evaluate the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice based on zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanocrystals...
  41. Hassan H, Yousef M. Mitigating effects of antioxidant properties of black berry juice on sodium fluoride induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:2332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..to demonstrate the role of black berry juice (BBJ) in decreasing the hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF)...
  42. Tiwari H, Rao M. Curcumin supplementation protects from genotoxic effects of arsenic and fluoride. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:1234-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, curcumin mitigates the genotoxic effects of the two well known water contaminants (As and F) effectively and efficiently at the given concentration in vitro...
  43. Young A, Thrane P, Saxegaard E, Jonski G, Rölla G. Effect of stannous fluoride toothpaste on erosion-like lesions: an in vivo study. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114:180-3 pubmed
    ..Toothpaste appears to be an acceptable vehicle for SnF(2) and maintains the dissolution-reducing effect exhibited by aqueous solutions of this fluoride salt...
  44. Jacinto Alemán L, Hernandez Guerrero J, Trejo Solís C, Jimenez Farfan M, Fernandez Presas A. In vitro effect of sodium fluoride on antioxidative enzymes and apoptosis during murine odontogenesis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2010;39:709-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium fluoride on first molar germ in relation to its effect on antioxidative enzymes immunoexpression and apoptosis...
  45. Błaszczyk I, Birkner E, Kasperczyk S. Influence of methionine on toxicity of fluoride in the liver of rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;139:325-31 pubmed publisher
    ..conducted has been to determine what influence the administration of methionine during intoxication with sodium fluoride may have upon the selected enzymes of the antioxidative system in rat liver...
  46. Artopoulou I, Powers J, Chambers M. In vitro staining effects of stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride on ceramic material. J Prosthet Dent. 2010;103:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term fluoride application on the teeth of patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck tumors results in excessive staining and roughening of ceramic restorations...
  47. Mikesh L, Bruns D. Stabilization of glucose in blood specimens: mechanism of delay in fluoride inhibition of glycolysis. Clin Chem. 2008;54:930-2 pubmed publisher
  48. Kanbur M, Eraslan G, Silici S, Karabacak M. Effects of sodium fluoride exposure on some biochemical parameters in mice: evaluation of the ameliorative effect of royal jelly applications on these parameters. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:1184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The third group received 200 ppm fluoride, as sodium fluoride, for a period of 7 days, in drinking water...
  49. Zhang M, Wang A, He W, He P, Xu B, Xia T, et al. Effects of fluoride on the expression of NCAM, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Toxicology. 2007;236:208-16 pubmed
    ..apoptosis induced by fluoride, the primary rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with 20, 40, and 80 mg/l sodium fluoride for 24 h in vitro...
  50. Chawla H, Setia S, Gupta N, Gauba K, Goyal A. Evaluation of a mixture of zinc oxide, calcium hydroxide, and sodium fluoride as a new root canal filling material for primary teeth. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008;26:53-8 pubmed
    ..with a new root canal filling material consisting of a mixture of calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, and 10% sodium fluoride solution, using hand-operated lentulo-spirals...
  51. Willumsen T, Ogaard B, Hansen B, Rølla G. Effects from pretreatment of stannous fluoride versus sodium fluoride on enamel exposed to 0.1 M or 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. Acta Odontol Scand. 2004;62:278-81 pubmed
    ..As pH of stomach vomit is usually > 1.5, SnF2 may be an interesting agent for use in the treatment and prevention of dental erosions even in patients with frequent vomiting episodes...
  52. Gambino R, Piscitelli J, Ackattupathil T, Theriault J, Andrin R, Sanfilippo M, et al. Acidification of blood is superior to sodium fluoride alone as an inhibitor of glycolysis. Clin Chem. 2009;55:1019-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Sodium fluoride is the preferred agent to inhibit glycolysis. Its action is not immediate, however, and complete inhibition is delayed for up to 4 hours. A more effective method is needed...
  53. Czernin J, Satyamurthy N, Schiepers C. Molecular mechanisms of bone 18F-NaF deposition. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:1826-9 pubmed publisher